0
votes
0answers
13 views

How are 6 “fixed” CO2 molecules joined toegther as glucose?

When we study calvin cycle, we study it with 6 molecules so as to form 1 glucose in a single cycle as: 6 RuBP + 6 CO2 => 12 3-PGAL => 1 Glucose + 6 RuMP But if we look deep, then we know that the ...
1
vote
1answer
6 views

Is asteraceae and compositae the same family?

The problem is sunflower. Although it's mentioned it belongs to family asteraceae it is also a composite flower. So it belongs to asteraceae or compositae or both? And do they refer to the same family ...
0
votes
3answers
50 views

What's the mechanism or structure responsible for new species genetic code generation?

I always had this question in mind. I think, If humans find answer to it then we can trigger the next evolution of human specie. What is the mechanism or structure responsible for evolution ? I don't ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Why it seems that principles of chemistry are not being applied in this biochemical process?

According to an answer in this question, my concept used below does not apply: In the non-cyclic photophosphorylation, consider splitting of two water molecules, then 4 e- (electrons) and 4 H+ ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

What is the probability of genetic reincarnation?

Parents pass on 23 chromosomes to their children, with a 50/50 chance for each chromosome. Considering that people of a families lived over millennia in the same region the abundance of some ...
1
vote
0answers
4 views

Function of NEZHA gene

What is the function of NEZHA? What effect does it have on microtubules and PLEKHA7? What happens after it has been knocked down?
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Is the male satin bowerbird's bower-building behavior innate?

The male satin bowerbird builds a stick structure, known as a bower (distinct from a nest), where courtship and mating take place. They curiously decorate their bowers using blue or shiny objects. ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Why does HPV Infect Squamous Epithelial Cells and Not Others?

I've seen this question about HPV and the reference therein. The link states "Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that presents tropism for epithelial cells, causing infections of the skin and ...
6
votes
1answer
84 views

Statistical method for characterizing the relationship between body mass and metabolic rate

There is a dataset that contains body mass ($x$) and metabolic rate ($y$) from many different organisms. It is common to fit the data to the model of the form $y=ax^b$ and estimate the parameters $a$ ...
1
vote
0answers
5 views

Are receptors integral membrane proteins or peripheral membrane proteins?

In tegral membranes serve as transporters. Peripheral protiens serve as cell adhesion molecules, antigens and enzymes. So what about receptors? Which protiens carry out the duty of receptors?
20
votes
7answers
5k views

Why can't we see in low light if staring long enough?

For me it seems reasonable that if I kept my gaze on a fixed point in a room with low light, a progressively brighter and better picture would appear before my eyes, just like a camera can see in the ...
8
votes
2answers
581 views

What is the difference between a mechanistic and a statistical predictive model?

The simplest description of the difference between these two approaches that I have found are on this site who summarise the difference as: Mechanistic model: a hypothesized relationship between the ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Xylem Properties

In a biology lecture, I was told that the xylem vessels were 'narrow so that the water column does not break easily and capillary action can be effective'. My question is why is this? Is the ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Brain wave and motor movement correlation

I am trying to better understand which brain waves are generated when the motor system (arms, legs, muscles of any kind) are activated. According to Wikipedia, several types (Beta, Gamma, Mu) appear ...
2
votes
0answers
12 views

What is this blue-green bioluminescent invertebrate I saw at Aquarium of the Pacific?

I took this picture of an animal in the bioluminescent section of Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, California, but I neglected to write down what it was. I've searched the Aquarium's web site, ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Which part of the reflex arc takes the longest time?

If the reflex arc is composed of 4 parts: Activation of sensory receptors, Conduction to and from the CNS, Transmission across the neuromuscular junction & Activation of the muscular contractile ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Do residue sequence numbers in PDB files correspond to the positions in the backbone?

In other words if two residues have sequence numbers, say, 20 and 21 then are they next to each other in the backbone? If no (or not necessarily) then is there any way to find consecutive residues ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

The evolution of poor eyesight: is there weaker selection in modern humans?

Short question: Poor eyesight might have been a major impediment to survival and reproduction in early man (say, 100,000 years ago), but, with the advent of agriculture, major cultural changes, and ...
0
votes
1answer
11 views

Are cortical columns restricted to somatosensory cortical sections?

From this previous question, it seems like evidence for the minicolumn organisation of the neocortex seems to be primarily based off observations around the sensory parts of the cortex, such as the ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Best medication for chicken pox? [migrated]

Which treatment, homeopathic or allopathic cures chicken pox faster with less pain ?
5
votes
1answer
75 views

Why are fifth order Markov Models, the ones most often used for gene prediction?

As far as we know that smallest polypeptide chain length is 60 amino acids - so if we found an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of about 60 codons without the interruption of stop codon we can consider it to ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

University genetics human pedigree problem. Check my answers?

The pedigree below is of a rare hereditary disease of the nervous system: a. Is it recessive or dominant? Explain. ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Why lactate inhibits growth (or enhances death rate)?

Extracellular lactate tends to inhibit cellular growth or enhance cell death. This happens in the vicinity of tumors and in cell cultures. See for example this reference: Ozturk, Sadettin S., Mark ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

Why eyes don't get heated while converging sunlight into retina?

It is a common observation that a magnifying glass when used to converge rays of sun to a fine point in paper, the paper burns due to intense heat. Why doesn't this happen in our eyes? Our eyes are ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

Deducing synaptic strength from electron micrographs?

