0
votes
1answer
4 views

What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells, but ...
1
vote
2answers
26 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...
2
votes
2answers
33 views

How were the first primers made

I keep reading about how primers are useful in pcr -- they allow you to select a specific dna region. Similarly, in NGS or Sanger sequencing they give you a starting point. The primers I see are about ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

Advantage of cup-like shape of blood cells, spores?

Mold spores sometimes have the same shape as platelets in blood. If I were designing a spore it would probably be spherical. Is there any advantage to this cup-like shape? Maybe there is some ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

why the cytosol doesn't dissolve the polar structures?

we know that cytoplasm of cells are filled with water molecules and other hydrophilic molecules so my question is why the water of cytosol doesn't dissolve the ionic part of the lipid bilayer or why ...
-2
votes
0answers
21 views

Alleviating allergic tiredness by altering heart's parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation

Many people during allergic times feel tiredness. Particularly, people with low physical activity - lowered vagal stimulation, and with allergies (hypersensitivity type I) - increased sympathetic ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Width of vein in finger

I am working on my bachelors thesis, where one part of it is to find width of vein in fingertip. I use database images and extract vein patterns from it, but i have to calculate the width of vein and ...
16
votes
1answer
7k views

How does laughing gas (N2O) work?

Laughing gas (N2O), well, makes people laugh. How does just a gas make us do that, there has to be some hormones at work... So, I wanted to know how this works? What is the mechanism?
2
votes
1answer
16 views

Role of isopropanol in plasmid isolation

In plasmid isolation, isopropanol is used to renature only the plasmid macromolecules after we precipitate all macromolecules(DNA, RNA, plasmids) using sodium acetate solution. How does it do that? ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

What type of distribution should binding affinities fit?

I've been averaging Ki values from the PDSP Ki Database, and I can't help but to wonder: how I can determine p values for the binding affinities, so I can exclude anomalies in the data if need be?
2
votes
2answers
43 views

introduction to Chip Seq

I hope this question is suitable for this site. I am concerned about the Chip experiment part so I think it should be okay. I am a Applied Math student starting to get into bioinformatics and so I've ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Is it reasonable to assume that RNA polymerase would bind preferentially to the promoter of the long allele of the SERT gene?

I'm trying to come up with an idea for a school project (a hypothetical research study). I'm looking at depression and the serotonin transporter gene, which is highly expressed in the human ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

Is it possible to do chip-seq on a specfic region?

Is it possible to do Chip-Seq on specific region of the genome. The idea is to enrich before the sequencing step to have more sensitivity.
7
votes
1answer
511 views

ChIP-seq vs ChIP-exo

I'm currently investigating ChIP-seq vs. ChIP-exo for finding binding sites. As far as I can tell, ChIP-exo seems to be better in every way than ChIP-seq... but then again, I'm not strong in this ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Population genetics and the fitness probability distribution. Why is the arithmetic mean all we need?

When recording change in allele frequency in diploid, bi-allelic, infinite and panmixic population we usually use this kind of equation: $\delta_p = \frac{p * q *( p (w11 - w12) + q * (w12 - ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

ChIP-seq and the output of SPP

I have been processing some ChIP-seq data with the R package spp. I looked through the literature (ENCODE uses it) and it seemed that spp is indicated as a good program to use. I have found and ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

How to make a concentrated solution of the common lab glassware cleaner Alconox

I'm using the all famous Alconox powder detergent to clean my laboratory glassware, the powder is a pain to store near the sink and to use. Would like to make a more friendly concentrated liquid to ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Book recommendations for evolutionary models

I was recently working on getting a statistical model of a DNA sequence. To do this I found that understanding evolution quantitatively seems to be quite important. I would really appreciate any book ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Heterozygosity and overdominance

Consider $m$ loci with heterozygote advantage (overdominance) such that the fitness of the two homozygotes is $1-\frac{s}{2}$ and the fitness of the heterozygotes is $1+\frac{s}{2}$, where $s>0$. ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Can animals distinguish other animals?

Are animals able to tell the difference between other animals. I dont mean like a cat seeing a dog and thinking "Oh no its a dog". I mean how does prey distinguish predator or threat? Say for instance ...
2
votes
5answers
82 views

Does a neuron ever generate an action potential without stimuli?

Most accounts I read involving action potentials and synapses and the like tend to focus mostly on the action potential as a mere automatic reaction to another similar event happening upstream. From ...
2
votes
2answers
62 views

Thoughts precede neuron firing or vise-verse?

I am at the verge of submitting a paper on 'scientific explanation of reality' to an international philosophy body. First submitted draft was returned by the evaluation expert, asking me to re-submit ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

How much of the jejunum is bypassed during gastric bypass?

There is both long and short limb bypass surgeries. I want to know how much of the jejunum is bypassed with each procedure.
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Is a naive immune system equally able to handle new antigens as an educated one?

This is a variation of the "does the immune system run out of memory" question. Here's a (possibly imperfect) thought experiment: You take two twins. One of them lives in a bubble from birth. One of ...
0
votes
1answer
129 views

What is the recommended PPM when foliar feeding L-amino acids

It is said that L-amino acids such as histidine, methionine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine and glutamine can revert plant stomata closure, increase quality of fruits and assist maturity. It ...
0
votes
1answer
10 views

What is Saccus in Embryology?

