2
votes
1answer
6 views

PCR master mix contents

I am running PCR reactions with different sets of degenerate primers and I want to know what should go into the master mix My usual master mix: DEPC water PCR buffer (-Mg) 25mM MgCl2 10mM ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Does Blood Loss Shorten Telomeres?

If blood loss necessitates immediate cell division to replace lost cells, does the increase in cell division correlate to shortening of telomeres? Does it further cause the Hayflick Limit to be ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Is a naive immune system equally able to handle new antigens as an educated one?

This is a variation of the "does the immune system run out of memory" question. Here's a (possibly imperfect) thought experiment: You take two twins. One of them lives in a bubble from birth. One of ...
0
votes
1answer
4 views

Why is oxygen used up in eutrophication?

This probably sounds pretty dumb, but wouldn't algae blooms produce a lot of oxygen? Although they would die out and decomposers would use up oxygen, is that more than what the algae produced?
0
votes
0answers
6 views

biochemistry SAT questions

Does glycogen and starch provide structural support? I know cellulose as polysaccharides does. the peptide bond is stronger than ionic, hydrogen, and van der Waal forces?(the answer said so)
1
vote
2answers
9 views

Gel Electrophoresis - loading dye and more

I'm a student new to molecular biology coming in from an eco-evo background looking for tips from you molecular pros! It seems that I'm running quite a few gels. The loading dye I'm using is Gel ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Heterozygosity and overdominance

Consider $m$ loci with heterozygote advantage (overdominance) such that the fitness of the two homozygotes is $1-\frac{s}{2}$ and the fitness of the heterozygotes is $1+\frac{s}{2}$, where $s>0$. ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Effect of natural selection on the phenotypic variance. Empirical studies

Short background Theoretically speaking, natural selection causes a decrease in genetic variance and because the environmental variance should remain unchanged, natural selection causes a decrease of ...
2
votes
0answers
9 views

How is nutrient uptake in humans measured?

There are many claims made about nutrient absorption, eg "Juicing helps you absorb all the nutrients from the vegetables". I'm curious to know how nutrient uptake is measured. Eg is it a pure ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

How were the first primers made

I keep reading about how primers are useful in pcr -- they allow you to select a specific dna region. Similarly, in NGS or Sanger sequencing they give you a starting point. The primers I see are about ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

What is meant by single molecule sequencing

When sequencing papers refer to single molecule sequencing, what is there definition of a "molecule". Are they saying base by base? The entire dna chain in a chromosome can also be though of as a ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

How does regurgitated food go to the 3rd stomach chamber instead of going to the 1st?

Ruminants are known for their regurgitation of food; the food goes through the 1st and 2nd stomach chambers, then returns to the oral cavity in cuds. The cuds then come back into the stomach, but this ...
0
votes
4answers
190 views

Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being [on hold]

Just like the title says: Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being. No religious or philosophy-based answers will be accepted, we are talking ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones?

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones? Is it hypothalamus?
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Microarray gene expression matrix format

After scanning the microarray chip we get RAW data with different formats depending on the type of microarray used. However, these RAW data files can be normalized and processed to generate gene ...
3
votes
0answers
11 views

When does exposure to an allergen increase / decrease allergy?

In immunotherapy a person is regularly exposed to an allergen to decrease the allergy. Yet apparently "repeated intranasal challenges ... induces robust allergic airway inflammation, " [0] So when ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Mass Spectrometry Terminology

I began reading this paper (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/14/56) and had a few questions about mass spectrometry terminology that I couldn't find answers to elsewhere. Consider the following ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Planar circular DNA and protein

I am trying to develop a planar (two dimensional) lattice based framework to simulate ring (circular) DNA and proteins. To verify my model, I need to simulate real DNA and proteins. The base idea for ...
5
votes
2answers
87 views

Is there any biological reason for humans to rest after x days of work?

A lot of people live in a 7 day cycle, where 5 days of work are followed by 2 days of "rest". Vacations and holidays can increase the time available for resting. Is there any biological reason for ...
4
votes
1answer
463 views

Identical twins' genders

Can identical twins have different genders (as in biological sex)? I thought they should have absolutely the same genes. If they can, what caused it? I'd assume it MAY be because of errors in ...
5
votes
3answers
119 views

Do tall people have more cells?

Within a single species, how does the relative number of cells in the body relate to the relative size of the organism? Let's say we take two humans, one of them is 6 feet tall and the other one is 5 ...
-1
votes
0answers
13 views

Any allergic drugs affecting heart sympathetic function?

Many people during allergic times feel tiredness. Particularly, people with low physical activity - lowered vagal stimulation, and with allergies (hypersensitivity type I) - increased sympathetical ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Why haven't land animals evolved beyond urination?

It occurred to me (while urinating) that this would seem to be selected against because water is a scarce resource. Why are we constantly losing water we don't need to through urination? What is ...
3
votes
3answers
92 views

Is it possible to have life in vacuum?

