Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

-1
votes
0answers
26 views

Is there any difference in symptoms between asprin overdose and the 1918 strain of H1N1? [closed]

Is there any difference in symptoms? They seem similar to me.
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How does a viral capsid undergo self assembly?

We know that viral capsids are formed by self assembly but there is surprisingly little information about how it is done specifically. Can somebody find video representation along with explanation, ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

How to obtain virus samples?

I'm trying to observe the behavior of simple viruses in different environments. I'm just looking for simple viruses like the common cold and the flu virus nothing major. Is there a way to obtain them? ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

How many virus infections does the average human have? [closed]

According to the WHO: 67% of the population are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Presumably there are other viruses as well that infect a lot of people. How many infections ...
17
votes
2answers
2k views

Can Biologists identify all viruses?

I went to the doctor today with my girlfriend, and the doctor said that she had a virus but doesn't know which one and she should let the infection heal with some rest. The fact that the doctor ...
-3
votes
1answer
54 views

Advocate for the pop-culture idea of withholding vaccination [closed]

While it is widely accepted that vaccination is preferable to not vaccinating, would anyone like to give a shot at providing evidence in favor of not vaccinating? Anything goes.
2
votes
0answers
65 views

HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
12
votes
1answer
546 views

How heavy are all foreign microorganisms in and on the human body?

I define "foreign microorganism" as a microorganism which is not produced by the human body (not antibodies or leukocytes) including bacteria, viruses, fungi, biofilm aggregates or small lifeforms ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

In vitro virus assembly

Are researchers able to assemble viruses in vitro? For example, I imagine that a phage display library may be generated by throwing in a test tube the capsid proteins (or what have you) along with ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Meaning of “non-homologous virus”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: More recently, concerns have been raised that HGT from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) could have adverse effects ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Interpretation of faint band for Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test

After having used the test for research it would appear as if it is very specific. What is one to make of bands that are there but faint? Or what if there are two bands and one is big and bold and the ...
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Secretion in Gram negative bacteria

Among the 6 secretion systems in bacteria, can these 6 ways be sorted out in the order of how harmful it is to the human host? Like say type 3 is highly virulent so that comes first, but I don't know ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

What is the difference between options protein and replication in the NCBI database?

After checking the NCBI help page, I am still unclear about the difference between protein and replication interactions for HIV. ...
2
votes
0answers
75 views

Recommendations for an intro level virology textbook? [closed]

I'm a college sophomore, and I was just accepted into a research lab that works with retroviruses. Since I haven't taken any classes on the topic yet, does anyone have recommendations for good, ...
6
votes
1answer
95 views

Viruses selected by evolution

First let me apologize in advance for I know almost nothing about biology. I had a conversation today with a family member who is a bio-computer-scientist and he talked to me about what his colleagues ...
5
votes
2answers
154 views

How does a virus reach its host, it is always passive? [closed]

We know that viruses are non motile and cannot metabolise, and that it enters the host cells via binding to the receptors. But how exactly it reaches the host (that is, how it go from the ...
4
votes
1answer
169 views

Lentivector biosafety

Lentivectors are widely used in molecular biology, most commonly to transduce in a stable way a desired gene. These vector system takes advantage from the ability of viruses to introduce their own ...
3
votes
2answers
92 views

What is correct MVM vs. MMV?

I'm writing up a report and I see conflicts everywhere on the internet. Should it be Murine Minute Virus (MMV) or Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). The followup question is does it really matter.
4
votes
0answers
50 views

What percentage of cells in the human body are infected during a non-fatal viral infection?

I understand that this would be a very rough estimate, but approximately how many cells in the human body are infected during an average non-fatal viral infection before the infection is eliminated by ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

How to get chemical structures in PDB format?

I am about to embark on the final step of a research project that involves molecular docking. Specifically, I am planning on docking an alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid glycan to the influenza ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

Are there any DNA sequences shared by all/most Viruses?

Is there any one DNA sequence shared by all or most viruses? I highly doubt there is mainly because of how different all of them are, but it's still worth a try. Thanks
3
votes
1answer
42 views

Are some virus loads introduced to human cell but never triggered?

Is there a term or any evidence of phage DNA integrating into chromosomes/ DNA but never being triggered? For example, could a virus that affected Neanderthals still infect human cells today but is ...
4
votes
0answers
65 views

Are there any viruses that have infected all humans in the past or present? [closed]

Are there any known viruses that have managed to infect all of humankind either in the past or presently, either benign or otherwise?
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Are there any viruses that are part of all land animals?

