Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Lentivector biosafety

Lentivectors are widely used in molecular biology, most commonly to transduce in a stable way a desired gene. These vector system takes advantage from the ability of viruses to introduce their own ...
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What is correct MVM vs. MMV?

I'm writing up a report and I see conflicts everywhere on the internet. Should it be Murine Minute Virus (MMV) or Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). The followup question is does it really matter.
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What percentage of cells in the human body are infected during a non-fatal viral infection?

I understand that this would be a very rough estimate, but approximately how many cells in the human body are infected during an average non-fatal viral infection before the infection is eliminated by ...
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Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
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How to get chemical structures in PDB format?

I am about to embark on the final step of a research project that involves molecular docking. Specifically, I am planning on docking an alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid glycan to the influenza ...
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Are there any DNA sequences shared by all/most Viruses?

Is there any one DNA sequence shared by all or most viruses? I highly doubt there is mainly because of how different all of them are, but it's still worth a try. Thanks
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Are some virus loads introduced to human cell but never triggered?

Is there a term or any evidence of phage DNA integrating into chromosomes/ DNA but never being triggered? For example, could a virus that affected Neanderthals still infect human cells today but is ...
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Are there any viruses that have infected all humans in the past or present? [closed]

Are there any known viruses that have managed to infect all of humankind either in the past or presently, either benign or otherwise?
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Are there any viruses that are part of all land animals?

An article on I Fucking Love Science (linked to below) got me thinking, are there any viruses that have been so successful that they have spread to all land animals similar to Toxoplasmosis which has ...
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What does the gene name “lexA” stand for?

It is an important gene expressed in E. coli that represses the SOS response and also the expression of lambda lytic phase genes. UV light and damage to DNA is responsible for its breakdown and hence ...
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Balanced vs Maximized Codon Optimization

I have worked with the optimization of several viral proteins, from different viruses/families, with different results. When Menzella, 2011 was published I tried that method. I found quite the ...
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Can an influenza virus carry other infectors with it?

This idea came to my mind when thinking about how many people become ill in many locations with similar symptoms (fever and rough cough) from Influenza. There are of course different types of ...
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Hydrophobia Outside of Rabies?

RELATED: Why does rabies cause hydrophobia? Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles Has hydrophobia been found outside of rabies? I have only seen it ...
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At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed?

At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed? If there is no data specifically for TBEV, is there any data for typical temperatures at which other Flaviviruses / Flaviviridae / ...
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How exactly can dsRNA be introduced to a cell?

Is it just by viruses or are there other means by which it gets into cells, such as plasmid uptake?
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To what extent is Ebola airborne? (aerosols)

Recently, CIDRAP at the University of Minnesota announced that Ebola may be more transmissible through aerosols than previously thought. I lack the familiarity with the field to critically evaluate ...
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How long does the Ebola virus remain infectious on contaminated items or surfaces?

I'm sure there will be variation depending on what the contaminated item or surface is made of - linens, I could imagine, would remain dangerous for longer than a door-knob. But if the items are not ...
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What are the disadvantages of forbidding flights to and from the African Ebola region?

After looking through the available Stack Exchange sites, this one seems to come closest to the appropriate place to ask... Popular opinion, including my own, is that banning flights to and from the ...
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Why is it called “Ebola virus disease”, not just “Ebola” or “Ebola disease”?

Why do scientists (pretty consistently) call it Ebola virus disease, rather than just Ebola, or Ebola disease? Many other diseases are caused by viruses, but they don't seem to have this detail of ...
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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Why is the current Ebola outbreak different from previous outbreaks?

I don't know if this question has an answer at this time, but I would like to know if there is some biological reason why the current Ebola outbreak is so much more complicated and widespread than in ...
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multiple HIV infection in same T cell

I was wondering can multiple HIV virus infecting same T cell ? Coz in flu virus they have SA to cleave of those sialic acid residue preventing re-infection of the same cell by other viruses to ...
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Can we attack viruses by attaching proteins and such to their shells?

Haven't looked into this to very long, but an initial search didn't return anything. HIV uses certain co-receptors to enter our cells. Could we flood the blood stream with specially designed ...
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What equipment would one use to modify a virus? [closed]

Would anyone be so kind as to give me a few examples of the equipment involved when modifying a virus? Otherwise my novel may end up reading Eva entered the lab and modified a virus. Not much back ...
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Can we really 'discover' 85% of mammalian viruses?

