A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Virology is the study of viruses.

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What is the number of influenza strains occurring at a given time?

My question was initiated by reading on mock-up influenza vaccines. I understand that the manufacturer pre-prepares a certain vaccine and tries to get it tested and ready before it is actually needed, ...
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2answers
259 views

How long do viruses, such as Zika, stay in the body?

Can a virus stay in your body (after recovery) in a concentration that is sufficient to infect someone? Is it known how long the Zika virus persists in the body?
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Tardigrade genetic acceptance and experimentation?

Does this property of tardigrades, that when under extreme conditions they are more permeable and more easily accept sections of genes developed in other species, as I understand sometimes transfered ...
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2answers
864 views

Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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26 views

How to detect Zika in mosquitos

I'll keep this as brief as I can. I am an engineer and I have an idea for an early detection system for the Zika virus. I want to build it. However, first I need to do research on how one detects Zika ...
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Did the Zika virus mutate?

The Zika virus was already present in known to the world (mostly in Southeast Asia) before the current outbreak. Why has the virus caused such an extreme outbreak? Has it mutated from its ...
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Can the dead be brought back to life by viruses?

Zombies have been a part of popular culture for decades. The living dead rising up to take over the world is a terrifying concept, worthy of Hollywood blockbusters and television hits. Some of those ...
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1answer
88 views

Why bacteria and viruses are so much smaller than animal cells?

Why are bacteria and viruses so much smaller than animal cells? - I don't have more information about the question, sorry if this is too vague.
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15 views

How does a viral capsid undergo self assembly?

We know that viral capsids are formed by self assembly but there is surprisingly little information about how it is done specifically. Can somebody find video representation along with explanation, ...
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34 views

How to obtain virus samples?

I'm trying to observe the behavior of simple viruses in different environments. I'm just looking for simple viruses like the common cold and the flu virus nothing major. Is there a way to obtain them? ...
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58 views

How many virus infections does the average human have? [closed]

According to the WHO: 67% of the population are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Presumably there are other viruses as well that infect a lot of people. How many infections ...
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205 views

Why have parasites not evolved to be harmless?

I have yet to understand why so many viruses or bacteria haven't evolved to be harmless (specifically, I don't know of any harmless virus). I think it would be greatly beneficial for a virus to ...
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1answer
24 views

Do viruses linger/passively transport or attack the body at once?

Do viruses generally attack as soon as they can or do they lie dormant until they reach a cozy spot in the body? Like is it improbable I have inhaled a virus if I do not feel pain in my lungs?
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Can Biologists identify all viruses?

I went to the doctor today with my girlfriend, and the doctor said that she had a virus but doesn't know which one and she should let the infection heal with some rest. The fact that the doctor ...
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1answer
40 views

How does the body survive Ebola? [duplicate]

Because Ebola takes over the immune system and uses it to replicate more and more of the virus, how does the body survive? Is it a case of the virus being self-limiting and eventually just getting ...
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6answers
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Why isn't a virus “alive”?

The recent news about a new supermassive virus being discovered got me thinking. What biological differences between viruses and cellular organisms have made viruses be deemed non-living?
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45 views

Human Endogenous Retroviruses

I am reading this paper, which shows that a Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) K provirus is present at the orthologous position of gorilla and chimpanzee genomes but absent in the human genome. If ...
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2answers
863 views

How are viruses weakened to be suitable for vaccination?

I understand there are two kinds of active vaccination Injecting complete viruses that are weakened to not cause the disease being vaccinated against Injecting only antigen particles of viruses that ...
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1answer
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How do wild animals get rabies?

I can see the chain of spreading disease: Humans usually get rabies from domestic animals, those usually get it from wild animals, wild animals in their turn get from the other wild animals and here ...
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1answer
43 views

Is there some definition of life which makes viruses undeterminable?

There are many different definitions of life (RNA, something that comes through evolution) but not one I have seen which could not determine wheter are viruses living things (even though there are ...
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1answer
35 views

How to validate the use of an anti-virus monoclonal antibody in IHC by spiking a fresh organ with infected cultured cells?

I have assessed the specificity of a particular monoclonal antibody against a virus by immunofluorescence. I'd like to further validate it by testing it by IHC. Therefore I'd like to infect cells in ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the efficacy of an Ebola antibody response

There is contradictory (~?) evidence in the literature that antibody responses against Ebola are effective in clearing the virus and protecting the patient. Some time ago, I wrote a bit about the ...
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2answers
2k views

How does the ebola virus attack?

How does the ebola virus attack and how do some people get away with it? Normally any virus would attack a cell with some kind of receptors and some kind of lock and key mechanism entering the cell ...
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1answer
40 views

Does the new virus tree of life change their position between living and non-living things?

