A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Virology is the study of viruses.

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Are there well studied examples of ERAD-mediated membrane insertion, especially from viruses?

Membrane insertion of transmembrane proteins typically requires highly hydrophobic alpha helixes at the N-terminus, N-terminal signal peptides, tail anchors, or a combination of the three. Byun, H., ...
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Barcode exchange between neighbouring cells

I am currently interested in equipping animal cells in a tissue with individual barcodes. These barcodes should get amplified in the cells (not to a cell degrading extent, of course), and also ...
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What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Some background: Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any attached cargo ...
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Are there viruses that show definite enzymatic activity? [closed]

Perhaps due to outer coat protein individually or collectively.
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Standard cycles for virus detection [closed]

I would like to know if there is a Standard number of cycles for Virues and Bacterial PCR single and multiple targets
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Why do viruses last longer on hard surfaces than porous ones

All the papers I've read about survival of viruses outside of the host refer to longer survival times on hard surfaces without explaination. As a layman I would have thought that a virus (who's main ...
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Is there any virus that contains both DNA and RNA in its genome?

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?
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1answer
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Are non-lytic viruses reproducing themselves in the host cell?

Non lytic viruses can cause cancers like the HPV. But aren't they reproducing themselves as they don't ruptures the cell. Or are they just not reproduced in enough numbers so that the cell keeps ...
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Why doesn't blood remain on a mosquito's proboscis in quantities that could spread blood-borne diseases?

We know that HIV can't be transmitted by mosquitos, and nor can other highly virulent viruses that are transmitted through blood and bodily fluid exchanges, such as Ebola (thankfully!). Marcus Junius ...
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Is Zika suspected of causing birth defects only if contracted during pregnancy?

There seems to be growing evidence that a recently spreading strain of Zika virus is in fact linked to microencephaly and other birth defects in newborns (see here, here, and here for examples). I ...
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Rubella in pregnant women [closed]

Would I be able to detect rubella virus from pregnant women without a history of skin rashes, and/or had IgG+ve and/or IgM-ve or had no antibodies?
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What is the name of the property of viruses can activate a second time, with different symptoms?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. In ...
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What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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2answers
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Why is HIV so large compared to other viruses?

The HIV-1 virus is about 120-150 nm in size and has a genome only about 10,000 base pairs long. Other viruses are far more efficient, for example lambda phage has something like a tenth the volume ...
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Reasons for variable quality virus production

I am making MSCV retrovirus, using DH5α cells to amplify a plasmid of interest, qiagen's midiprep kit to purify out the plasmid, then 293ft cells to produce the retrovirus, and 3t3 cells to test MOI. ...
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Can bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells be destroyed by resonance?

Radiotherapy has been used to treat cancer. Can the resonances by coordinated electromagnetic waves (and/or other forms of waves), of various frequencies, amplitudes and pulse rates, directed from ...
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How hydrophilic is human mucus?

I am interested in the stability of virus particles in human mucus, and how this may bias the evolution of surface amino acids in respiratory viruses. For instance if the mucus environment were more ...
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1answer
31 views

What is the number of influenza strains occurring at a given time?

My question was initiated by reading on mock-up influenza vaccines. I understand that the manufacturer pre-prepares a certain vaccine and tries to get it tested and ready before it is actually needed, ...
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2answers
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How long do viruses, such as Zika, stay in the body?

Can a virus stay in your body (after recovery) in a concentration that is sufficient to infect someone? Is it known how long the Zika virus persists in the body?
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Tardigrade genetic acceptance and experimentation?

Does this property of tardigrades, that when under extreme conditions they are more permeable and more easily accept sections of genes developed in other species, as I understand sometimes transfered ...
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2answers
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Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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How to detect Zika in mosquitos

I'll keep this as brief as I can. I am an engineer and I have an idea for an early detection system for the Zika virus. I want to build it. However, first I need to do research on how one detects Zika ...
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3answers
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Did the Zika virus mutate?

The Zika virus was already present and known to the world (mostly in Southeast Asia) before the current outbreak. Why has the virus caused such an extreme outbreak? Has it mutated from its ...
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3answers
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Can the dead be brought back to life by viruses?

Zombies have been a part of popular culture for decades. The living dead rising up to take over the world is a terrifying concept, worthy of Hollywood blockbusters and television hits. Some of those ...
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1answer
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Why bacteria and viruses are so much smaller than animal cells?

Why are bacteria and viruses so much smaller than animal cells? - I don't have more information about the question, sorry if this is too vague.
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How does a viral capsid undergo self assembly?

