0
votes
0answers
10 views

Central Dogma of Biology - Counter Cases

I was recently reading about non-coding RNAs being a counter example to Central Dogma of Biology. Can someone add more cases which violate the Central Dogma? Thanks! UPDATE - Reference of lncRNAs ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

What would the presence of a hub metabolite in a metabolic pathway signify?

Say I have a metabolic pathway, consisting of multiple metabolites and reactions. On analyzing the pathway I find that among all the metabolite, one metabolite is the hub metabolite (hub metabolite is ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

How can evolution make such complicated beings?

So what I understand is, evolution is a mere mistake in the replication of DNA and this change is sometimes good and sometimes bad. And the other day, in our biology class, we were told the ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

A creature from Mediterranean

I have recently encountered this thing on one of the beaches of east Sardinia. It was pretty close to the coast (around 20 meters) and has sticked to one of my fins. My question is: how is this ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Does xylitol kill all kinds of bacteria?

Xylitol is known as a bad bacteria killer in human's mouth. But I am curious about one thing. Does xylitol kill all kinds of bacteria regardless of good or bad? If so, Does xylitol kill bad bacteria ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Do experiences shape actions of insects? Animals?

Would an insect behave differently to stimuli depending on what stimuli occurred to them earlier (that only affects them cognitively or their conscience)?
18
votes
1answer
837 views

Additive genetic variance components from LMER in R

I've set up some dummy data in R which makes 40 genetically related lines, they are all siblings within a line so are genetically related by a factor of ½ thus additive genetic variance should be ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

What's this insect?

Found on my indoor egg plant. I also have aphids, spider mites, and psyllids on it, and am hoping it's a predator like a ladybug larva but the colours are wrong. It's about 6 mm long. Found in New ...
-1
votes
1answer
15 views

Is our genetic evolution driven by what we catch? [on hold]

When an environment changes, a multi celled organism can lose some cells without it producing an equal evolutionary change. But when a single cell organism experiences the same environmental pressure ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

What does NaOH do for the plating of Bacillus subtilis?

A book called Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus called for plating Bacillus subtilis cells on LB-agar plates with the following components: A general-purpose medium containing per litre: ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

How do we know that our genetic similarities to other species is actually due to common ancestry?

I know all about how the fossil record shows more human-like species coming about over time, and how modern testing proves we have genetic similarities with other animals. All that says is we have ...
2
votes
3answers
80 views

Real-world examples of Darwinian extinction

Darwinian extinction (also known as "evolutionary suicide") refers to processes of selection-driven self-extinction, i.e. the cases where natural selection causes the extinction of an evolving ...
-1
votes
1answer
31 views

How do poikilotherms thrive in a wide range of temperatures?

What is it about the metabolism of a poikilotherm that enables them to adapt to the surrounding temperature?
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Effect of pH on the hydrolysis of ATP

ATP hydrolizes to ADP and phosphate in a strongly exergonic reaction and is used for energy transfer and short-term storage in cells. ATP is stable inside a cell, so a significant activation energy ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Question: Finding diploid neanderthal alignment data, looking for ambiguity codes

I'm using Neanderthal alignment data from here: http://www.eva.mpg.de/neandertal/draft-neandertal-genome/data.html Specifically, the .bam files. I would like to find alignments for neanderthal ...
-4
votes
1answer
86 views

Mutations, Death and the theory of Evolution [on hold]

Evolution always made sense to me and I still find it to be true. However, I quite recently found a comment online that gave me some doubts and made me curious on the subject. Although a student of ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

house keeping gene variation under treatment

I am injecting BCG in mice ears to measure the local inflamation response in the infection side, one ear in the same mouse is kept as control by injecting PBS, in the other one, BCG is injected. When ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Typical run-times for local alignments?

Suppose I have a relatively short sequence, e.g. 100 base pairs, which I attempt to align locally with the entire human genome that has approximately 3 billion base pairs. How long would such ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

siRNA to reduce global cholesterol levels

I need to reduce global cholesterol levels significantly while maintaining cell viability. I am working with HEK293 fibroblasts so that shouldn't be a problem. What is the best target for an siRNA ...
1
vote
2answers
115 views

Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

What reason that land vertebrate evolve keratin while other animal use chitin

I don't know why there are evolutionary split in material. Why we evolve keratin and lose chitin? What the advantage and disadvantage for each material? Is it because the size or there are other ...
-2
votes
1answer
32 views

Does protein structure depend on phylogeny? [on hold]

Proteins have two basic secondary structure forms - beta strand and alpha helix. Do these depend on the organism or do the two forms exist for every protein? For tertiary and quaternary structure: do ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Why my proteins are migrating like this on SDS-page?

I'm trying to make a SDS-page of total proteins extracted from algae but I'm encountering two problems. First, when I depose my proteins in the wells the sample goes down and then it starts to move up ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

Do molluscs shells regenerate?

Does a molluscs, for example mussels, shell grow back? Because it will obviously be degraded with time, what with ocean acidification and such. But can the organism grow the shell back? If so, how ...
-5
votes
0answers
65 views

evolution in such a short time? (history is too short for DNA base mutation + natural selection to result in current vast number of species) [duplicate]

apart from my being a Christian, I have this strong suspicion that evolution is wrong. One of the clues is the mismatch between the past time lapse and the current level of evolution. I'm not a ...
6
votes
1answer
66 views

What is this tiny insect?

