1
vote
0answers
3 views

What's the duration between the binding of adrenaline to $\beta$-AR and the first translated protein?

Binding of adrenaline (epinephrine) to the $\beta$-Adrenergic receptor leads to formation of cAMP (via G protein activation), activation of protein kinase A and subsequently to the expression of ...
6
votes
3answers
933 views

Why would a single celled organism evolve to be multi-celled?

I read a story this week on Richard Lenski who has been 'evolving' E. coli for more than 50,000 generations now. One comment I read was from someone who doesn't accept Evolution who pointed out that ...
1
vote
1answer
12 views

What Causes Shin Splints?

My shin splints are clearly tied to running. Though the pain level doesn't seem to correlate to my running intensity. So what is it about running that causes shin splints? My real hope is that if I ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

What is this woodlouse doing?

I picked an apple from the ground, it was wet with dew and a woodlouse was stuck to it, with its back against the apple. When it got loose, it started flexing its "tail" like this for a while. Why?
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Why does botulinum toxin seem to be more dangerous to humans than to other mammals?

Various mammals seem to get away with eating parts of carcasses that we would prefer to not even touch, and that we assume will make us sick. Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

What governs the size of animal bodies?

Million of years ago there lived dinosaurs up to 36 m high. About 10,000 years ago lived Machairodontinae -compared to cats today they were huge. About 400,000 years ago lived Mammuthus trogontherii: ...
6
votes
2answers
58 views

Why is green fur not a thing?

In most biomes on earth, and certainly in the most densely-populated, the best camouflage color or pattern for an animal would be a variant of green, so as to blend in with the leaves and grasses of ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Answer the questions in one word with help of clues and images given [on hold]

Name the things associated with Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek - (6 pictures are given for help and four of them are associated with these clues) a)Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe these and hence ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

What do you see when your eyes are closed?

If you are in pitch black and you close your eyes, you sometimes can see strange shapes of various colors. A lot of the time these shapes and colors change as you observe them. This phenomenon still ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

What are the application areas of Pattern formation studies specific to biology? [on hold]

I was reading about reaction-diffusion processes, morphogenesis concept by Alan Turing and works of Murray in describing pattern formation on animals etc. But one question which came to my mind was ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

How many humans have been in my lineage? Is it almost the same for every human currently living?

If I were to count my father, my grandfather, my great-grandfather, and so on up till, say chimps, or the most common ancestor, or whatever that suits the more accurate answer, how many humans would ...
8
votes
4answers
856 views

How do trees lift water higher than 10 meters?

The atmosphere pressure is 10 meters of water (approx). This means that it is impossible to lift water higher than 10 meters with vacuum or сapillary action (on Earth, under normal conditions). There ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Data Bias in protein-protein interactions data

Databases like STRING have so many predicted as well as experimental interactions data for many organisms.However there is a bias in the data which they have?. a)The first is gene co-occurrence ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Which factors may affect a choice of an oviposition place in nocturnal moths?

Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) is a small brachypterous (females have stunned wings - unable to fly) moth which places eggs on thick branches. I would like to know which abiotic and biotic factors ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Is the quality of sleep dependent on sleep duration?

I've been facing this lately, where I will wake up in the middle of the night after sleeping for perhaps 2-3 hours and be wide awake, but when I go back to sleep, I wake up more tired than before. ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

TV's so loud when I turn over

Scenario: I'm about to fall asleep with the T.V. on. Having completely forgotten that it was, no longer even hearing it, just before falling asleep I turn over with a 'fresh' ear and it's blaring. If ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the equivalent of shutter-speed in Human eye?

I just learned that in video cameras, every frame of the video has its own shutter speed. And I know how frame-rate in human eye works out, well, not completely, hence the question. ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
5
votes
3answers
205 views

Books for beginners [on hold]

I want to study biology. I have zero previous knowledge of biology but I know Physics, Chemistry and Maths. From which book should I start? I have heard about Campbell Biology, but it is very costly ...
6
votes
1answer
64 views

Fisher's Geometric Model for Dummies

Fisher's geometric model is still today one of the most important and fundamental model in evolutionary biology but it seems to me that most student in evolutionary biology don't really understand it ...
6
votes
2answers
187 views

How does isopropyl alcohol disinfect less in higher concentration?

Isopropyl alcohol can be used as disinfectant. For increasing concentration of it in water, the effect as disinfectant increases, and then decreases again. Typical concentrations for use as ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Vitamins that could help “make us smarter”? [on hold]

I was at Sprouts health store and saw a lot of vitamins/herbs that claimed to be "Study Aids" etc, so if there is any basis to it, where exactly does it hold truth? And are these supplements safe?
5
votes
0answers
135 views

What percentage of the total genetic variance is explained by the $n$ most important loci?

Standard models in population genetics look up at the evolution of few loci which impact fitness. The variance in fitness is determined by the genetic variance and the environmental variance (and the ...
7
votes
2answers
79 views

RNA-Seq library construction challenges: the biases of RNA fragmentation vs cDNA fragmentation

I recently watched a presentation on RNA-seq that covered some of the choices one can make along the way, and I didn't fully understand one of the choices in particular. Near the beginning of the ...
2
votes
0answers
7 views

Is there an association between environmental and mutational robustness?

