1
vote
1answer
4 views

How is the “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in this paper?

Could anyone please explain to be in very basic terms how Fig 2, and the associated text(located above the figure) is done? The jargon is too much for me to understand and I really need a simplified, ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

How accurate does the alignment of molecules in DNA have to be?

We have learned that the same information is saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA splits and then connects again (during reproduction); how does it maintain the integrity of the ...
1
vote
0answers
6 views

is cyanocobalamin carcinogenic?

I see that cyanocobalamin is not naturally occurring, and is synthesized in vivo to methylcobalamin. As part of the synthetic pathway, cyanide is broken off. All opinions I can find are that this ...
3
votes
1answer
17 views

Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
0
votes
0answers
7 views

How do I construct a restriction map of pBR 322 digested using Pst1, EcoR1 and Hind 3.

Gel electrophoresis resulted in the following band size: double digest with Pst1 and Ecor 1 750bp & 3613bp, PST 1 and Hind 3 3584bp and 779bp, Ecor1 and hind 3 29bp and 4334bp. Single digests ...
6
votes
3answers
179 views

How can we differentiate between respiration and breathing?

I am a student of 10th grade, and I eagerly want to learn biology. What is the difference between respiration and breathing?
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Can intron become exon in alternative splicing?

From this image We can saw several exon that is actually intron in other gene. It's not a really different gene, it's an alternative splicing of a gene. My background is not biology so is it ...
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

Effects of Injecting Empty Syringe into Human Body

What will happen if we inject an empty (air-filled) syringe into our body and why?
2
votes
1answer
13 views

Human bone density and Brown Bear bone density?

It is stated on this website that the density of a Grizzly bear bone is ten times our own. And since I am not into biology at all, I am confused as I don't understand the meaning of bone density here. ...
3
votes
3answers
161 views

HIV and T helper cells

As far as I know and could understand from reading about HIV, T helper cell is one of the main reasons to develop AIDS in patients infected with HIV virus, that because the absence of helper T cell ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Sex Linked Recessive and Autosomal Recessive Problem

Can someone further explain how my teacher got the answers for part B and C? Thank you.
24
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do ants live so long?

I was surprised to learn that worker ants in some species live many years. I would have expected a lifespan of a few weeks or months (which is apparently the case for many species). What factors ...
2
votes
0answers
16 views

Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
7
votes
0answers
41 views

Biostatistics: Pollen dispersal directionality

What Information am I looking for? Think about a tree that is sending pollen all over the place. Because of wind, most pollen grain will go toward one direction. Imagine, we split the 2D area around ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Evolutionary distance between Canidae, Felidae, and Rodentia

Comparing the families Canidae and Felidae, which have the shorter evolutionary distance to the order Rodentia? Less sophisticatedly put, are cats or dogs more related to rodents?
1
vote
2answers
29 views

Stop codons and exons?

If we had a hypotheical gene called gene exampleGene and this gene had 5 exons, labeled A, B, C, D, and E in that order on the chromosome, could it be the case that the stop codon for this gene be on ...
9
votes
1answer
29 views

Why does mint oil feel cold on the skin?

When putting (japanese) mintoil on the skin it produces a cool feeling. You can experience this, when adding it to your bath or using a spray with mint oil on your skin. The cool feeling occures ...
8
votes
3answers
73 views

What triggers the migration of robins?

I live in central Massachusetts, and have begun seeing robins, as we generally do in early March. The temperature is well below normal, though, and three feet of snow are covering the still-frozen ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

What does it mean: carrying the stably integrated gene

Reading this study http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v23/n10/full/cr2013122a.html They writing Multiple exogenous and endogenous genes can be simultaneously activated by CRISPR-on We tested ...
9
votes
5answers
252 views
+50

Introductory biology text for an outsider

I'm a maths major and I have an interest in learning biology. I know very, very little; I know how babies are made and that's about it. Could anyone recommend a stimulating text to read for it's own ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

Resources of all known biochemical pathways?

I am looking for a encyclopedia or biochemical pathway atlas of all known or reported pathways. I am very much interested in network and systems biology. Also the references can be open databases, ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

What causes the line patterns in the palm of the hand?

The line patterns on the hand are unique to each individual, but what causes these lines and re they advantageous in anyway?
5
votes
1answer
219 views

Can scientists name themselves in the scientific name when they discover a new taxon?

There are sometimes people names in taxonomy, like Myotis keenii was names after Mr. Keen who contributed to discover the species. So, if you discover a species and someone else is constructing the ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Energy transformations in chemiosmosis and ATP synthase

In terms of energy, how does chemiosmosis drive ATP synthase? How does electrical energy turn into mechanical energy and then into chemical energy? Would the movement of $H^+$ be considered passive ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Which protein complex is composed of the greatest number of different kinds of proteins, and how many types are involved?

Why are some protein complexes composed of many different types of proteins? How many different types are they composed of? In particular, which protein complex has the greater number of different ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Has a new functional structure ever been observed arising spontaneously?

Have we ever observed a new functional biological structure arising spontaneously such as a new functional organ (sensory or otherwise. such as tracing some creature in the past few hundred years ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Does suffocation pain involve nociceptors?