I just got struck by curiosity now: Intuition says no, but I've never had confirmation of it.
2
votes
2answers
41 views

Bioinformatics : Drawbacks of using ORA(Overlap Analysis)

What do you think are the potential drawbacks/weakness of using ORA to explain distinction between two phenotypes. I identified a few which were the dependencies of DE and the statistical method used ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Effect of axillary stretching on prevention of congestion from hyperemia

In exercising not-opposing muscles of arms (biceps, not triceps), hyperemia of tissues occurs i.e. active process in arteries. I feel personally sour muscles many days afterwards if I do not stretch ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

How to design an experiment with scent triggered memory recall in humans?

I've recently learned that scents can trigger memory recall in humans, and am thinking about setting up an experiment where I would attempt to induce memory recall through exposure to scents. In ...
6
votes
0answers
59 views

What are the costs associated with carrying lots of genetic material

What are the costs (if any) associated with carrying lots of genetic material? energy for copying? raw material for copying? space in the cell? Maintenance cost (matter and energy)? time to copy is ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Effect of respiration on Arterial pressure

I am trying to explain the effect of respiration on arterial pressure. I am looking preferably some visual way to show it. How can you show the effect of respiration on arterial pressure? I am ...
1
vote
2answers
19 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...
5
votes
1answer
54 views

How can promoter binding sites be determined?

I have been trying to find out which sigma factor is responsible for the transcription of RNA polymerase subunits $\alpha$ (rpoA) and $\beta ^{\prime}$ (rpoC) in Bacillus subtilis. I would expect it ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

Book suggestion on computational molecular evolution

I'm currently reading Computational Molecular Evolution by Yang. Can you recommend alternatives to this book? I am finding it to be lacking on conceptual discussion (it's more focussed on the ...
2
votes
0answers
111 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Unresolved polytomic Phylogenetic Tree in MrBayes

I ran MrBayes for 1000000 mcmc generations and the phylogenetic tree which i obtained showed polytomy and was not resolved. Any suggestions as to how to correct it?
2
votes
2answers
40 views

How can CI repressor both activate and repress $P_{RM}$ promoter found in $\lambda$ phage?

I'm reading a paper where the authors constructed a toggle switch that uses bidirectional $P_R/P_{RM}$ promoter found in the $\lambda$ phage. There are 3 binding sites - $O_R1$, $O_R2$, $O_R3$ - ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

What kind of small insect is this?

Found in central florida in the bath tub. Its about the size of a pencil marking, very small. What is it?
1
vote
1answer
29 views

What happens when we dream?

When a human dreams does the brain activate the cones and rods in the eyes creating the images we see in dreams?
0
votes
1answer
18 views

how to silicate a hyper plasia responce from my muscle tissue?

I know it's not a fitness forum but because it has biological background.I want to get big by increasing my muscle cell not by growing muscle (hypertrophy), I have not received a descent ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Effect of Aging on SA node's sympathetic fibers

I am trying to understand the effect of aging on the sympathetic fibers of SA node. I know that aging shifts the vagal curve to left in frequency due to aging. However, I am interested if aging has ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

How do fish tolerate pH changes in water?

I want to know how aquatic animals behave as a natural indicator of the acidity in lakes and rivers. How do they tolerate these pH change?
3
votes
3answers
109 views

What does “kcal/mol” mean when speaking of enzyme catalysis?

After thinking about it, I'm confused by what the reaction barrier of an enzyme actually means. Imagine a reactor containing enzyme and substrate. If the enzyme in the reactor has a reaction barrier ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

TCGA gene expression data are missing matched normal

I'm trying to use the TCGA data portal to get gene expression data for cancer tissues, but I'm not sure what "Tumor matched normal" means. It is unclear to me if the values are already compared to a ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Detecting a Fasting State in the Body via Lasers

I was just wondering wether it would be possible to detect if the body is in a "fasting" state, via lasers attached to the body. If it is possible, what sort of laser would be needed?
1
vote
1answer
25 views

How are new chromosomes replicated into the next generation via sexual reproduction?

If an individual has a new chromosome, which is very unlikely to happen, he will not have any luck in finding a sexual partner with this same trait. How will the offspring inherit this trait. And ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

How do exon tandem exon duplications occur in the genome?

By this I mean in cases where tandem exons are introduced by replication slippage how would a DNA polymerase by chance duplicate an entire exon cleanly (i.e. from exact start to exact end) when it ...
-2
votes
2answers
41 views

Punnett square and hybrid cross [on hold]

A plant breeder crossed two plants, one with red flowers, and the other with white flowers. Red is dominant. Calculate the phenotype and genotype ratios of the F2 generation of this cross. Is this a ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Could someone Identify this Insect Hive on my Balcony Grill

A smallish insect hive has been forming on the grill of my balcony in the last month or two, and I wanted to know should I be worried or can I just let it be. Its 13th floor in Singapore, if the ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Percentage of understood human DNA

I want to know what's the approximate percentage of understood human DNA, as in, which part does what. I'm not asking for details, just the amount. Thank you.

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