The robustness of a genotype is the ability of this genotype to resist (always produce the same phenotype) to various parameters such as mutations and environment. The ability of a genotype to resist ...
2
votes
0answers
8 views

How does Pothos grow in only water?

The popular potted plant, Pothos aureus (or Epipremnum aureum) is happy to grow in a jar, with only water, for years. How is this possible when other plants need at least Nitrogen, Phosphorus and ...
1
vote
0answers
3 views

Mutation-drift equilibrium and among loci variance in heterozygosity

At mutation-drift balance, the increased heterozygosity brought by new mutations is exactly equal to the loss of heterozygosity due to genetic drift. At equilibrium, the expected heterozygosity for a ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Can two Hfr strains of E. coli conjugate?

Genetics textbooks (and some internet searching) yield abundant examples of Hfr strains conjugating with F- cells, but these sources are surprisingly silent regarding the results of an Hfr ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Ideal lab glassware cleaner for molecular biologist

I'm using the all famous Alconox powder detergent to clean my laboratory glassware, the powder is a pain to store near the sink and to use. Would like to make a more friendly concentrated liquid to ...
10
votes
4answers
570 views

Pipetting damage on cells

I'm curious how much damage is potentially inflicted by shear stress by pipetting. I know that with syringes for stem cell injection cause a lot of damage. However, to what extend does this happen ...
2
votes
1answer
8k views

Difference between Appendix and the Cecum?

What's the difference between an appendix and a cecum, and what are their functions?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

What are scientifically recommended safe substances for cockroach extermination?

What are some easily/readily available substances that have been scientifically proven to exterminate cockroaches? Moreover, what are the scientifically sanctioned, effective procedures? (There are ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What are main animal origin antiseptics?

I started to think which are the main animal origin antiseptics to understand possible negative sides of these antiseptics. Antiseptic is a substance that inhibit bacterial growth both in vitro and ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

What triggers the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone with the onset of puberty?

I am interested to know the process of development of puberty. During puberty, when boys/girls reache 12-14 (puberty) years of their age, their hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Do the phage repressors CI and Mnt exhibit crosstalk?

I am interested in using the CI and Mnt proteins as well as their respective promoters (pR and Pmnt) within the same synthetic system, but am concerned as to their similarity and potential crosstalk. ...
6
votes
1answer
49 views

Why dont we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
3
votes
1answer
28 views

How can I determine the purity of cells isolated from rat brains if I cannot use FACS, Immunohistochemistry or SEM anaysis?

Please help. I know how to isolate the different cells (astrocytes, other glial cells, neurons and synaptosomes) from brain tissue using a Ficoll-based separation but how do I determine the purity of ...
-1
votes
0answers
32 views

Is it possible to resurrect dead animal by using it's DNA?

My pet died yesterday by an accident. I'm feeling so sad, can't even sleep well. I tried to control myself and thought about many philosophical questions, but I can't get away from this sadness. ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Pollinator mating system in orchids

I came across three terms in an article on pseudocopulation. However I don't quite understand what it means. They are: 1) solitary and haplodiploid 2) social and haplodiploid 3) diploid These ...
5
votes
1answer
79 views

Would oxygen levels be stable without photosynthesis?

I learned how the CO$_2$ cycle works in several biology classes, high school, elementary school, geology, and physics. Then today there was an article published in the NY Times claiming: ...it is ...
3
votes
3answers
350 views

Identification of an Insect (Hemiptera)

I found a a few of these guys on my composter, so they could have easily been eating bugs or decaying organics (or both): To me it looks like a stink bug with oversized legs, not like the ones I'm ...
7
votes
2answers
273 views

Organism identification, what is this?

Im trying to find out what this is, see image below. Im thinking these are either some insect eggs or some sort of mosslike plant. The substance is stuck to a steel pillar, outside, about 5 feet ...
6
votes
4answers
526 views

Is it possible to genetically modify a plant at home?

Would I be able to genetically modify a plant at home? What equipment will be necessary? I think it might be a fun change from the 'norm'. Are some plants easier to modify than others?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Why do spiders have a leaf at the bottom of a piece of web?

I've lately seen a lot of instances where a leaf is dangling from a piece of web coming down off a tree. What purpose/s does this serve for the spider? Is it some sort of mechanism for the spider to ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Distance matrix with different length sequences

In a project we're doing (in python), we want to create a distance matrix for a phylogenetic tree with multiple, different length sequences. However, what we've seen so far (AlignIO in biopython, ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

Why can't a Corn have 13 rows of seeds?

Every time before eating a corn, I count its lines. I would always find 12 or 14 rows of seeds but never 13. Is there any biological/scientific reason behind this?
13
votes
4answers
232 views

Machine learning for light microscopy — problems to solve?

I would like solve some biological problems that would improve the state-of-the-art of biology or bioinformatics. In particular, I want to apply machine learning on light microscopic images. The ...
4
votes
1answer
703 views

How the conjunctivitis virus spread just by seeing a person's eye who is infected

Conjunctivitis or 'pink eye'. I have a few questions on conjunctivitis. When I was suffering from conjunctivitis, my doctor advised me to wear sunglasses so that no one else gets infected. I ...

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