0
votes
0answers
12 views

What is the most common behavior that indicate receptivity to copulation among female birds? Can birds display lordosis?

What is the most common behavior that indicate receptivity to copulation among female birds? If there is not really a "most common" one, where can I find informations about the topic in general? I ...
-2
votes
0answers
20 views

Why do electrophoresis gel boxes only have 1d wire electrodes and not a 2d 'mesh' as used in clarity?

Since the DNA and protein are electrophoresed in a 2D plane (along one dimension, the length of the gel), I am surprised that a 1D wire electrode is used for anode and cathode, and not a 2D mesh-like ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

T cell sensitivity and persistence to specific bacterial proteins

I am trying to understand the efficacy of a test which detects or measures T cell senstivity to isolated bacterial proteins (Borrelia). More specifically, I want to know what factors or conditions ...
0
votes
1answer
11 views

Diseases and Immunity

Unlike malaria,TB is found across the whole world.Why and explain?I mean why are people affected with TB more than malaria and some say that in cold and developed countries malaria is less but TB ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?

Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex it ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Why does fart temperature vary? What's the hottest fart ever recorded?

I read somewhere that the average fart temperature is equal to the average human body temperature: 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Sometimes I experience hot farts, while other times my farts are like a ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Are ribosomes assembled in rough ER and Golgi body, or in the nucleolus?

I mean all the components, such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are synthesized in the nucleolus, but is the whole ribosome structure assembled in the nucleolus or is it also done in the rough endoplasmic ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Chemical colouration and carotenoids

How does Carotenoids obtained from diet become an important part of chemical colouration in animals? Some of the facts that I have learned so far include: Carotenoids from the diet are stored in ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Rate of diffusion

I need to find out the intial diffusion rate across membrane. I know the formula of J=DA(C1-C2) but i am confused about how to make the calculations I also know the following: 1) Na+ concentrations ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Is salivation decrease during sleep beneficial?

Papers [1, 2, 3] tell that a salivation decrease is not only unpleasant, but harmful for dental health. What cause that decrease? What is the reason for it and do animals have it? I guess it's a ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Where do I find the label, whether this file data corroborates to a healthy tissue or a cancerous one in TCGA data?

I downloaded the TCGA dataset for LUAD (Lung Cancer), I find each file with miRNA sequence data like readCount and parts per million value and their are around 123 samples. But where do I find the ...
15
votes
3answers
12k views

Can one die from pain?

Is it possible that a human or any other creature can die from pain? I googled and found different answers. Some articles say Yes while others say No.
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Are there any (chemical) processes occuring inside a seed while it's in a dormant state?

If a seed were in a glass jar without a chance of germination, are there any (chemical) processes occurring inside the seed while it sits there? My intuition tells me no since my understanding of ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

About Hermaphrodite Mitochondrial Inheritance

From the textbook I've learnt that in general mitochondria are inherited maternally. However if the cross is between hermaphrodites (e.g. in C.elegans), where, in most cases, then should the ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the most important factors that affect our taste?

What ist the most important factor that affects our taste? our mood? (such like GERD) our genes? (more mascular people will need more protein) the food we ate recently? (to choose more diverse ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Does reproduction cause aging ? Is aging just a strategy to increase reproductive success in all organisms? [on hold]

Background for why I am asking this: I read a book—modern biological theory and experiments on celibacy— which uses life history theory to imply that reproduction is the reason why organisms grow ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Did the Great Oxygenation Event also cause a mass extinction?

Its usually assumed that the Great Oxidation Event around 2.3 bya caused a great extinction of anaerobic life on earth. But as I was reading Nick Lane's book, ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Pressure produced by blowing with mouth

I need some figures on the pressure humans are capable blowing with their mouth with zero flow. I only need very approximate figures. I'm guessing around 500mm of water? I haven't got a tube handy to ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Is metastatic cancer always lethal if uncured?

Can matastases spread in different parts of the body of an animal suffering from cancer grow in a limited way, such as not to cause much more harm that a benignant tumor in those parts of the body ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How can I apply any machine learning model/classifier on miRNA seq data?

I recently got micro RNA sequencing data from the TCGA. I am currently trying to early detect Mesothelioma. How is microRNA seq data different from microRNA expression data? MicroRNA expression ...
11
votes
1answer
308 views

What is the transmembrane 'Positive-Inside Rule' nowadays? Has the definition changed over time?

First definition. Two publications by von Heijne in 1989 and 1992 coined the 'Positive-Inside rule' and showed it's practical value in topology prediction of transmembrane helices. It was clearly ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

A question regarding trichomes in plants

Trichomes in general are features of xerophytic leaves, which reduce water loss by evaporation by trapping water vapor and increasing humidity (as a result lowering the water potential gradient). BUT ...
10
votes
5answers
18k views

What is the cause of muscle cramps?

According to wikipedia, muscle cramps are caused by myosin fibers not being able to break free from the actin filaments during contraction, resulting in a prolonged contraction. Obviously a lack of ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do people feel pleasure when using roller coasters / centrifuges?

The feeling when using an amusement park unit is usually a pleasure. Why is it not a pain instead? Are there advantages, from an evolutionary point of view, in loving this potentially dangerous ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Bence-Jones proteins in urine on heat

The preliminary test for proteinuria is precipitation/turbidity on heat due to denaturation. This turbidity should not disappear when 10% acetic acid is added - to differentiate from phosphates. ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Do we know a complete list of nutrients that humans must ingest to live?

