A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Virology is the study of viruses.

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Why do viruses last longer on hard surfaces than porous ones

All the papers I've read about survival of viruses outside of the host refer to longer survival times on hard surfaces without explaination. As a layman I would have thought that a virus (who's main ...
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What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any ...
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What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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Do all +ssRNA viruses have similar structures and life cycles?

Take HCV for example. HCV doesn't package any enzymes in it's virions. When it infects a cell, it first translates its RNA genome. It's RdRp is synthesized with other non-structural proteins. Then its ...
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Can HPV be infectious after it's been exposed to environment?

From what I know, HPV virus cannot be cultured I don't think it's possible to say if a sample has the potential to infect or not but what does it mean when they say HPV virus particles could persist ...
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Barcode exchange between neighbouring cells

I am currently interested in equipping animal cells in a tissue with individual barcodes. These barcodes should get amplified in the cells (not to a cell degrading extent, of course), and also ...
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Are there well studied examples of ERAD-mediated membrane insertion, especially from viruses?

Membrane insertion of transmembrane proteins typically requires highly hydrophobic alpha helixes at the N-terminus, N-terminal signal peptides, tail anchors, or a combination of the three. Byun, H., ...
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Reasons for variable quality virus production

I am making MSCV retrovirus, using DH5α cells to amplify a plasmid of interest, qiagen's midiprep kit to purify out the plasmid, then 293ft cells to produce the retrovirus, and 3t3 cells to test MOI. ...
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31 views

How hydrophilic is human mucus?

I am interested in the stability of virus particles in human mucus, and how this may bias the evolution of surface amino acids in respiratory viruses. For instance if the mucus environment were more ...
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23 views

Tardigrade genetic acceptance and experimentation?

Does this property of tardigrades, that when under extreme conditions they are more permeable and more easily accept sections of genes developed in other species, as I understand sometimes transfered ...
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20 views

How does a viral capsid undergo self assembly?

We know that viral capsids are formed by self assembly but there is surprisingly little information about how it is done specifically. Can somebody find video representation along with explanation, ...
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40 views

Virus affecting eukaryote and prokaryote

I learned that viruses can affect a wide range of species, leading to horizontal gene transfer between them. This lead me to winder whether viruses can affect both a prokaryote and a eukaryote. I know ...
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Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
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What are the advantages of large virions?

The Ebola virions are around 1400 nm long and 80 nm in diameter. However, as a RNA virus, its genome is not large, of around 19k. In comparison, Rhabdoviridae are 180nm long and 75nm in diameter, and ...