Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Are there any viruses that have infected all humans in the past or present? [closed]

Are there any known viruses that have managed to infect all of humankind either in the past or presently, either benign or otherwise?
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What does the gene name “lexA” stand for?

It is an important gene expressed in E. coli that represses the SOS response and also the expression of lambda lytic phase genes. UV light and damage to DNA is responsible for its breakdown and hence ...
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Are some virus loads introduced to human cell but never triggered?

Is there a term or any evidence of phage DNA integrating into chromosomes/ DNA but never being triggered? For example, could a virus that affected Neanderthals still infect human cells today but is ...
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169 views

What is correct MVM vs. MMV?

I'm writing up a report and I see conflicts everywhere on the internet. Should it be Murine Minute Virus (MMV) or Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). The followup question is does it really matter.
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127 views

At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed?

At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed? If there is no data specifically for TBEV, is there any data for typical temperatures at which other Flaviviruses / Flaviviridae / ...
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65 views

Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
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89 views

Hydrophobia Outside of Rabies?

RELATED: Why does rabies cause hydrophobia? Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles Has hydrophobia been found outside of rabies? I have only seen it ...
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1answer
166 views

How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
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3k views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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Is it possible for a person to become “reinfected” with the same strain of a virus?

If a person contracts a virus, viral conjunctivitis for example, is it possible for the individual to become "reinfected" with the exact same strain of the virus once the person has it treated and the ...
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91 views

Does this patient have HHV6 or HCMV after transplant surgery?

I have been given mock results from a PCR test on blood samples taken from kidney recipient patients and their donors. The PCR reaction can detect single copies of viral DNA. I have been asked to ...
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287 views

What is the best way to clean plastic flasks that have been used for cell cultures - is virkon a good idea?

When you use cultures e.g. insect cells, which are infected with virus one way to clean the (plastics) shake flasks is with virkon. Which is the most effective way to clean your flasks in order to ...
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Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
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523 views

What happen's to a virus's capsid after it injects its genetic material into the host cell?

After a virus (one of the varieties which infects the cell via injection and not endocytosis) injects its genetic material into the host cell, what happens to its protein coat? I would guess that it ...
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29 views

What is the origin of viruses? How could they get both living and non-living characteristics? [duplicate]

I read that viruses are called intermediate between living and non-living particles. Well, if so, then where did they originate from? From living or non-living? If they originated from either living ...
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270 views

Virucides - Herbal and otherwise, for HHV6 type virus or any inner-cell virus

Does anyone know where I can find a reliable list of virucides (not anti-virus) that can be used by humans? This virucide must be able to affect viruses that are already inside the cells. St John's ...
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128 views

Cheapest Way to Measure Germ Density

I would like to measure the surface density of Staphylococcus bacteria and Rhinoviruses (only those two, to be specific) within my home. What's the cheapest way? The textbook procedure is to: rub ...
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2answers
177 views

Is this a valid principle of curing HIV?

I have a set of questions actually, it will be very helpful if you answer them in order. Where does the HIV virus hide (during incubation period)? Let answer be X cell. Is X cell in the bloodstream? ...
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3answers
168 views

What equipment would one use to modify a virus? [closed]

Would anyone be so kind as to give me a few examples of the equipment involved when modifying a virus? Otherwise my novel may end up reading Eva entered the lab and modified a virus. Not much back ...
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90 views

Are B Cells unique to an individual's immune system?

I was wondering how the body "remembers" viruses after having once overcome them, and while reading this article on the immune system (page 14, Vaccinations), I read: There are many diseases that, ...
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2answers
291 views

Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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174 views

Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles

I'm undergraduate physics student, but I've always been interested in biology. So I have a couple of questions about an application of the evolutionary principles to practice. Agony as the last ...
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60 views

Are there any DNA sequences shared by all/most Viruses?

Is there any one DNA sequence shared by all or most viruses? I highly doubt there is mainly because of how different all of them are, but it's still worth a try. Thanks
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344 views

Do lysogenic viruses only infect bacteria?

In the video sent by my teacher on viruses, the example he used for lysogenic viruses was a bacteriophage infecting a bacteria. When he was describing how the genetic material was incorporated into ...
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1answer
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Is it impossible for a retrovirus to be lysogenic?

Is it impossible for retroviruses to be lysogenic? In the lysogenic cycle, the viral genetic material is incorporated into the host cell's DNA. Because retroviruses have RNA, it would be impossible ...
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1answer
260 views

Lytic Viruses — Cell lysis?

