4
votes
1answer
7 views

Parameters for Fitzhugh-Nagumo model of Action Potential

I'm a high school student who's currently in AP Biology, so my background in biology is quite limited. I'm interested in mathematically modelling action potentials. Doing a quick google search, I ...
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

Woodpecker pecking, an effective evolution?

I was sitting out on my balcony earlier and saw a woodpecker land on a tree nearby. It began pecking at the tree, and did so about five times, in intervals of about four pecks each time, before ...
8
votes
0answers
65 views
+50

Biostatistics: Pollen dispersal directionality

What Information am I looking for? Think about a tree that is sending pollen all over the place. Because of wind, most pollen grain will go toward one direction. Imagine, we split the 2D area around ...
0
votes
2answers
10 views

Ribosomal DNA references sequences

I'm having a bit of trouble with searching for this piece of information. I'm doing a study related to phylogenetic susceptibility of hosts to pathogens (based on a recent Nature publication), ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

How many mitotic divisions does a typical spermatozoid/ovule undergo through before fertilization?

Background This question is about human physiology and gametogenesis. A spermatozoid is not necessarily the direct "offspring" of diploid cell. Stated differently, a spermatozoid cell can be the ...
6
votes
2answers
4k views

What determines if a gene is dominant or recessive?

Going back to my high school days we were taught about dominant and recessive genes. We were taught how to calculate the geneotype and pheneotype of potential offspring using a small table (forgotten ...
-2
votes
1answer
32 views

Our muscles give us the ability to move our arms but…? [on hold]

I have a strange question, but let me tell you something first. If you think of this carefully, then you realize something, please try this right now: Contract your muscles only so that your arms ...
-4
votes
1answer
23 views

Why do females intimidate with size? [on hold]

I was observing my cousin and she was watching over/"babysitting" two teenage girls, but one of them is much taller (she is like 5'10" and my cousin is like 5'3") and when my cousin tries to instill ...
0
votes
1answer
10 views

Difference between pulse and blood pressure

I'm a very naive and biologically illiterate person, and from what I've read on the internet I'm not really sure I understand the difference between pulse and ...
13
votes
4answers
3k views

Why do parasites sometimes kill their hosts?

It's bothered me for a while now. I understand why a parasitoid would do this, as it only temporarily requires the host, and that not all parasites kill their hosts. There seems to be no evolutionary ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

How can I create R8 (homopolymer repeat) filter without using illumina pipeline?

illumina instruments have built-in -or online- analysis software for variant analysis (CASAVA). This software can filter out the false positive variants near the homopolymer repeats (AAAAAAAA) and ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Primer Design With Primer-BLAST

I am trying to design primers for sanger sequencing snp detection. In the past I have used Primer-BLAST, but I'm trying to pick up KRAS codon 12 mutations. The problem is that in Primer-BLAST you ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Similarity between a heart attack and a spasm

When someone is having a heart attack, could it be considered , in some situations, a spasm? Below, I have written how I believe the process may work. The heart is basically a muscle working ...
5
votes
3answers
118 views

I have a black tiny bug crawling all over the house

This bug is crawling all around the house it stays within the shadows and moves very very slow, i have never seen it jump or run, it just moves very slowly P.S. those bugs as u can see are smaller ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

What is the probability of fixation for a mutant under fluctuating selection?

Here is an answer which explain how one can model the frequency of an allele that is under fluctuating selection (selection that varies through time). Not, thinking about fluctuating selection, there ...
3
votes
1answer
16 views

How far in can non-extremophiles live, in Earth?

I am a high school student. I'm doing a project where I need to find a planet in our galaxy that might be habitable. Then I need to create an organism that could live on that planet and justify ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

Human bone density and Brown Bear bone density?

It is stated on this website that the density of a Grizzly bear bone is ten times our own. And since I am not into biology at all, I am confused as I don't understand the meaning of bone density here. ...
7
votes
1answer
72 views

What are parental antagonism & parental conflict?

I've been reading the chapter by Haig et al in The Genetics and Biology of Sexual Conflict. I think this chapter has them quite unclearly defined. Could anyone describe these two phenomenon more ...
1
vote
2answers
18 views

How is the “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in this paper?

Could anyone please explain to be in very basic terms how Fig 2, and the associated text(located above the figure) is done? The jargon is too much for me to understand and I really need a simplified, ...
1
vote
3answers
131 views

If a gene is located on the X sex chromosome does that mean males are either Homozygous dominant or Homozygous recessive and are never Heterozygous?

As said in the title I am a little confused on the Idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was hemophilia a recessive trait and since it is located on the X ...
11
votes
1answer
40 views

Why does mint oil feel cold on the skin?

When putting (japanese) mintoil on the skin it produces a cool feeling. You can experience this, when adding it to your bath or using a spray with mint oil on your skin. The cool feeling occures ...
7
votes
4answers
551 views

How can we differentiate between respiration and breathing?

I am a student of 10th grade, and I eagerly want to learn biology. What is the difference between respiration and breathing?
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Ecology Question (carbon cycle) [on hold]

State the names of the processes that convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds in pond weeds and algae. ( I think it is photosynthesis, not sure) convert organic compounds in pond weeds, algae ...
0
votes
2answers
69 views

What is the effect of persistent hypothermia on cardiac performance?