I took this picture in central Mexico. The insect is about 1mm in size. I found lots of these dead on a desk, so many that at first I thought they were just dust. I assume they came from a plant that ...
1
vote
2answers
88 views

How to batch convert gene names to protein IDs in Uniprot?

I have a list of >1000 "ordered locus names" from the STRING database (also called gene numbers, ORF numbers, or CDS numbers by uniprot). They're in the form of 'b0014', 'b0015', etc. I'd like to ...
0
votes
1answer
8 views

Why the position of simple sequence repeat at the gene and related transcript sequences are different?

I'm working on the simple sequence repeat (SSR). I found that just one region (about 21 bp) with SSR motif in a given gene. This gene has multiple transcripts, which the same SSR motif was located in ...
3
votes
1answer
150 views

What's the (or some of the) minimum(s) amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide needed by plants?

We currently have a problem of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. But assuming we find a way to carbon sink it, what is the minimum CO2 we need to leave in the atmosphere to provide a source for ...
6
votes
2answers
171 views

Why does human chromosome 19 have the second highest number of protein-coding genes?

While chromosome 19 only is the 19th largest autosomal chromosome, it contains 1440 protein-coding genes, and thus has the second highest number of protein-coding genes of any human chromosome. For ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Which behavior, in the evolution of human species, came first: organized sports or organized religion? [migrated]

In Brazil, and I believe that also in other countries, people will change their religion, but won't change their sports team. Would it have any root in biology? Perhaps because sports represent a much ...
4
votes
2answers
724 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Human Blood vessels, [duplicate]

Why is blood drawn from veins? Is it because veins have a large lumen? Or is it because the blood is flowing at a lower pressure and makes discharge easier? Is it safer to draw blood from veins?
0
votes
1answer
39 views

What is the effect of wheat's polyploidy on wheat itself and on us?

According to Wikipedia, "Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields", and bread wheat is among them. There is also diploid and tetraploid wheat. I guess that hexaploid wheat, besides the obvious ...
-4
votes
0answers
17 views

What would happen if molluscs didn't have shells? [on hold]

If a mollusc lost its shell for some reason, what would happen The mollusc must have had the shell before it got lost, so ones that didn't have shells to begin with don't count
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Sneezing as sign of allergy

Doctor told me (long ago) that sneezing more than three times in a row is a sure sign for an allergy. Now, me, if I have to sneeze, I rarely do with one sneeze, mostly, when I've made up my mind and ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

KEGG Pathway Database

KEGG is a total black box to me. I'm trying to understand the "schema" / organization of KEGG. I want to find connections between KEGG Compounds with KEGG Genes. Which KEGG class will give me this? ...
-2
votes
1answer
41 views

Selectivity of anti-bacterial affect of oxygen

As far as I know, oxidizing agents (AKA reactive oxygen species or ROS) are potent antimicrobial agents that act on a broad range of bacteria and viruses, as well as inactivating certain toxins. Is ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Names for the degrees for symptoms from drought (or other damage) done to trees

Looking out my window, I see trees suffering from drought. I once knew the name for the degrees visible, but I have forgotten and can't find it on the net. Attempt at describing "level of dryness" ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Innervation ratio

Is the innervation ratio the number of muscle fibers/neuron or the number of neurons/muscle fibers? My book doesn't define innervation ratio but mentions ratios: In primates the number of muscle ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

How do antibiotics combined with a non-Western diet affect weight loss?

Wikipedia describes a Western diet as: ... higher intakes of red and processed meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, white potatoes, french fries, and high-sugar drinks. ...
5
votes
1answer
103 views

What is this spider, and what is this object that emerged from its rear end?

I was observing this spider (caught in a Petri dish) under my microscope, when I noticed that a small, round object emerged from its rear end. It appeared to be black and white in appearance. I am ...
31
votes
1answer
3k views

What is this wasp killing insect?

I spotted these two in my garden. What is this insect? He had firm control over the wasp and was just hanging on by one leg. He appeared to hold on until the wasp stopped moving and then flew away ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Why aren't all animals cold blooded?

At least, why don't all animals produce no more heat than the tiny amount that's a byproduct of walking or a bonobo climbing up a vine when the outside temperature is above 0°C? They won't freeze ...
6
votes
3answers
64 views

ID flying insect found in Belgium

I live in Belgium, and I've just witnessed a weird looking wasp/fly flying around in my room. Here's a picture: So, what's this? It's still in my room, just chilling there. It zooms like a wasp, ...
23
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is rabies incurable?

I'm still not sure about the mechanics that lead to rabies being incurable. I know that it can be treated before any symptoms show up, but why is it that once symptoms show the person is a dead man ...
15
votes
1answer
20k views

What is the composition of human feces?

Are there any studies or general information on the composition of human feces? I'd specifically like to know the percentage of carbohydrates and amino acids relative to the amount that was ingested ...
-2
votes
0answers
24 views

One blue and one brown eye. What's up with that? [on hold]

I am studying Mendelian genetics -> Punett Square , but no match is there for below: One of my best friends in elementary school had one blue and one brown eye. What's up with that?
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Name of this flower?

i'd like to know the name of this flower.

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