1
vote
1answer
4 views

Why don't we see turbulance in Aorta even in normal situations?

I read about windkessel effect. Then I read about pulse pressure wave getting reflected from periphery. If the pulse pressure wave is reflected during diastole and at the same time blood is being ...
2
votes
3answers
49 views

If ants have an antibiotic gland, how can they spread hospital infections?

Wikipedia describes how antibiotics are produced in ants: "Metapleural glands ... are responsible for the production of an antibiotic fluid that then collects in a reservoir ... also referred ...
-1
votes
0answers
6 views

How seed is growing in the soil without sunlight?

For plant growth, sunlight plays important role. So if seed is present under the soil, then how it is growing without sunlight?
0
votes
0answers
55 views

What are the possible dangers of power lines, radiation, wifi and gsm technology? [on hold]

I'd like to know more about the topic mentioned in the title. What are the main risks involved in exposure to common EMF's such as those caused by cell phones, Wi-Fi etc.? For example, if I live ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

What's the meaning of 'plasma' in 'plasma membrane'?

I wonder why is it called plasma membrane - what's the biological meaning of the word 'plasma'?
0
votes
1answer
20 views

How does salinity affect the bonds of an enzyme?

According to my textbook, "Too much or too little salt can interfere with the hydrogen bonds that hold an enzyme in its three-dimensional shape". I know that NaCl is held together by an ionic bond, ...
8
votes
5answers
308 views

Is there an 'anti-virus'?

A virus spreads around and usually attaches itself to the host, multiplies & causes diseases. But is there something like an anti-virus? A single celled entity that does the opposite: spreads ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Where is the “coming-out-of-nowhere” taste coming from?

Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds. Derived from wikipedia. Anxiety can cause a lot of unusual ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

How much difference in genome is enough to prevent interbreeding? [on hold]

I am not a biologist. I am a software developer interested in genetic algorithms therefore i am probably talking to biologists who also have a knowledge of genetic algorithms. I need to "breed" ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Elevated position effect on recovery times from upper respiratory infections at rest?

In nursing school, they advice for people with upper respiratory infections to be in a slightly elevated position at the head region when sleeping. My intuition of the reason is that the lymphatic ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Which pathways Montelukast can alter in blood pH and water homeostasis?

I am thinking which pathways Montelukast can alter in blood pH homeostasis, since there is an indication that Montelukast can increase the perfusion of intra-abdominal organs. It alters those ...
2
votes
1answer
268 views

What can cause the bloating in high protein diet of Whey proteins?

I am thinking what can cause the swelling of gastrointestinal system i.e. bloating after high protein diet of Whey proteins. Liver does breaks those proteins to branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Parallel Autonomic regulation of Cough and Runny Nose

I describe here the serous inflammation of runny nose. Cough is mediated by Cough center. I think Runny nose is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system and probably by some reflex. Assume ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Hypersensitivity Simultaneously in Ear canals

I got experimental data where hypersensitivity (i.e. tonic pain when touching ear canal) was recognised for about 100 minutes. I do not know which type of hypersensitivity is this one. IgM can ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjecture is that the mechanism is the ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Can Omega 3 Fatty Acids prevent chest pain in periodic Atrial Fibrillation?

It is debated if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3PUFa) may be effective in preventing AF (atrial fibrillation), meta-analysis here. However, much less has been considered this: Do N3-PUFAs ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

What is the nature of action potentials in autonomic nervous system?

My conjecture is that the natures of sympathetic and parasympathetic action potentials are different. My findings propose me that sympathetic action potential is little longer lasting than ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

What is the quality rate of intrinsic autoregulation in the heart?

Autoregulation is the maintenance of constant blood flow to an organ in spite of fluctuations in Blood pressure. It involves the relaxation of myocardium and contraction. It is local. I know that ...
0
votes
2answers
47 views

Are Purkinje Action Potentials Neuronal and Cardiac?

I first thought that action potentials of His-bundle i.e. Purkinje fibers are Cardiac. However, I started to think that this is not enough. I think now that they are neuronal and cardiac. My ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

How is Calcium regulated in myocardic AP and plateau phase?

The plateau phase is maintained by influx of calcium and outflux of potassium in the second stage: My conjecture is that calcium transforms between two phases ionated phase (free calcium from i/c ...
12
votes
1answer
343 views

The Origin of Mitochondria

For a long time I've just accepted, because it is just what everyone told me, that mitochondria became organelles in the cell when they were "engulfed" by another cell which acted like it's host. This ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Role of Calcium and Magnesium in capacitation/acrosome reaction

During the acrosome reaction, the activation enzyme present in the sperm dissolves the corona radiata and zona pellucida enabling the sperm to reach the plasma membrane of the egg. Also calcium and ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Hypothalamic breakdown and effect of temperature on membrane lipids

I'm in my last year of high school and doing a research assignment on thermoregulation. In the excellence level exemplar for the standard, a student made the statement: Once the body's internal ...
1
vote
3answers
39 views

What are some places where biofilms could develop? [on hold]

I'm trying to think of places where a biofilm could develop other than on medical equipment or food processing equipment such as stainless steel mechanized blades or knives. I'm thinking more along ...
25
votes
2answers
2k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
2
votes
1answer
34 views

How are lesions in the RNA corrected?