Viruses still do not fit the criteria of living or it's simplest form (the living cell), why would some say that the new virus tree of life makes it more closer to life? Aren't mitochondria in a point ...
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Virus affecting eukaryote and prokaryote

I learned that viruses can affect a wide range of species, leading to horizontal gene transfer between them. This lead me to winder whether viruses can affect both a prokaryote and a eukaryote. I know ...
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1answer
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Viruses. Alive or Not? [duplicate]

I saw this fascinating article today about how HIV moves through a mouse host in real time. http://www.engadget.com/2015/10/02/watch-hiv-spread-through-mouse-in-real-time/#continued It's common to ...
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75 views

Recommendations for an intro level virology textbook? [closed]

I'm a college sophomore, and I was just accepted into a research lab that works with retroviruses. Since I haven't taken any classes on the topic yet, does anyone have recommendations for good, ...
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In vitro virus assembly

Are researchers able to assemble viruses in vitro? For example, I imagine that a phage display library may be generated by throwing in a test tube the capsid proteins (or what have you) along with ...
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2answers
55 views

Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine.
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2answers
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Could viruses be used as antibiotics?

Could we use viruses that only affect bacteria to act as antibiotics? The more bacteria, the more times the virus divides, so the stronger it gets. Is this practical?
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0answers
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Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
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1answer
120 views

Effect of nerve pills and relationship to Shingles [closed]

Do nerve pills actually suppress the nervous system and how would that effect the Shingles virus which is known to activate under large amounts of stress?
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1answer
528 views

What is the chemical composition / empirical formula of Herpes Simplex 1?

Viruses such as polio are so well documented that a search for "empirical formula polio" gives you something like ...
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328 views

Changing the definition of life?

Viruses at this period of time do not fit the current definition of life. Much of the reasoning behind this is that we currently believe that all life must be made up of cells. Also, many ...
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1answer
76 views

Risks in bacterial phage therapy

I just finished reading J. Craig Venter's book Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life. The book is a little over a year old now, and Venter has an optimistic ...
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What is the difference between influenza A and B viruses that causes their distinct seasonal patterns?

I recently learned from an answer at health.SE* that influenza B tends to occur later in the season compared to influenza A. According to the graph in that answer, during this year’s flu season the ...
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2answers
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Why does flu vaccination only work against specific strains?

I was wondering why the flu vaccination doesn't protect us from all different types of flu. I know there are 3 major groups A, B and C and they mutate really fast. For example Influenza A virus has 2 ...
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2answers
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How does a virus reach its host, it is always passive? [closed]

We know that viruses are non motile and cannot metabolise, and that it enters the host cells via binding to the receptors. But how exactly it reaches the host (that is, how it go from the ...
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1answer
211 views

Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
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1answer
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Retrovirus Production

I have been having difficulties with low transduction efficiencies of my retrovirus production. I expand my plasmid of interest (on MiG-GFP plasmid) in DH5α E Coli for ~24 hours, purify with Qiagen ...
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2answers
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Is it known how the first viruses formed?

The oldest known virus is known to have infected prehistoric insects 300 million years ago. A virus is basically a parasitic strand if DNA or RNA encapsulated in a protein coat. It enters cells by ...
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1answer
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What are the positive effects of wrongful antibiotic use on a viral infection?

I categorically accept that bacteria differ from viruses; so antibiotics DON'T help in viral infections. I also read this and this; so no need to explain this. I've read about the negative effects (eg ...
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Can virus resistance be acquired through generational exposure?

If I have a squash plant that has a mosaic virus of some kind, and I breed its descendants (via seed) for generations, each with exposure to the same virus, will future generations be likely to ...
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4answers
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How does HIV mutate into other strains while keeping their virulent phenotype?

How does a virus like HIV mutate into so many strains, and yet all of them are harmful to our immune system? What gives this virus the ability to mutate so efficiently?
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2answers
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Why don't stem cell therapies use viruses?

Why don't stem cell therapies use a virus to deliver gene editing sequences to stem cells instead of the harvesting-transformation-transplant route. I thought it might be because of a lack of ...
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2answers
119 views

What virus transforms full grown plants?

I read an article by a gardener describing how a virus had transmitted a negative trait to his plants. It rather shocked me, because I hadn't realized that a virus could transform an adult plant. I ...
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2answers
9k views

Why does rabies cause hydrophobia?

What feature of rabies pathophysiology causes hydrophobia? Why is hydrophobia unique to this one particular type of viral infection?
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5answers
779 views

Is there an 'anti-virus'?

A virus spreads around and usually attaches itself to the host, multiplies & causes diseases. But is there something like an anti-virus? A single celled entity that does the opposite: spreads ...
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2answers
621 views

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA?

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA? Can viral DNA undergo the process of methylation? If not then why does this process does not occur in viruses?
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1answer
86 views

Which virus capsids consist of only one type of capsid protein?

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) capsid consists of many copies of one protein (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=109). Which other viral capsids consist of only one kind of coat protein? Does ...