I define persistent hypothermia in this thread about the mechanisms of persistent hypothermia. The Graph of Katzung et al. in Pharmacology about Heart Failure: I am thinking which parts here are ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular?

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular? What are the cases in which it can be both uni and multi cellular?
-4
votes
0answers
25 views

Ecology Question [on hold]

I don't get the diameter part of the question. I don't know how to find the diameter. Would be helpful if u can provide all the answers to me?
-4
votes
1answer
28 views

Why do fingers swell during cold winters? [duplicate]

When exercising, tissue in the hands may swell. This may be caused by the muscles generating heat, which leads to blood being pushed to the vessels closest to the surface of your body to dissipate the ...
-2
votes
1answer
27 views

Sex Linked Recessive and Autosomal Recessive Problem [on hold]

Can someone further explain how my teacher got the answers for part B and C? Thank you.
5
votes
1answer
32 views

Is cyanocobalamin toxic?

I see that cyanocobalamin is not naturally occurring, and is synthesized in vivo to methylcobalamin. As part of the synthetic pathway, cyanide is broken off. All opinions I can find are that this ...
9
votes
2answers
89 views

Why can good music raise goosebumps?

Listening to really good music right now, I was wondering why it raises goosebumps. Is there any physiological reason for this reaction to specific wavelengths or something? EDIT: Due sometimes ...
7
votes
1answer
102 views

Basic question about multiplex PCR

Let's say I have a DNA sequence with the following structure: $$ 5' - N_n - S_1 - N_{1000} - S_2 - N_{1000} - S_3 - N_n - 3' $$ Here, the $N$s represent stretches of arbitrary sequence of the ...
2
votes
2answers
56 views

How accurate does the alignment of molecules in DNA have to be?

We have learned that the same information is saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA splits and then connects again (during reproduction); how does it maintain the integrity of the ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How do I construct a restriction map of pBR 322 digested using Pst1, EcoR1 and Hind 3. [on hold]

Gel electrophoresis resulted in the following band size: double digest with Pst1 and Ecor 1 750bp & 3613bp, PST 1 and Hind 3 3584bp and 779bp, Ecor1 and hind 3 29bp and 4334bp. Single digests ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

Can intron become exon in alternative splicing?

From this image We can saw several exon that is actually intron in other gene. It's not a really different gene, it's an alternative splicing of a gene. My background is not biology so is it ...
4
votes
3answers
167 views

HIV and T helper cells

As far as I know and could understand from reading about HIV, T helper cell is one of the main reasons to develop AIDS in patients infected with HIV virus, that because the absence of helper T cell ...
24
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do ants live so long?

I was surprised to learn that worker ants in some species live many years. I would have expected a lifespan of a few weeks or months (which is apparently the case for many species). What factors ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Evolutionary distance between Canidae, Felidae, and Rodentia

Comparing the families Canidae and Felidae, which have the shorter evolutionary distance to the order Rodentia? Less sophisticatedly put, are cats or dogs more related to rodents?
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Stop codons and exons?

If we had a hypotheical gene called gene exampleGene and this gene had 5 exons, labeled A, B, C, D, and E in that order on the chromosome, could it be the case that the stop codon for this gene be on ...
8
votes
3answers
75 views

What triggers the migration of robins?

I live in central Massachusetts, and have begun seeing robins, as we generally do in early March. The temperature is well below normal, though, and three feet of snow are covering the still-frozen ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

What does it mean: carrying the stably integrated gene

Reading this study http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v23/n10/full/cr2013122a.html They writing Multiple exogenous and endogenous genes can be simultaneously activated by CRISPR-on We tested ...
10
votes
5answers
265 views
+50

Introductory biology text for an outsider

I'm a maths major and I have an interest in learning biology. I know very, very little; I know how babies are made and that's about it. Could anyone recommend a stimulating text to read for it's own ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Resources of all known biochemical pathways?

I am looking for a encyclopedia or biochemical pathway atlas of all known or reported pathways. I am very much interested in network and systems biology. Also the references can be open databases, ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

What causes the line patterns in the palm of the hand?

The line patterns on the hand are unique to each individual, but what causes these lines and re they advantageous in anyway?
7
votes
1answer
230 views

Can scientists name themselves in the scientific name when they discover a new taxon?

There are sometimes people names in taxonomy, like Myotis keenii was names after Mr. Keen who contributed to discover the species. So, if you discover a species and someone else is constructing the ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Energy transformations in chemiosmosis and ATP synthase

In terms of energy, how does chemiosmosis drive ATP synthase? How does electrical energy turn into mechanical energy and then into chemical energy? Would the movement of $H^+$ be considered passive ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Which protein complex is composed of the greatest number of different kinds of proteins, and how many types are involved?

Why are some protein complexes composed of many different types of proteins? How many different types are they composed of? In particular, which protein complex has the greater number of different ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Has a new functional structure ever been observed arising spontaneously?

Have we ever observed a new functional biological structure arising spontaneously such as a new functional organ (sensory or otherwise. such as tracing some creature in the past few hundred years ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

Does suffocation pain involve nociceptors?

I never suffocated myself so not entirely sure, but when you suffocate, it's painful, right? But of course different kind of pain than being injured or sick. What I'm wondering is, if the "painful" ...

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