0
votes
0answers
2 views

Relationship between small and large fast-twitch motor units

When large fast-twitch motor units are temporarily fatigued, non-fatigue small motor units in the same muscle are impaired for small delicate tasks. Why? Fatigue is mainly caused when the motor unit ...
0
votes
0answers
2 views

Can paralogous genes be under negative selection?

I have just aligned 9 paralogous genes from human, uploaded them into MEGA and calculated negative selection. Can there be negative selection acting in between paralogous genes? Or how should I ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

How Sex Evolved ? and when?

As I know evolution comes bit by bit mutation by mutation How sex evolved which requires a major change in at least two individuals one to become male and one to become female ? When that happened ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

What is the distribution of agent on plasma proteins in ECF?

I am studying Montelukast here: Montelukast is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The steady state volume of distribution of montelukast averages 8 to 11 liters. Studies in rats with ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Measurement of glucose concentration in the human brain

If I want to measure the exact glucose concentration in a human brain then how can I proceed to do that? Is there any technique or assay to do that?
1
vote
0answers
6 views

Source of information on the evolution of aging/senescence

Do you know a good review (published peer-reviewed or an online course or whatever) that offers a good overview of all hypothesis explaining the various patterns linked with aging? I'd like this ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

How to interpret the breeders equation?

The univariate breeders equation is defined as, $\ R = h^2 s$ where $\ R $ is the response, $\ h^2 $ is the heritability (additive genetic variation), $\ s $ is the selection differential. The ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

How to increase the rate of absorption and assimilation of food? [on hold]

i was reading this and want to know excerpt from the above link...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

fibrinogens and fibrins - are they the same molecule?

Some proteins are "activated", like fibrinogens; they are turned into fibrins by thrombins, and then the fibrins can aid in blood clotting. Are fibrinogens and fibrins the same molecule, just in ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Why is post-vaccination fever for 4CMenB so high?

When considering the introduction of 4CMenB vaccine, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation said: The sub-committee noted that the clinical trials data suggest that when 4CMenB ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

identification of species of snake

Can anyone identify this colorful snake found at Pulau Ubin in Singapore? Thanks in advance!
1
vote
0answers
39 views

How to maximize lung oxygen intake?

What method of breathing provides a sudden surge of oxygen into the lungs filling it as full as possible in volume and density. Deep breaths? Shallow breaths? Breaths taken while bent over? Deep ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

identification of this flower

I saw this flower in Pulau Ubin in Singapore. Can anyone identify the species of this flower? Thanks in advance!
0
votes
0answers
18 views

occurence of interesting phenomenon

I was strolling along the mangrove area along Berlayer Creek in Singapore, when I saw this interesting phenomenon. The left side of picture shows some bricks which seem to connect the ground to the ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

identification of species of this bird

Hi I saw this bird near my school canteen in Singapore in Spring. Can anyone identify the species of this bird? Thanks in advance!
1
vote
0answers
16 views

identification of species of tree

I just want to confirm the species of the tree in the middle of the picture. Is it the "Flame of the Forest"? This is taken in my school campus. Thanks in advance!
1
vote
2answers
29 views

Could humans theoretically see infrared better than regular light?

I have noticed that in infrared film, people's eyes reflect that light within their eyes much like nocturnal animals (and many other animals for that matter) do with regular light. I know that this is ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Do cell walls prevent cancer?

To my knowledge plants do not have an uncontrolled growth disease similar to cancer. Is the function by which they avoid uncontrolled growth related to their cell wall and preventing damage to ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What is the nature of action potentials in autonomic nervous system?

My conjuncture is that the natures of sympathetic and parasympathetic action potentials are different. My findings propose me that sympathetic action potential is little longer lasting than ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

How to determine whether the energy of a stem-loop fold is significant or not?

If I have a predicted RNA stem-loop of energy -0.30 kcal/mol, and another of -4.9 kcal/mol, how do I tell whether such a structure is a significantly stable structure or not? Our two competing ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Specifics of decussation

Beginner question here: The definition of decussation I see is the crossing through the midline of a bunch of neurons. But I was wondering if there was a little more to it than this, because I'm ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Which types of hydrogen bonds are known to exist in RNA secondary structures?

I'm programming an implementation of an algorithm for pattern matching in RNA structures. The algorithm assumes the following types of base pairs: Plain: No base pairs (just the primary structure of ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What nutrients do I lose in the water when I boil vegetables?

What nutrients do I lose in the water when I boil vegetables. Has to be some water-soluble and heat labile ones right? Which ones?
2
votes
1answer
36 views

How is the transcription direction of RNA polymerase determined?

When transcription factors attach to the DNA strand - How do they know in which direction they have to initialize the transcription by rna polymerase? Is it always read in the same direction anyway? ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Degenerate primer design for DIG in situ hybridization

New to molecular and have learned to design primers from google/youtube so any info would help Would someone be willing to share their protocol for degenerate primer design? Breakdown: Trying to ...
2
votes
2answers
29 views

Why basement membrane thickens in diabetes mellitus?