I quite understand why thymine is present in DNA. So we can mark it out where cytosine undergoes a reaction and is converted to uracil. Then we can repair the DNA. But how can we make that out in RNA ...
4
votes
3answers
246 views

In what sense is the “histone code” a code?

Since I started learning about molecular cell biology, I have witnessed an increasing amount of attention to this thing called a "histone code." However, unlike the central dogma of molecular cell ...
2
votes
1answer
14 views

Need help in codon optimization

I want to chemically synthesize a GFP gene for expressing in rice.I am using the IDT Codon Optimization program and found that not all the codons are 100% optimized.Some of them are the 2nd or 3rd in ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Any known studies indicating dangers from household chemicals IN PRESENCE OF certain types of radiation? [on hold]

This question is about the effects that household chemicals such as pesticides may have on the humans or animals in the presence of specific energy fields. The energy fields in question would include ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

How do catalase and other antioxidants neutralize free radicals?

In learning about how cofactors are essential to proper enzyme function, my textbook mentioned catalase and its relation to the human body. According to my textbook, catalase is similar to hemoglobin ...
4
votes
1answer
35 views

How does the body “know” how to metabolize foreign substances

As a freshman biochemistry major, I find myself befuddled by our body's ability to perform complex chemical reactions to break down foreign substances. I can see how we would evolve explicit pathways ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

I brought a hibernating yellow jacket queen into my house accidentally. What will happen?

There was apparently a hibernating yellow jacket queen in my stack of firewood outside. An hour or so after bringing in the firewood, we saw the queen fly off into the house, where we can't find her. ...
2
votes
0answers
12 views

What's the smallest size a human eye can see?

During a biology experiment at school, where we would look at waterweeds under a microscope, my teacher said something about that it's impossible for the human eye to see the cells without a ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

How and where do nerves share pathways to the brain?

I am interested in understanding how pain receptors send signals to the somatosensory cortex (the part of the brain that registers various nerve signals such as pain, presure, temperatures, etc). ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

What specific sensory nerves act as receptors for “pins and needles” (neuropathy)?

According to this excellent answer, the difference between "pain" and "pins and needles" (neuropathy) is that different receptors (sensory nerves) trigger in reaction to different stimuli. Different ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Anatomy of nervous system's sensory pathways

When I touch my hand on a hot stove, I feel pain. I'm interested in knowing all the main "endpoints" (components/parts of the body) that are involved in relaying this pain signal. As I understand it ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views
+50

Specific location where nerves converge

I'm looking for the "earliest" specific site where the 3 following nerves' sensory signals "converge": Trigeminal nerve Median nerve Superficial peroneal nerve By "earliest", I really mean the ...
4
votes
2answers
22 views

Cytochalasin B in cell movement

In an experiment by Pollard, T.D. and R.R. Weihing, amoeba cells injected with Cytochalasin B were inhibited of movement, while the control group amoeba cells did move. A hypothesis was made that ...
4
votes
1answer
23 views

When did our ancestors switch to a menstrual cycle instead of the estrous cycle?

The Wikipedia page on the Estrous cycle says: Humans have menstrual cycles instead of estrous cycles. They shed their endometrium instead of reabsorbing it. Unlike animals with estrous cycles, ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

How much mechanical stress can a skeletal muscle bear?

In the movie- Saw, for the last trap Bobby was told to insert metallic hooks into his pectoralis major muscle. In his fake story Bobby has raised himself successfully, but when he was "really" ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Why do we have two of some organs, but not all?

We have two eyes, but we don't have two hearts. Why do humans have two of some organs, but not all?
3
votes
0answers
57 views

Patch-Clamping Neurons Resources [on hold]

Are there any lectures available on Patch-Clamping? Were can I find a mathematical model of Patch-Clamp? (that can be easily implemented in matlab). I have found some step-by-step protocols on ...
5
votes
0answers
62 views

How many eukaryotes are there on Earth?

I have been reading: William B. Whitman, David C. Coleman, and William J. Wiebe, "Prokaryotes: The unseen majority", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, pp. 6578–6583, June 1998. [Full Text] [PDF] ...
4
votes
0answers
61 views

Circular mRNA to produce long proteins

Ribosomes can read mRNA and produce proteins, if we somehow make a circular mRNA for the ribosome to bind onto, it will make infinitely long "proteins", (since ribosomes can make very big proteins, I ...
4
votes
0answers
57 views

Where can I get numerical data for the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) curve?

I'm trying to do some rough figuring to calculating efficiencies of various light sources for growing plants. I'm hampered, however, by the lack of a curve to multiply by the spectrum of light ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Hair loss in a submarine? [on hold]

Biologically, how critical is hair loss on a submarine? What is the prolonged exposure of a navy officer going to do to that person, say over a year or even more?
0
votes
0answers
57 views

How important is the womb's environment?

- Background - Talking about one phenotypic trait, the total phenotypic variance $V_p$ is decomposed into genetic and environmental variance for this trait, represented by the symbols $V_G$ and $V_E$ ...
2
votes
0answers
11 views

Color perception vs shade perception demo

I can't seem to find one of the best demos I've seen of color vs brightness perception. It consisted of a rotating animation of earth made of red of bright red points on a dark green background. As ...

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