We know that viral capsids are formed by self assembly but there is surprisingly little information about how it is done specifically. Can somebody find video representation along with explanation, ...
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1answer
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How to obtain virus samples?

I'm trying to observe the behavior of simple viruses in different environments. I'm just looking for simple viruses like the common cold and the flu virus nothing major. Is there a way to obtain them? ...
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1answer
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How many virus infections does the average human have? [closed]

According to the WHO: 67% of the population are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Presumably there are other viruses as well that infect a lot of people. How many infections ...
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Do viruses linger/passively transport or attack the body at once?

Do viruses generally attack as soon as they can or do they lie dormant until they reach a cozy spot in the body? Like is it improbable I have inhaled a virus if I do not feel pain in my lungs?
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Can Biologists identify all viruses?

I went to the doctor today with my girlfriend, and the doctor said that she had a virus but doesn't know which one and she should let the infection heal with some rest. The fact that the doctor ...
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1answer
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How does the body survive Ebola? [duplicate]

Because Ebola takes over the immune system and uses it to replicate more and more of the virus, how does the body survive? Is it a case of the virus being self-limiting and eventually just getting ...
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5answers
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Why have parasites not evolved to be harmless?

I have yet to understand why so many viruses or bacteria haven't evolved to be harmless (specifically, I don't know of any harmless virus). I think it would be greatly beneficial for a virus to ...
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1answer
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Human Endogenous Retroviruses

I am reading this paper, which shows that a Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) K provirus is present at the orthologous position of gorilla and chimpanzee genomes but absent in the human genome. If ...
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1answer
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Is there some definition of life which makes viruses undeterminable?

There are many different definitions of life (RNA, something that comes through evolution) but not one I have seen which could not determine wheter are viruses living things (even though there are ...
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Does the new virus tree of life change their position between living and non-living things?

Viruses still do not fit the criteria of living or it's simplest form (the living cell), why would some say that the new virus tree of life makes it more closer to life? Aren't mitochondria in a point ...
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Virus affecting eukaryote and prokaryote

I learned that viruses can affect a wide range of species, leading to horizontal gene transfer between them. This lead me to winder whether viruses can affect both a prokaryote and a eukaryote. I know ...
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1answer
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Viruses. Alive or Not? [duplicate]

I saw this fascinating article today about how HIV moves through a mouse host in real time. http://www.engadget.com/2015/10/02/watch-hiv-spread-through-mouse-in-real-time/#continued It's common to ...
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1answer
28 views

In vitro virus assembly

Are researchers able to assemble viruses in vitro? For example, I imagine that a phage display library may be generated by throwing in a test tube the capsid proteins (or what have you) along with ...
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1answer
56 views

What is the efficacy of an Ebola antibody response

There is contradictory (~?) evidence in the literature that antibody responses against Ebola are effective in clearing the virus and protecting the patient. Some time ago, I wrote a bit about the ...
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1answer
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How to validate the use of an anti-virus monoclonal antibody in IHC by spiking a fresh organ with infected cultured cells?

I have assessed the specificity of a particular monoclonal antibody against a virus by immunofluorescence. I'd like to further validate it by testing it by IHC. Therefore I'd like to infect cells in ...
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Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
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Could viruses be used as antibiotics?

Could we use viruses that only affect bacteria to act as antibiotics? The more bacteria, the more times the virus divides, so the stronger it gets. Is this practical?
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Recommendations for an intro level virology textbook? [closed]

I'm a college sophomore, and I was just accepted into a research lab that works with retroviruses. Since I haven't taken any classes on the topic yet, does anyone have recommendations for good, ...
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2answers
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Why does flu vaccination only work against specific strains?

I was wondering why the flu vaccination doesn't protect us from all different types of flu. I know there are 3 major groups A, B and C and they mutate really fast. For example Influenza A virus has 2 ...
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1answer
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Risks in bacterial phage therapy

I just finished reading J. Craig Venter's book Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life. The book is a little over a year old now, and Venter has an optimistic ...
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How does a virus reach its host, it is always passive? [closed]

We know that viruses are non motile and cannot metabolise, and that it enters the host cells via binding to the receptors. But how exactly it reaches the host (that is, how it go from the ...
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What is the difference between influenza A and B viruses that causes their distinct seasonal patterns?

I recently learned from an answer at health.SE* that influenza B tends to occur later in the season compared to influenza A. According to the graph in that answer, during this year’s flu season the ...
11
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1answer
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Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
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1answer
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Retrovirus Production

I have been having difficulties with low transduction efficiencies of my retrovirus production. I expand my plasmid of interest (on MiG-GFP plasmid) in DH5α E Coli for ~24 hours, purify with Qiagen ...