Untreated diabetes mellitus may lead to blindness and kidney failure because the basement membrane of small blood vessels in these organs thickens due to increased production of collagen and laminin. ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

What is the outcome of DMX ativan voice study? [on hold]

I'm looking for the results of Dextromethorphan to Treat Patients With Voice Spasms but I can't find it could someone help me? It was going to use DMX and ativan to treat hoarseness.
-1
votes
1answer
26 views

Can human survive falling from 30 000ft without chute

What are the chances of survive if one landed in the water?
0
votes
2answers
39 views

How does cold water help to overcome high fever?

Why cold water helps to overcome from high fever in body? As fever is inside the body and we're applying cold water over the body!
2
votes
1answer
28 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
2
votes
1answer
21 views

Why do oranges in the US have a small separate part?

Why do oranges in the US have a small separate detachable part at the tip which is separate from the other pods? It looks like a tiny orange itself and has a long fiber attached to it.
1
vote
2answers
37 views

Why is it that drinking caffeinated tea does not help one to stay awake?

I have never felt after drinking tea that I can have the power of being able to work late at night. Neither have I felt that it helps me to be awake while working or keeping eyes opened while I am not ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

Why does rabies cause hydrophobia?

What feature of rabies pathophysiology causes hydrophobia? Why is hydrophobia unique to this one particular type of viral infection?
1
vote
1answer
21 views

What is the film that covers the tongue?

What is the film that covers the tongue in the mornings, even after brushing the teeth and tongue the night before and why does it have color variations? Do the different colors mean anything?
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Nicotine vs. Caffeine. Why is one more addictive than the other?

Both nicotine and caffeine are considered to be addictive substances. Why is nicotine more addictive than caffeine?
1
vote
1answer
37 views

What is the minimum air pressure the human body can tolerate if oxygen supply is not an issue?

Disregarding hypoxia, what is the minimum air pressure that the human body can tolerate? (i.e. at what air pressure would the blood start to boil, or skin start to burst, or whatever else might ...
6
votes
1answer
502 views

Crusty eyes in the morning

Often, after waking up from a night's sleep hard, flaky, pale yellow crystals are deposited around the eyelids (which easily wash off with water). What are these? Why are they yellow? What are they ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Multiple whiskers in one follicle after not shaving for a while. What is going on? [on hold]

When I don't shave (my beard) for a while - on the order of weeks - after I shave again there will usually be one, maybe two, pores that look like they have huge blackheads. Thinking that, I removed ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Does Sympaticus and lymphatic circulation cause feeling of thirsty after short shower?

I have been reading blogs, Guyton and Pocock about what triggers the feeling of thirsty. I am not convinced that is the fact of warm water time is short so not much water lost Assume that the ...
5
votes
1answer
33 views

Do invertebrates dream?

From Wikipedia: Studies have observed dreaming in mammals such as monkeys, dogs, cats, rats, elephants and shrews. There have also been signs of dreaming in birds and reptiles. Have there ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

tetrads in meiosis are held together by what

This is from SAT subject biology test practice question. The answer it gave me was both chiasmata and centromeres. I can understand they are held by chiasmata but why also centromeres? I looked it up, ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

interphase of meiosis 1 and meiosis 2

I saw a question asking "in both meiosis 1 and meiosis 2, the interphase include?" the answer they gave me was "chromosome uncoiling" I have several questions : is there interphase for meiosis 2? ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

What are the internal surfaces of body cavities actually made of?

In Ross's book of histology it says that the mesothelium that includes all body cavities is made of simple squamous epithelium but in other places it says that in the gastrointestinal tract it is made ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Grouped Frequency distribution plot in R [migrated]

I have a dataset with Butterfly species as rows and the number of plant family-genera-species that they feed on in different columns. I tried to get a frequency plot in R but encountered problems in ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

phylogenetic Independent contrasts with unresolved tree

I have a dataset containing morphological and performance measures of species from various groups, including insects, lizards, frogs, spiders etc, and want to analyse the relationship between these ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

is there a way to do batch download for all gene pathways?

I would like to download all the gene pathways and genes of each pathway. Preferably, gene length of each gene as well. It would be a lot more convenient if there is an R package.
8
votes
1answer
850 views

Is there a protein in the eye that gets kinked by photons and shipped down to the liver to get un-kinked?

My friend made the claim that there exists a protein in your eye responsible for vision. This protein is sensitive to different wavelengths of light, and when it gets hit by the right wavelength, it ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

What is reductive deamination?

This presentation on anaerobic digestion mentions (pg. 19) two major pathways for the digestion of amino acids: Stickland reaction and reductive deamination. While I find some info on the former, what ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells, but ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Width of vein in finger

I am working on my bachelors thesis, where one part of it is to find width of vein in fingertip. I use database images and extract vein patterns from it, but i have to calculate the width of vein and ...

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