A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Virology is the study of viruses.

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How to validate the use of an anti-virus monoclonal antibody in IHC by spiking a fresh organ with infected cultured cells?

I have assessed the specificity of a particular monoclonal antibody against a virus by immunofluorescence. I'd like to further validate it by testing it by IHC. Therefore I'd like to infect cells in ...
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Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
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Could viruses be used as antibiotics?

Could we use viruses that only affect bacteria to act as antibiotics? The more bacteria, the more times the virus divides, so the stronger it gets. Is this practical?
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Recommendations for an intro level virology textbook?

I'm a college sophomore, and I was just accepted into a research lab that works with retroviruses. Since I haven't taken any classes on the topic yet, does anyone have recommendations for good, ...
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Why does flu vaccination only work against specific strains?

I was wondering why the flu vaccination doesn't protect us from all different types of flu. I know there are 3 major groups A, B and C and they mutate really fast. For example Influenza A virus has 2 ...
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Risks in bacterial phage therapy

I just finished reading J. Craig Venter's book Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life. The book is a little over a year old now, and Venter has an optimistic ...
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How does a virus reach its host, it is always passive? [closed]

We know that viruses are non motile and cannot metabolise, and that it enters the host cells via binding to the receptors. But how exactly it reaches the host (that is, how it go from the ...
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What is the difference between influenza A and B viruses that causes their distinct seasonal patterns?

I recently learned from an answer at health.SE* that influenza B tends to occur later in the season compared to influenza A. According to the graph in that answer, during this year’s flu season the ...
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Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
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Retrovirus Production

I have been having difficulties with low transduction efficiencies of my retrovirus production. I expand my plasmid of interest (on MiG-GFP plasmid) in DH5α E Coli for ~24 hours, purify with Qiagen ...
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211 views

What is the chemical composition / empirical formula of Herpes Simplex 1?

Viruses such as polio are so well documented that a search for "empirical formula polio" gives you something like ...
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Is it known how the first viruses formed?

The oldest known virus is known to have infected prehistoric insects 300 million years ago. A virus is basically a parasitic strand if DNA or RNA encapsulated in a protein coat. It enters cells by ...
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What are the positive effects of wrongful antibiotic use on a viral infection?

I categorically accept that bacteria differ from viruses; so antibiotics DON'T help in viral infections. I also read this and this; so no need to explain this. I've read about the negative effects (eg ...
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Can virus resistance be acquired through generational exposure?

If I have a squash plant that has a mosaic virus of some kind, and I breed its descendants (via seed) for generations, each with exposure to the same virus, will future generations be likely to ...
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How does HIV mutate into other strains while keeping their virulent phenotype?

How does a virus like HIV mutate into so many strains, and yet all of them are harmful to our immune system? What gives this virus the ability to mutate so efficiently?
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Why don't stem cell therapies use viruses?

Why don't stem cell therapies use a virus to deliver gene editing sequences to stem cells instead of the harvesting-transformation-transplant route. I thought it might be because of a lack of ...
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59 views

What virus transforms full grown plants?

I read an article by a gardener describing how a virus had transmitted a negative trait to his plants. It rather shocked me, because I hadn't realized that a virus could transform an adult plant. I ...
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Which virus capsids consist of only one type of capsid protein?

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) capsid consists of many copies of one protein (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=109). Which other viral capsids consist of only one kind of coat protein? Does ...
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At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed?

At which temperature is the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus destroyed? If there is no data specifically for TBEV, is there any data for typical temperatures at which other Flaviviruses / Flaviviridae / ...
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Is there a period after you have had a cold when you cannot get a cold again?

I always assumed colds ran on a 'no tagbacks' principle: once it's out of your system, it takes a while before you can get a cold again. Is there any truth to this, or can rhinoviruses hit you at any ...
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Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine. Thanks, Bernardo
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How long does the Ebola virus remain infectious on contaminated items or surfaces?

I'm sure there will be variation depending on what the contaminated item or surface is made of - linens, I could imagine, would remain dangerous for longer than a door-knob. But if the items are not ...
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Why is the ebola virus so intense now?

So i'm looking into the ebola crisis and it seems the death toll is really getting crazy. I understand that it's a cytomegalovirus and that it basically overwhelms the immune system due to it's size ...
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Ebola: cleaning of protective suit

As far as I know, in developed countries protection suits used by people who treat patients with Ebola are disposed of after a shift. From a rather ambitious costume last year, I still have a hazmat ...
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What do you call a virus when it's cured?