So in the video my instructor sent on viruses, he said that for lytic viruses, new viruses manufactured by the host cell could get out of the cell in one of two ways. The new viruses would leave by ...
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Carrying or packaging capacity of SAD B19 dG rabies virus

I'm wondering about the carrying capacity also referred to packaging capacity or loading capacity (how many base pairs can be packed efficiently into virions) of the pseudotyped rabies virus SAD-dG as ...
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228 views

What are the disadvantages of forbidding flights to and from the African Ebola region?

After looking through the available Stack Exchange sites, this one seems to come closest to the appropriate place to ask... Popular opinion, including my own, is that banning flights to and from the ...
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1answer
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Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
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323 views

How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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Viruses affecting transmission capability of mosquitoes

I've read about bacteria affecting the transmission capability of mosquitoes. For example: Wolbachia suppresses dengue transmission When mosquitoes were given antibiotics that decreased their gut ...
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Do all +ssRNA viruses have similar structures and life cycles?

Take HCV for example. HCV doesn't package any enzymes in it's virions. When it infects a cell, it first translates its RNA genome. It's RdRp is synthesized with other non-structural proteins. Then its ...
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HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
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Recommendations for an intro level virology textbook? [closed]

I'm a college sophomore, and I was just accepted into a research lab that works with retroviruses. Since I haven't taken any classes on the topic yet, does anyone have recommendations for good, intro-...
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163 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
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98 views

Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
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Secretion in Gram negative bacteria

Among the 6 secretion systems in bacteria, can these 6 ways be sorted out in the order of how harmful it is to the human host? Like say type 3 is highly virulent so that comes first, but I don't know ...
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1answer
2k views

How do viroids propagate to other hosts?

As viroids are simply non-encapsidated non-coding RNA molecules, it is difficult to imagine a mechanism for their continual infection, other than horizontal transfer which doesn't seem to be the case. ...
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442 views

Do Viruses produce a biomagnetic field?

From wikipedia: Biomagnetism is the phenomenon of magnetic fields produced by living organisms. The present scientific definition took form in the 1970s, when an increasing number of researchers ...
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1answer
79 views

Why does HPV Infect Squamous Epithelial Cells and Not Others?

I've seen this question about HPV and the reference therein. The link states "Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that presents tropism for epithelial cells, causing infections of the skin and ...
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In vitro virus assembly

Are researchers able to assemble viruses in vitro? For example, I imagine that a phage display library may be generated by throwing in a test tube the capsid proteins (or what have you) along with ...
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105 views

In the lysogenic cycle, does the provirus split from the cell's main genetic material for replication?

In a diagram of the lysogenic cycle sent by my instructor in a video, it shows the provirus splitting from the cell's main DNA when the dormancy period ends and the viral DNA is "activated". Is this ...
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Can 3% hydrogen peroxide be used as effective disinfectant and antiseptic?

I was curious to see whether 3% hydrogen peroxide can be used as antimicrobial and virucidal product for daily use in home. There are several disinfecting products in the market claim that use of ...
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9 views

Can HPV be infectious after it's been exposed to environment?

From what I know, HPV virus cannot be cultured I don't think it's possible to say if a sample has the potential to infect or not but what does it mean when they say HPV virus particles could persist ...
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1answer
350 views

Why not use SDS-PAGE as a method to detect viruses?

Recently, I have been researching about DNA and I know the most popular method for detecting viruses is based on DNA. After learning about proteins, I wonder why we do not detect viruses based on ...
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61 views

How to obtain virus samples?

I'm trying to observe the behavior of simple viruses in different environments. I'm just looking for simple viruses like the common cold and the flu virus nothing major. Is there a way to obtain them?
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38 views

What is the difference between options protein and replication in the NCBI database?

After checking the NCBI help page, I am still unclear about the difference between protein and replication interactions for HIV. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/...
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1answer
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Since RNA viruses and retroviruses all have high mutation rates, why do only a few viruses have the virtue of variability?

We have been taught that it's difficult to make vaccines to influenza, HIV and HCV because they lack the proofreading mechanism, hence have high mutation rates. But most RNA viruses and retroviruses ...
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110 views

How many virus infections does the average human have? [closed]

According to the WHO: 67% of the population are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Presumably there are other viruses as well that infect a lot of people. How many infections ...
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56 views

Meaning of “non-homologous virus”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: More recently, concerns have been raised that HGT from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) could have adverse effects (...