I never suffocated myself so not entirely sure, but when you suffocate, it's painful, right? But of course different kind of pain than being injured or sick. What I'm wondering is, if the "painful" ...
2
votes
1answer
13 views

Is it possible to express the cistrons from a polycistronic insertion fragment in a single plasmid?

I have a insertion fragment that I wish to express from pUC19 in Escherichia coli. The insertion fragment is a sub-section from a larger operon sequence and contains just the last two cistrons from ...
7
votes
2answers
517 views

Father with mutated mtDNA- why isn't his offspring at risk?

Mothers transmit their mitochondria (and therefore mtDNA) to their offspring and fathers don't. Lets assume that father had a mutation of the gene that encodes mtDNA, would then be his offspring at ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Reliability of Sanger sequencing

Hailed as the "gold standard" of sequencing, I was wondering to what Sanger sequencing owes its incredible accuracy to. If possible, I would like a quantification of the accuracy (because I doubt it ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What are some commonalities between biology systems and semiconductor physics?

It seems that fundamentally both neural system and semiconductors are operating using similar principles on the same scale. Things such as drift and diffusion current plays major role in both systems. ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Proving time travel

Consider this answer to an interesting question. It's not possible to prove completely that someone is the descendant of someone else, there's always a nonzero probability that the results are a ...
-5
votes
0answers
15 views

Sister replacement with female mates? [on hold]

I have a bad relationship with my sister and I often grow obsessed toward selective females from time-to-time. Often I notice that these obsessions have no sexual desires; I do not feel a need to have ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in anything we currently know about ...
5
votes
1answer
222 views

What is this insect? Found in Peru

I took the pictures today in Cusco Peru. It is the third insect of its class in a month. I never see it before. I thought that it is a wasp, but I think it's really thin to be a wasp. It's about 4 or ...
4
votes
0answers
17 views

How did the introduction of artificial light changed the life cycle of a plant?

Plants in urbanized areas are constantly exposed to artificial light after sunset. In their natural habitat there is a more distinct day and night cycle. Since light is an important factor in a plant ...
6
votes
2answers
81 views

Latency differences between our senses

I would be interested in knowing how long it takes between the moment something touches our skin and the moment something is activated in the brain. Also how long does it take in total until we ...
4
votes
2answers
99 views

I have a black tiny bug crawling all over the house

This bug is crawling all around the house it stays within the shadows and moves very very slow, i have never seen it jump or run, it just moves very slowly P.S. those bugs as u can see are smaller ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

Is it in principle possible to revive an extinct species having no living relatives?

Is it, in principle, possible to revive an extinct species having no living close relatives but whose DNA and other tissues have been preserved? What about the case where there are no living ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the relationship between sexual and and natural selection?

In http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12701.html, they say: Thus, it seems that the diverse coloration in this species is promoted by both natural and sexual selection. ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Why is it important to study chromatin to understand cancer?

Many labs and many projects in biology institutes and university departments have been starting to study chromatin. Chromatin states, chromatin interactions, chromatin loopings, chromatin behaviours, ...
7
votes
5answers
323 views

Book/source for learning bioinformatics, focused on genomics?

Does anyone know of sources for learning bioinformatics, focused on genomics? I would like to learn alot of skills I could apply potently in the workforce if I ever became adept at the fields. My ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is genodiversity good for?

I saw some documents which were trying to say that they can prove via sweat smell selected by women that humans are developed to find a partner with similar genes. At the first glance, I refused it as ...
-3
votes
1answer
37 views

What is a new biotechnology issue? [on hold]

I'm looking for any new biotechnology issue related to Biochemistry, Metabolic processes, molecular Genetics, or other relevant fields. If anyone knows of an issue that has solid resources around I'd ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

How long do the periods of systole and diastole last?

The background to this is i'm doing some work using ECGs for an animation of the heart and i'm having trouble defining the end points of these periods, particularly diastole. Currently, the only ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

What is the connection between exercise and muscle growth

From a physiological perspective, all that is done during exercise is the expending of energy in the form of ATP to fuel muscle contraction and extension. When I looked up why muscle grow due to ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Are more molecules of ADP than inorganic phosphate returned to the light reaction in photosynthesis?

During the dark reaction, 9 molecules of ATP are consumed for every 3 carbon dioxide molecules, yet only 6 molecules of inorganic phosphate ultimately leave the cycle. Does that mean that there is a ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Involuntary twitches and apnoea during early phases of sleep

I assume most people either experienced or have seen people with the following phenomenon: in the early phases of sleep sometimes involuntary twitches occur that usually accompany the pause of ...
6
votes
1answer
92 views

How well do we notice asynchronicity?

I'm stopped at a stoplight and, with nothing to do, my thoughts wander to the timed don't-walk sign that governs any pedestrians who might wish to cross the street I'm driving along. I can see two ...
-2
votes
0answers
14 views

Spring turnover in lake [on hold]

During spring, the water at the top is at 0 degrees, and that the bottom is at 4 degrees (with a small middle part in between with intermediate temperatures). In spring as water warms at the top, its ...

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