When a cure has been found for a virus, can it be called such anymore? Virus implies it's something you've contracted that you just have to live with until (hopefully) your body can overwhelm and ...
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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How the conjunctivitis virus spread just by seeing a person's eye who is infected

Conjunctivitis or 'pink eye'. I have a few questions on conjunctivitis. When I was suffering from conjunctivitis, my doctor advised me to wear sunglasses so that no one else gets infected. I ...
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What is the Baculovirus and how does it help in research?

I was reading up about Biotechnology and the use of insects, and came across an interesting article about Insect Cell culture Techniques that specifically talked about the usage of the Baculovirus. If ...
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What about a bat's immune system protects them from Ebola?

Current evidence indicates that fruit bats are a reservoir host for Ebola. Has any research established what is different about their cell biology or immune system that reduces virulence for them? ...
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It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies?

I'm just curious as there was a bit controversy around this topic. It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies? As of 1989, the CDC reported that 5% of all U.S. AIDS patients ...
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264 views

Can viruses that normally infect eukaryotic cells also infect bacteria?

Can standard viruses infect bacteria? I'm not speaking of bacteriophage but typical RNA and DNA virus such as influenza and Ebola.
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138 views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells ...
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Theoretically, what technique would one use to modify a virus so that it only affected a subset of the population?

I'm writing a novel and i would like to know some of the equipment and techniques involved with modifying a virus. Is it feasible for a virus to be engineered to only affect certain people? It ...
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Is there an 'anti-virus'?

A virus spreads around and usually attaches itself to the host, multiplies & causes diseases. But is there something like an anti-virus? A single celled entity that does the opposite: spreads ...
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Do Noroviruses include many families?

Wikipedia says Caliciviridae Family. My notes say that Norovirus includes the following Noroviruses Norwalk-like viruses Caliciviruses Astroviruses and some small gastroenteroviruses which is a ...
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Why don't warts caused by HPV spread to the whole body?

My son had a plantar wart on his foot, which (as I understand it) is caused by a virus which only infects skin cells. Once in the skin cell the virus replicates, but when attacked by the immune system ...
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How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
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What do viruses do during incubation period?

For example, there is an incubation period of around 1 to 3 days for common cold, and that of AIDS can range over to decades. What do viruses do actually do during the incubation period? What ...
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Restriction endonucleases are found in?

Quoting from : Scientific American July 1975 The Manipulation of genes by Stanley Cohen : Restriction endonucleases (and modification methylases) are widespread in microorganisms; genes for ...
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Tc and Th1 interaction and viral immune response

Tc is T cell which can give T killer cells and T helper cells. T helper cells (Th1) see the pathogen presented by antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages). They then secrete antigens ...
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Size of DNA in phage

I have read that DNA(after recombination) is packaged in bacteriophages lambda only if it's between 40000 and 53000 bp long. This constraint can be used to ensure packaging of recombinant DNA. I ...
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How does the ebola virus attack?

How does the ebola virus attack and how do some people get away with it? Normally any virus would attack a cell with some kind of receptors and some kind of lock and key mechanism entering the cell ...
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Viruses: Adaptation to a new host through repeated host jumps

A friend told me, during a 3 minute discussion, that viruses that are endemic in host $A$ and make repeated jumps to host $B$ but can't be transmitted between individuals of species $B$, may slowly ...
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Why does rabies cause hydrophobia?

What feature of rabies pathophysiology causes hydrophobia? Why is hydrophobia unique to this one particular type of viral infection?
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Effect of nerve pills and relationship to Shingles [closed]

Do nerve pills actually suppress the nervous system and how would that effect the Shingles virus which is known to activate under large amounts of stress?
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Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA?

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA? Can viral DNA undergo the process of methylation? If not then why does this process does not occur in viruses?
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Property of E.coli harboring F element

From Genetics by Ursula Goodenough E.coli harboring an F element are endowed with a number of phenotypic traits : 1.They are sensitive to infection by ssRNA phages and certain ssDNA phages. ...
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208 views

What is the biological reason that some viruses cause sore joints (eg flu)?

Frequently I have experienced sore joints during a bad bout of influenza. I understand that during time of sickness, white blood cells are deployed in the blood stream. I also believe that white blood ...
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56 views

Why can't my body deal with cold-sores

I am not a biologist, but I have always wondered why my body hasn't learnt to deal with the HSV-1 virus. I understand it reamins dormant for a while and things like stress or the common cold can ...
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Epithelial cells and Rhinovirus

If you injected a tumor with epithelial cells infected with the Rhinovirus, would this still evoke an immune response as it would with the respiratory system? Secondly, what is the specific reason the ...