1
vote
0answers
17 views

How does optogenetics work?

I am aware of the post here 'Optogenetics - How do microbial opsins work?' however it is a bit too technical for me. I am struggling to understand how the neurones can be genetically engineered to ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

alternative ways to detach cells other than trypsin [duplicate]

So I have an A549 (rather "sticky" cells, they usually take about 7 minutes to trypsinise) cells and I cannot use trypsin or tripLE as this will skew my ELISA results. I have tried scraping the cells ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

How to explain Genome, Genes, RNA and protein in one figure to non-biologist?

I have a presentation to do where non-biologist are attending. In order to introduce a little bit my work I have to do a quick summary on genomes. So what is a genome, a gene, an mRNA and a protein. ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

What are host cellular factors?

With respect to this paper: Global Analysis of Host-Pathogen Interactions that Regulate Early-Stage HIV-1 Replication What does the term "host cellular factors" mean??
6
votes
0answers
36 views

Why do some vaccines last longer than others?

After reading an answer to the question of How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?, I came to wonder something. Specifically, The effect of this is that every new B and T cell that your bone ...
-1
votes
0answers
12 views

How does a pollen grain travels through the pistil of a flower?

When a pollen grain settles on a stigma of the pistil of a flower, it is gradually guided through the style into the ovary where the ovule resides. I want to know of the detailed mechanism, how it ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

How much pollen is needed to pollinate a flower?

Assuming 100% of the pollen gets delivered to exactly the locations it needs to pollinate a female flower, how much pollen is needed to pollinate a flower? If it's more than one unit of pollen, what, ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

Reasons people with Down syndrome get fewer cancers?

I'm coming across some conflicting information regarding the correlation between cancer incidents and trisomy 21. I read a report from nature that discusses how Downs are only a tenth as likely to ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Are any biology research journals free to publish in?

The research journals Ive published in require significant financial cost to publish. On top of that many require a membership to the society the journal is associated with, in addition to publication ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

How to get my original research published in the National Center fof Biotechnology Information? [on hold]

Thought I'd ask here. The site is this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. I want my original research to be published there within the following terms: 1.I refuse to obtain a college degree in a related ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Producing foreign (form another bacteria type) proteins in E. coli [on hold]

Although along with the genes, aren't specific glands or something required too, to produce the thing? No matter what genes we add to humans, human body can't produce some vitamins... I guess ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Are the irises an exact match in a human's set of eyes?

Are the irises an exact match in a human's set of eyes? Assuming the eyes are healthy with 20/20 vision.
3
votes
1answer
27 views

What worms devour the body?

I was reading http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/acne/adult-10/slideshow-adult-acne which broached comedones, an esoteric word to me; so I thought to look up its etymology which I find ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Bacteria can resist topical antibiotics but not compounds?

The excerpt below origiantes from p 2 of 4, but p 4 of 4 reveals the review of the entire articleby Debra Jaliman, MD on April 17, 2014. Usually, topical antibiotics aren't recommended alone as ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Concentration of a vitamin [on hold]

A vitamin B2 solution with unknown concentration have $A_{450}=0,38$. And a standard vitmanin B2 solution with $25$ $\mu$g/ml have $A_{450}=0,72$ Now what is the unknown concentration in $\mu$g/ml? ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

How to predict the top microRNAs that bind to 3`UTR of a specific gene [duplicate]

I would like to know whether someone could tell me 1) some of the online programs that will predict the top microRNAs that bind to 3`UTR of a specific gene (for eg-GAPDH). I am relatively new to ...
6
votes
0answers
37 views

What will happen if a scorpion pierces itself?

If a scorpion pierces itself, will it die or immune to its poison? If it produces the venom its blood should be immune to itself poison.
3
votes
1answer
22 views

In which of the following diseases structure of haemoglobin produced is normal but their amount reduced?

The options provided are- Chronic blood loss Sickle cell anaemia Haemolytic anaemia Thallasaemia Transfusion reactions - *Q-15: pg-785; **Review of Medical Physiology - William F. ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

How long can Cholera bacteria survive in a dead host?

How long can cholera bacterium survive inside a dead host? Can they remain dormant in such conditions? BACKGROUND On a hill not far from where I live, there was a hospital operating since 16th until ...
8
votes
2answers
506 views

Why vaccines do not cause bacterial resistance?

Since bacteria can evolve to overcome antibiotic use, why wouldn't be able to evolve to overcome antibody or cell-mediated immunity? Thanks One possible explanation: antibiotics have only one target ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

How to safely sterilize urea-containing growth medium?

I'm using urea-containing growth medium for experiments with bacteria (1-2 l/day). After the experiment, the growth medium has to be sterilized and disposed. I did this so far by autoclaving, but our ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

What sort of assay could be used to identify mutants with mutator phenotype?

By mutator phenotype, I mean being more prone to mutations, for example due to mutations in genes involved in DNA repair. I was thinking about exposing the cells to agents that damage DNA (uv light, ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Stable transfection

I need to achieve stable transfection of a pCI-Neo plasmid into the genome of a mouse embryo. The most common way to achieve stable transfection is through positive selection, however positive ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Examples of extant animals in a submature morphologically unstable evolutionary state?