The word seems to be of German origin. I have it here Saccus lymphaticus inguinalis, Saccus lymphaticus jugularis, Saccus lymphaticus posterior, Saccus lymphaticus retroperitonaealis. I ...
4
votes
1answer
15 views

When does exposure to an allergen increase / decrease allergy?

In immunotherapy a person is regularly exposed to an allergen to decrease the allergy. Yet apparently "repeated intranasal challenges ... induces robust allergic airway inflammation, " [0] So when ...
3
votes
1answer
13 views

PCR master mix contents

I am running PCR reactions with different sets of degenerate primers and I want to know what should go into the master mix My usual master mix: DEPC water PCR buffer (-Mg) 25mM MgCl2 10mM ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Does Blood Loss Shorten Telomeres?

If blood loss necessitates immediate cell division to replace lost cells, does the increase in cell division correlate to shortening of telomeres? Does it further cause the Hayflick Limit to be ...
1
vote
1answer
9 views

Why is oxygen used up in eutrophication?

This probably sounds pretty dumb, but wouldn't algae blooms produce a lot of oxygen? Although they would die out and decomposers would use up oxygen, is that more than what the algae produced?
-1
votes
0answers
13 views

biochemistry SAT questions

Does glycogen and starch provide structural support? I know cellulose as polysaccharides does. the peptide bond is stronger than ionic, hydrogen, and van der Waal forces?(the answer said so)
2
votes
2answers
18 views

Gel Electrophoresis - loading dye and more

I'm a student new to molecular biology coming in from an eco-evo background looking for tips from you molecular pros! It seems that I'm running quite a few gels. The loading dye I'm using is Gel ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Effect of natural selection on the phenotypic variance. Empirical studies

Short background Theoretically speaking, natural selection causes a decrease in genetic variance and because the environmental variance should remain unchanged, natural selection causes a decrease of ...
3
votes
0answers
10 views

How is nutrient uptake in humans measured?

There are many claims made about nutrient absorption, eg "Juicing helps you absorb all the nutrients from the vegetables". I'm curious to know how nutrient uptake is measured. Eg is it a pure ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

What is meant by single molecule sequencing

When sequencing papers refer to single molecule sequencing, what is there definition of a "molecule". Are they saying base by base? The entire dna chain in a chromosome can also be though of as a ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

How does regurgitated food go to the 3rd stomach chamber instead of going to the 1st?

Ruminants are known for their regurgitation of food; the food goes through the 1st and 2nd stomach chambers, then returns to the oral cavity in cuds. The cuds then come back into the stomach, but this ...
0
votes
4answers
206 views

Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being [on hold]

Just like the title says: Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being. No religious or philosophy-based answers will be accepted, we are talking ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones?

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones? Is it hypothalamus?
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Microarray gene expression matrix format

After scanning the microarray chip we get RAW data with different formats depending on the type of microarray used. However, these RAW data files can be normalized and processed to generate gene ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Mass Spectrometry Terminology

I began reading this paper (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/14/56) and had a few questions about mass spectrometry terminology that I couldn't find answers to elsewhere. Consider the following ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Planar circular DNA and protein

I am trying to develop a planar (two dimensional) lattice based framework to simulate ring (circular) DNA and proteins. To verify my model, I need to simulate real DNA and proteins. The base idea for ...
5
votes
2answers
89 views

Is there any biological reason for humans to rest after x days of work?

A lot of people live in a 7 day cycle, where 5 days of work are followed by 2 days of "rest". Vacations and holidays can increase the time available for resting. Is there any biological reason for ...
4
votes
1answer
468 views

Identical twins' genders

Can identical twins have different genders (as in biological sex)? I thought they should have absolutely the same genes. If they can, what caused it? I'd assume it MAY be because of errors in ...
5
votes
3answers
120 views

Do tall people have more cells?

Within a single species, how does the relative number of cells in the body relate to the relative size of the organism? Let's say we take two humans, one of them is 6 feet tall and the other one is 5 ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Why haven't land animals evolved beyond urination?

It occurred to me (while urinating) that this would seem to be selected against because water is a scarce resource. Why are we constantly losing water we don't need to through urination? What is ...
3
votes
3answers
93 views

Is it possible to have life in vacuum?

I just got struck by curiosity now: Intuition says no, but I've never had confirmation of it.
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Bioinformatics : Drawbacks of using ORA(Overlap Analysis)

What do you think are the potential drawbacks/weakness of using ORA to explain distinction between two phenotypes. I identified a few which were the dependencies of DE and the statistical method used ...
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

Effect of axillary stretching on prevention of congestion from hyperemia

In exercising not-opposing muscles of arms (biceps, not triceps), hyperemia of tissues occurs i.e. active process in arteries. I feel personally sour muscles many days afterwards if I do not stretch ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

How to design an experiment with scent triggered memory recall in humans?

I've recently learned that scents can trigger memory recall in humans, and am thinking about setting up an experiment where I would attempt to induce memory recall through exposure to scents. In ...

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