An article on I Fucking Love Science (linked to below) got me thinking, are there any viruses that have been so successful that they have spread to all land animals similar to Toxoplasmosis which has ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

What does the gene name “lexA” stand for?

It is an important gene expressed in E. coli that represses the SOS response and also the expression of lambda lytic phase genes. UV light and damage to DNA is responsible for its breakdown and hence ...
5
votes
2answers
127 views

Balanced vs Maximized Codon Optimization

I have worked with the optimization of several viral proteins, from different viruses/families, with different results. When Menzella, 2011 was published I tried that method. I found quite the ...
5
votes
5answers
94 views

Can an influenza virus carry other infectors with it?

This idea came to my mind when thinking about how many people become ill in many locations with similar symptoms (fever and rough cough) from Influenza. There are of course different types of ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

Hydrophobia Outside of Rabies?

RELATED: Why does rabies cause hydrophobia? Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles Has hydrophobia been found outside of rabies? I have only seen it ...
3
votes
1answer
94 views

At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed?

At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed? If there is no data specifically for TBEV, is there any data for typical temperatures at which other Flaviviruses / Flaviviridae / ...
7
votes
1answer
98 views

How exactly can dsRNA be introduced to a cell?

Is it just by viruses or are there other means by which it gets into cells, such as plasmid uptake?
9
votes
2answers
2k views

To what extent is Ebola airborne? (aerosols)

Recently, CIDRAP at the University of Minnesota announced that Ebola may be more transmissible through aerosols than previously thought. I lack the familiarity with the field to critically evaluate ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

How long does the Ebola virus remain infectious on contaminated items or surfaces?

I'm sure there will be variation depending on what the contaminated item or surface is made of - linens, I could imagine, would remain dangerous for longer than a door-knob. But if the items are not ...
2
votes
1answer
198 views

What are the disadvantages of forbidding flights to and from the African Ebola region?

After looking through the available Stack Exchange sites, this one seems to come closest to the appropriate place to ask... Popular opinion, including my own, is that banning flights to and from the ...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

Why is it called “Ebola virus disease”, not just “Ebola” or “Ebola disease”?

Why do scientists (pretty consistently) call it Ebola virus disease, rather than just Ebola, or Ebola disease? Many other diseases are caused by viruses, but they don't seem to have this detail of ...
15
votes
2answers
6k views

Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is the current Ebola outbreak different from previous outbreaks?

I don't know if this question has an answer at this time, but I would like to know if there is some biological reason why the current Ebola outbreak is so much more complicated and widespread than in ...
4
votes
1answer
92 views

multiple HIV infection in same T cell

I was wondering can multiple HIV virus infecting same T cell ? Coz in flu virus they have SA to cleave of those sialic acid residue preventing re-infection of the same cell by other viruses to ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

Can we attack viruses by attaching proteins and such to their shells?

Haven't looked into this to very long, but an initial search didn't return anything. HIV uses certain co-receptors to enter our cells. Could we flood the blood stream with specially designed ...
2
votes
3answers
143 views

What equipment would one use to modify a virus? [closed]

Would anyone be so kind as to give me a few examples of the equipment involved when modifying a virus? Otherwise my novel may end up reading Eva entered the lab and modified a virus. Not much back ...
6
votes
1answer
106 views

Can we really 'discover' 85% of mammalian viruses?

This virology [blog] discusses estimates of the number of mammalian viruses and the costs of 'discovering' 85% of them. My question is whether this is not a forlorn hope. The ".632 rule" in ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

What do viruses do during incubation period?

For example, there is an incubation period of around 1 to 3 days for common cold, and that of AIDS can range over to decades. What do viruses do actually do during the incubation period? What ...
6
votes
2answers
409 views

Can a virophage potentially be used to cure a viral disease?

Wikipedia states "Virophages are satellite viruses that inhibit or impair the reproduction of the auxiliary virus." Is it theoretically possible for a virophage that doesn't hurt the human body to ...
5
votes
2answers
233 views

Viruses: Adaptation to a new host through repeated host jumps

A friend told me, during a 3 minute discussion, that viruses that are endemic in host $A$ and make repeated jumps to host $B$ but can't be transmitted between individuals of species $B$, may slowly ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
7
votes
1answer
466 views

How can highly virulent but uncommon diseases (like ebola) maintain a stable equilibrium?

I'm wondering how can very uncommon diseases remain in a relatively stable equilibrium. For example, if it started to spread, the spread could accelerate and become an epidemic. However, if it doesn't ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?