This virology [blog] discusses estimates of the number of mammalian viruses and the costs of 'discovering' 85% of them. My question is whether this is not a forlorn hope. The ".632 rule" in ...
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How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
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What do viruses do during incubation period?

For example, there is an incubation period of around 1 to 3 days for common cold, and that of AIDS can range over to decades. What do viruses do actually do during the incubation period? What ...
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Can a virophage potentially be used to cure a viral disease?

Wikipedia states "Virophages are satellite viruses that inhibit or impair the reproduction of the auxiliary virus." Is it theoretically possible for a virophage that doesn't hurt the human body to ...
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Viruses: Adaptation to a new host through repeated host jumps

A friend told me, during a 3 minute discussion, that viruses that are endemic in host $A$ and make repeated jumps to host $B$ but can't be transmitted between individuals of species $B$, may slowly ...
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Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
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Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
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How can highly virulent but uncommon diseases (like ebola) maintain a stable equilibrium?

I'm wondering how can very uncommon diseases remain in a relatively stable equilibrium. For example, if it started to spread, the spread could accelerate and become an epidemic. However, if it doesn't ...
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
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Is it impossible for a retrovirus to be lysogenic?

Is it impossible for retroviruses to be lysogenic? In the lysogenic cycle, the viral genetic material is incorporated into the host cell's DNA. Because retroviruses have RNA, it would be impossible ...
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In the lysogenic cycle, does the provirus split from the cell's main genetic material for replication?

In a diagram of the lysogenic cycle sent by my instructor in a video, it shows the provirus splitting from the cell's main DNA when the dormancy period ends and the viral DNA is "activated". Is this ...
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What happen's to a virus's capsid after it injects its genetic material into the host cell?

After a virus (one of the varieties which infects the cell via injection and not endocytosis) injects its genetic material into the host cell, what happens to its protein coat? I would guess that it ...
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Do lysogenic viruses only infect bacteria?

In the video sent by my teacher on viruses, the example he used for lysogenic viruses was a bacteriophage infecting a bacteria. When he was describing how the genetic material was incorporated into ...
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Lytic Viruses — Cell lysis?

So in the video my instructor sent on viruses, he said that for lytic viruses, new viruses manufactured by the host cell could get out of the cell in one of two ways. The new viruses would leave by ...
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Are viruses self-propelled?

So obviously, viruses are nonliving. But when my teacher was teaching viruses in the video (we're doing "flip" learning this semester), the way he described it, it seemed like the viruses responded to ...
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Are B Cells unique to an individual's immune system?

I was wondering how the body "remembers" viruses after having once overcome them, and while reading this article on the immune system (page 14, Vaccinations), I read: There are many diseases that, ...
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What is the origin of viruses? How could they get both living and non-living characteristics? [duplicate]

I read that viruses are called intermediate between living and non-living particles. Well, if so, then where did they originate from? From living or non-living? If they originated from either living ...
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Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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Why isn't a virus “alive”?

The recent news about a new supermassive virus being discovered got me thinking. What biological differences between viruses and cellular organisms have made viruses be deemed non-living?
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Is this a valid principle of curing HIV?

I have a set of questions actually, it will be very helpful if you answer them in order. Where does the HIV virus hide (during incubation period)? Let answer be X cell. Is X cell in the bloodstream? ...
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Why not use SDS-PAGE as a method to detect viruses?

Recently, I have been researching about DNA and I know the most popular method for detecting viruses is based on DNA. After learning about proteins, I wonder why we do not detect viruses based on ...
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How do viroids propagate to other hosts?

As viroids are simply non-encapsidated non-coding RNA molecules, it is difficult to imagine a mechanism for their continual infection, other than horizontal transfer which doesn't seem to be the case. ...
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What is the best way to clean plastic flasks that have been used for cell cultures - is virkon a good idea?

When you use cultures e.g. insect cells, which are infected with virus one way to clean the (plastics) shake flasks is with virkon. Which is the most effective way to clean your flasks in order to ...
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Is it possible for a person to become “reinfected” with the same strain of a virus?

If a person contracts a virus, viral conjunctivitis for example, is it possible for the individual to become "reinfected" with the exact same strain of the virus once the person has it treated and the ...