There are several promising techniques for connectomics based on iterative sectioning and imaging of tissue with scanning electron microscopes (e.g. FIB-SEM and ATUM) By looking at such micrographs, ...
1
vote
3answers
34 views

Woodland outdoor microscopy advice

Let me start by saying I have never used a microscope outdoors, and in general I have never owned a microscope nor used one regularly. However, I am currently developing and organising some ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Efficacy of the 10-20 montage for EEG

I am trying to better understand the relationship between the placement of EEG electrodes and the quality of the "brainwave" signals they produce. There is the standard 10-20 system which has me ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

Why plants and animals are so different even though they come from the same ancestors?

All the documentaries I have watched, books I have read so far on the starting of life on earth only talk about animals. The very first life form on earth was bacteria. Then evolution took us this ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

What’s wrong with a shriveled cell?

When you place a cell into a hypotonic solution, water rushes into it and it bursts/lyses. Thus, the cell dies. However, when you place a cell into a hypertonic solution, water rushes out of it and ...
5
votes
2answers
299 views

Why do carnivores evolve?

If humans can live without consuming other animals, then why we do it; from a biological point of view, why do we eat meat? I would also extend the question to another animals, because many animals ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

When your gut fauna is being created, does it evolve from existing external fauna or change population as external fauna arrives [on hold]

During childhood your gut fauna gets populated from the environment and the people you meet. Unlike baby koalas, we do not eat our parent's faeces to populate that fauna. The environment in your gut ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Would urination continue after death?

I apologize for the very weird question >.< but for some reason I started wondering this. I also probably phrased the title incorrectly. This seems to be on-topic according to the help center, let ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Separate replication origin and terminus vs making them one and the same

The classical picture of bacterial reproduction has a replication origin on one side of the circular chromosome and a replication termination area on the opposite end. This essentially creates two ...
4
votes
2answers
22 views

Earliest to use media after autoclaving?

I am autoclaving media to use later to inoculate yeast. How much time do I have to wait before using the media and adding the culture? Can I use it a few hours after autoclaving?
0
votes
1answer
42 views

results of FgenesH and GenScan

Why FgenesH and Genscan don't give good results as I have prdicted number of genes of Chromosome 16 which according to NCBI are 86 but the results I have obtained are 57 genes predicted by FgenesH and ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Are human beings evolved to eat meat? [duplicate]

I know humans can cook, and prepare almost anything, but are humans specifically adapted to eat meat. One of my doubts humans are not particularly well adapted to eat meat because they lack canine ...
1
vote
1answer
9 views

Ions in Stomatal Opening Mechanism

When a stoma’s guard cells try to swell and open the stomata, they actively pump out protons outside of the cell. This causes a membrane potential, where the inside of the cell is negative with ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

How is CO2 related to acidity?

In a plant cell why does increase in concentration of CO2 increase the acidity of the cell sap. Thank you
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Types of fermentation? [on hold]

I read about several rarer forms of fermentation such as ABE, and heterolactic. What is the full list of all known types of fermentation, and what are the differences between them? Edit: I only want a ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Converting miRNA names

I need to convert all of my microRNA names e.g. hsa-miR-30e-5p to e.g. entrez gene IDs, ensemble IDs or another ID. Does anyone know a good ID conversion tool for microRNAs? (I managed to convert it ...
4
votes
1answer
250 views

Genetic linkage greater than 50 centimorgans

Classically, the linkage between two loci can be measured in centimorgans (cM), which represents the percent chance that these two loci will recombine an odd number of times (generating a recombinant ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

What is the number of influenza strains occurring at a given time?

My question was initiated by reading on mock-up influenza vaccines. I understand that the manufacturer pre-prepares a certain vaccine and tries to get it tested and ready before it is actually needed, ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Follow-up to The Red Queen by Matt Ridley? [on hold]

I just finished reading The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature by Matt Ridley. Since this book is over 20 years old, I was wondering if more recent research made part of the book ...
4
votes
1answer
6k views

Is it safe to look at infrared LEDs?

What happens if one looks directly at infrared LEDs? Sometimes I see this kind of LED at night as red dots and I'm also courious about it. I was wondering what would happened if one looked directly ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Heat Transfer in Heartbeat?

Heat is energy. Signal transmission has energy. Heart pumps and transmits energy. Heart has electrical and thermal transmissions. There are several processes which affects the heartbeat. The ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

Escaping resource limitations during tumor evolution

In their discussion of the importance of r- and K-selection on tumors, Aktipis et al. (2013; figure 3) provide the following illustration of a hypothetical cancer growth curve: In it, you can see ...
5
votes
1answer
77 views

Why does snow not stick to the fur of wolves and some breeds of dogs?

This question made me wonder, why for example wolves don't suffer from these "paw snowballs"? (...) but after a few miles on the trails in soft snow, he often develops snowballs between his paw ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Identification - What kind of animal leaves these tracks?

I live in the suburbs of Washington DC where it recently snowed. I was admiring all of the tracks left behind by wildlife of all kinds when I came across these prints, that I was unable to recognize ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Are there water conservation methods that increase waste instead of reduce it? [on hold]

For example, does improperly washing clothes lead to mosquito increases or other-organism morbidity? Does using dish water on the garden attribute to clean water more or more wasted water (is it ...

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