I'm fascinated by evolutionary theory and the predictive aspect of it-the notion of an animal entering a strongly divergent state of evolution whereby it is evolving into a new form yet remains ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Cellular Respiration/Fermentation Problem Leading to Lack of Energy

A young animal has never had much energy. He is brought to a veterinarian for help and is sent to the animal hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why do you feel euphoria when you're almost done with an illness? [on hold]

This may seem like a subjective question but I have experienced euphoria and a sense of joy every time I am on my last day or few days of illness. This usually lasts for the entire day but no more or ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Layman definition of genetic polymorphism?

I am reading an article about Genetic Polymorphism and there are lines in the article about genetic polymophism that I don't quite understand like. In this area,there are six different chemotypes ...
3
votes
2answers
136 views

explanation of meaning of high-throughput

Almost all of the papers about bioinformatics, I faced with the high-throughput word, but I could not find any explanation about it (I think it is so easy to understand and thats why anyone explains ...
4
votes
1answer
18 views

What's the maximum pressure inside a bombardier beetle?

This question got me wondering about the pressure inside a bombardier beetle. Lots of articles mention pressure, but don't specify the amount of it: One study records the velocity of the spray to ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

meaning of the “reads” keyword in terms of RNA-seq or next generation sequencing

I'm an undergraduate student at computer science and currently, I'm interested in bioinformatics. Today, I've started to read a paper about clustering and classification of non-coding RNAs can be ...
3
votes
1answer
16 views

Telomere and its effect on aging

The cloned sheep, Dolly, was said to have died very soon because the cells used to create it were taken from an adult sheep with an aged telomere. Why doesn't this happen with humans? Why aren't we ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

What is the maximal insert length for PCR based homologous recombination in S. cerevisae

I would like to insert a 6 kbp construct, which I have on a plasmid into the genome of S. cerevisiae. This plasmid was originally constructed to integrate at the HIS locus via homologous recombination ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

How does the value of K determine number of local optima in NK model?

BACKGROUND The NK model of fitness landscape considers N states which can interact with K other states. For example N is the total number of genes in a haploid genome and K is the number of other ...
3
votes
1answer
240 views

What is our skin made up of?

Again, it is a basic question. What is our skin made up of? is it made up of many cells arranged in a systematic way or is it just like any layer say of a book?? what is the difference? where is the ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

What network motifs or other mechanisms can make the expression of a gene invariable to the environment?

Next to double positive feedback loops and chromatin modification, which other mechanisms can make a gene susceptible to a certain environment in one cell-type but not in another?
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Sensitivity of eyes to flashing lights

My eyes are very sensitive to flashing lights - for example I'm always the first person to notice that a fluorescent tube is about to fail because I see it flickering when other people can't. When ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Optical density machine name

What is the name of the machine used to measure optical density? We used it in a lab but I can't remember what they called it.
46
votes
5answers
9k views

Does DNA have the equivalent of IF-statements, WHILE loops, or function calls? How about GOTO?

Does DNA have anything like IF-statements, GOTO-jumps, or WHILE loops? In software development, these constructs have the following functions: IF-statements: An IF statement executes the code in a ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Why do Lapidaria margaretae look like stones?

Previous Research I stumbled across a trending reddit post "Lapidaria margaretae looks like stones" (as of 3rd Februrary 2015); but I could not find discussions as to reasons behind why. Question/s ...
1
vote
3answers
33 views

If a gene is located on the X sex chromosome does that mean males are either Homozygous dominant or Homozygous recessive and are never Heterozygous?

As said in the title I am a little confused on the Idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was hemophilia a recessive trait and since it is located on the X ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

What mechanisms exist for the excision of specific sequences from DNA?

I already know about recombinases (specifically excisionases), but was wondering if there were other mechanisms present.
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Can life forms exist from simple structures not made of the four bases? [on hold]

I understand that all life forms on the planet are made from adenine, gauatine, cytosine and thymine, which chemically joined together to form RNA or DNA (correct me if I'm wrong). This goes on to ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

What are the total number of action potentials in the human brain?

Is there an approximate figure of the total number of action potentials in the human brain? It's my understanding that there are ~ 60 billion neurons in the brain with ~ 100 trillion connections ...
14
votes
1answer
791 views

How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?

So I get the concept that a vaccine is a weakened form of a virus so that the body can "learn" to fight it and make a person immune to that disease, but how exactly does this learning take place? What ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Do our ears or brains gradually adapt to noise pollution?

Having lived in various places all over the world for the past 9 years of my life, one thing stood out to me throughout this time, and now in particular. From a quiet place on the countryside in ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Does malaria have a reservoir host?

Can warm blooded vertebrates other than humans act as reservoir hosts for malaria parasites? I'm mainly interested in plasmodium vivax and possible reservoir hosts in the wider area of Europe/ ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Find the probability of Filium (child) that are dark (and) heterozygote

Two mice are crossed and both are dark and heterozygote. Find the probability of their filium(children) dark (and) heterozygote in F1. Here's what our teacher explained: I don't understand. I ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Boiling and melting points of Trans- and Cis- isomers of but-2-ene [on hold]

The boiling boing point of Trans-But-2-ene is lesser than that of Cis-But-2-ene but again the melting point of trans-but-2-ene is higher than that of cis-but-2-ene. Why ?

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