Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Interpretation of faint band for Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test

After having used the test for research it would appear as if it is very specific. What is one to make of bands that are there but faint? Or what if there are two bands and one is big and bold and the ...
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Why do viruses last longer on hard surfaces than porous ones

All the papers I've read about survival of viruses outside of the host refer to longer survival times on hard surfaces without explaination. As a layman I would have thought that a virus (who's main ...
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What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any ...
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What percentage of cells in the human body are infected during a non-fatal viral infection?

I understand that this would be a very rough estimate, but approximately how many cells in the human body are infected during an average non-fatal viral infection before the infection is eliminated by ...
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Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
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Virucides - Herbal and otherwise, for HHV6 type virus or any inner-cell virus

Does anyone know where I can find a reliable list of virucides (not anti-virus) that can be used by humans? This virucide must be able to affect viruses that are already inside the cells. St John's ...
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Cheapest Way to Measure Germ Density

I would like to measure the surface density of Staphylococcus bacteria and Rhinoviruses (only those two, to be specific) within my home. What's the cheapest way? The textbook procedure is to: rub ...
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Do all +ssRNA viruses have similar structures and life cycles?

Take HCV for example. HCV doesn't package any enzymes in it's virions. When it infects a cell, it first translates its RNA genome. It's RdRp is synthesized with other non-structural proteins. Then its ...
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HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
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How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
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Can HPV be infectious after it's been exposed to environment?

From what I know, HPV virus cannot be cultured I don't think it's possible to say if a sample has the potential to infect or not but what does it mean when they say HPV virus particles could persist ...
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How effective will the synthesized virus be without epigenetic marks?

Will a de-novo synthesize infectious virus be as effective as the natural one? How important are epigenetic marks for the virus and is there a mechanism to restore them?
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How does the body know to stop effector cell proliferation?

After a pathogen has been successfully neutralized, effector cells such as the plasma cells and the cytotoxic T cells which are specific for that pathogen decrease in numbers. What is the signal in ...
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Are there well studied examples of ERAD-mediated membrane insertion, especially from viruses?

Membrane insertion of transmembrane proteins typically requires highly hydrophobic alpha helixes at the N-terminus, N-terminal signal peptides, tail anchors, or a combination of the three. Byun, H., ...
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How does a viral capsid undergo self assembly?

We know that viral capsids are formed by self assembly but there is surprisingly little information about how it is done specifically. Can somebody find video representation along with explanation, ...
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Are there any viruses that are part of all land animals?

An article on I Fucking Love Science (linked to below) got me thinking, are there any viruses that have been so successful that they have spread to all land animals similar to Toxoplasmosis which has ...
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What are the advantages of large virions?

The Ebola virions are around 1400 nm long and 80 nm in diameter. However, as a RNA virus, its genome is not large, of around 19k. In comparison, Rhabdoviridae are 180nm long and 75nm in diameter, and ...