When the people who are making "nutritionally complete" foods like Soylent are developing their product, how do they know that they've covered all their bases? You need to have protein, carbohydrates, ...
6
votes
2answers
169 views

Are Gram negative bacteria classified as such because of their negative membrane potential?

Does the membrane potential usually quoted for Gram negative bacteria (e.g., E. coli) refer to the potential across both membranes? - If yes, then does the potential fall more over the inner or outer ...
9
votes
3answers
72 views

How does the brain immediately know when one's thirst has been quenched?

The question struck me the other day when I drank a glass of water. I understand that there are at least two conditions under which the brain signals thirst: extracellular thirst, when there's not ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

What Freshwater Fish Are Affected By Magnetic Fields

I am interested in knowing which freshwater fish are affected by magnetic fields. I've heard that Lake Sturgeon are, but would like more references. This is for a project that will have buried 3 ...
6
votes
1answer
761 views

Could potatoes that have been refrigerated for 142 days still sprout?

I know that potatoes can still sprout even after being refrigerated, but could you refrigerate them for 142 days still use them as seeds to grow more plants after that? As for the temperature of the ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

nitrogen isotopes in plants

From what I know it is possible to assess an animals diet based on stable isotopes from carbon. Does anyone know if its possible, in a similar way, to derive animal community based on N-deposits which ...
0
votes
2answers
36 views

Are there genes in sex chromosomes that determine facial features?

My friends and I were bored enough to try out this activity. Picture a teenage boy in your mind. From this picture, remove any accessories (glasses, piercings, etc.), moustache or beard, then ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Acrosomal enzymes and the female reproductive tract

My textbook wrote that the reason why acrosomal enzymes are so securely contained within the sperm (thus needing capacitation to facilitate their release) is to prevent any premature release in the ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

CRISPR Cas9 most updated paper protocol

I am collecting literature to start a new project on CRISPR Cas9 gene editing. I must put together a protocol to start asap. I am intending to use the following paper as guidance: "Genome ...
-2
votes
0answers
23 views

Information about sharks [on hold]

would it be possible for a shark to digest clothing it has consumed during an attack on a human,For example Wetsuit,swim trunks or speedos.
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Difference between Bioscience and Lifescience

Are bioscience and lifescience the same things? I am a little bit confused about it. If not, then what is the difference between the two?
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What's the proper term for “brain waves” read from an EEG?

An EEG records the electrical activity of the brain. An EEG shows voltage differences as a function of time and shows what have become known as "brain waves". Is there a scientific/technical ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Respiration of an animal cell media

I want to do respiration process of an animal cell media in laboratory environment. I don't entirely sure how to supply it with Oxygen to the process because it is a gas, but not a liquid.
-4
votes
0answers
17 views

after activation of right brain can we smell colours [on hold]

Does colours have smells and is it true that after activation of brain we can identify colours by blindfoldings
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Which organisms have their cell wall made of polysaccharides and amino acids?

I came across a question which somewhat goes like In which of the following kingdom, most of the members have a cell wall made of polysaccharide and amino acids ? - Monera or Fungi. To me it ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

What will happen to a neuron if I suddenly remove the pump but not the leaky Na+ and K+ channels?

K+ is more abundant inside the cell and thus has a propensity to move outwards. It has an equilibrium potential of -80 mV. Na+ is more abundant extracellularly and thus has a propensity to move ...
8
votes
2answers
255 views

Why do we have two of some organs, but not all?

We have two eyes, but we don't have two hearts. Why do humans have two of some organs, but not all?
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Why don't membrane proteins move?

I understand that based on their tertiary structure, intrinsic proteins have hydrophobic non-polar R-groups on their surface and that they 'interact with the hydrophobic core of the cell membrane to ...
8
votes
1answer
496 views

What is the difference between organelle membranes?

Cells and organelles are contained in lipid bilayers. I'm particularly interested in eukaryotic organelle bilayers and the biophysicochemical differences between them. Many papers assume a ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

What is the Cordil that Edward Topsell describes?

In his "History of four-footed beasts and serpents", Edward Topsell describes a "serpent" called Cordil. Since he lists everything that crawls on the ground as a serpent, regardless of being a ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Why do some men have patchy beards?

Why do some men have patchy beards? Or more specifically, why would some hair follicles lack sufficient 5-alpha reductase while others nearby don't when their genetic code is identical and they are ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Number of pair of chromosomes in sex cells of human [on hold]

Just wondering how many pair of chromosomes in sex cells of human? How many single chromosomes in sex cells of human? Thanks for your help! It is said the chromosomes in sex cells are haploid?
6
votes
1answer
38 views

Polar bodies in females

What is the fate of first and second polar bodies formed during the menstrual cycle in human females? Do they degenerate? Does any other mammal also produce polar bodies?
4
votes
0answers
40 views

Does TSH and Growth hormone have any role in menstruation?

Actually, I came across this on a mcq (multiple choice question) exam: Name the hormone which has no role in menstruation: A. LH B. FSH C. GH D. TSH (only 1 correct option) Both FSH and LH have ...
9
votes
1answer
10k views

Name (and meaning of the absence) of the white semicircle at the base of the fingernail?

At the base of fingernail, there is a white semicircle (see on the first picture). But sometimes there isn't one. My questions are: what is this white semicircle on the fingernail, and what causes ...

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