3
votes
0answers
13 views

How does the value of K determine number of local optima in NK model?

BACKGROUND The NK model of fitness landscape considers N states which can interact with K other states. For example N is the total number of genes in a haploid cells and K is the number of other ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

What is our skin made up of?

Again, it is a basic question. What is our skin made up of? is it made up of many cells arranged in a systematic way or is it just like any layer say of a book?? what is the difference? where is the ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

What network motifs or other mechanisms can make the expression of a gene invariable to the environment?

Next to double positive feedback loops and chromatin modification, which other mechanisms can make a gene susceptible to a certain environment in one cell-type but not in another?
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Sensitivity of eyes to flashing lights

My eyes are very sensitive to flashing lights - for example I'm always the first person to notice that a fluorescent tube is about to fail because I see it flickering when other people can't. When ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Optical density machine name

What is the name of the machine used to measure optical density? We used it in a lab but I can't remember what they called it.
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Does DNA have the equivalent of IF-statements, WHILE loops, or function calls? How about GOTO?

Does DNA have anything like IF-statements, GOTO-jumps, or WHILE loops? In software development, these constructs have the following functions: IF-statements: An IF statement executes the code in a ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Why do Lapidaria margaretae look like stones?

Previous Research I stumbled across a trending reddit post "Lapidaria margaretae looks like stones" (as of 3rd Februrary 2015); but I could not find discussions as to reasons behind why. Question/s ...
1
vote
3answers
27 views

If a gene is located on the X sex chromosome does that mean males are either Homozygous dominant or Homozygous recessive and are never Heterozygous?

As said in the title I am a little confused on the Idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was hemophilia a recessive trait and since it is located on the X ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

What mechanisms exist for the excision of specific sequences from DNA?

I already know about recombinases (specifically excisionases), but was wondering if there were other mechanisms present.
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Can life forms exist from simple structures not made of the four bases? [on hold]

I understand that all life forms on the planet are made from adenine, gauatine, cytosine and thymine, which chemically joined together to form RNA or DNA (correct me if I'm wrong). This goes on to ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

What are the total number of action potentials in the human brain?

Is there an approximate figure of the total number of action potentials in the human brain? It's my understanding that there are ~ 60 billion neurons in the brain with ~ 100 trillion connections ...
12
votes
1answer
749 views

How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?

So I get the concept that a vaccine is a weakened form of a virus so that the body can "learn" to fight it and make a person immune to that disease, but how exactly does this learning take place? What ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

Do our ears or brains gradually adapt to noise pollution?

Having lived in various places all over the world for the past 9 years of my life, one thing stood out to me throughout this time, and now in particular. From a quiet place on the countryside in ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Does malaria have a reservoir host?

Can warm blooded vertebrates other than humans act as reservoir hosts for malaria parasites? I'm mainly interested in plasmodium vivax and possible reservoir hosts in the wider area of Europe/ ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Find the probability of Filium (child) that are dark (and) heterozygote

Two mice are crossed and both are dark and heterozygote. Find the probability of their filium(children) dark (and) heterozygote in F1. Here's what our teacher explained: I don't understand. I ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Boiling and melting points of Trans- and Cis- isomers of but-2-ene [on hold]

The boiling boing point of Trans-But-2-ene is lesser than that of Cis-But-2-ene but again the melting point of trans-but-2-ene is higher than that of cis-but-2-ene. Why ?
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Degree of dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster

In this paper the authors state that the dosage compensation seen in Drosophila is approximately twofold, but they do not provide any source or numbers (as far as I can see) for this. What is the mean ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Size of the Drosophila melangoaster genome components

How large are: one X chromosome one of each of the major autosome (chromosomes 2 and 3) for Drosophila melanogaster in the following measures? Length of DNA expressed in base pairs e.g. Mega ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Is it safe to refill a PET water bottle? [on hold]

At work, I drink quite a lot of water by refilling a PET water bottle such as this one and it could happen that I use the same bottle for at least two weeks. I know that the plastic might dissolve ...
4
votes
0answers
26 views

(Why) are polar bears more common in Labrador than in southern Greenland?

The Labrador Sea is between Greenland, Labrador, and Qikiqtaaluk: Map source. A Greenlandic source on polar bears states: In Greenland the polar bear lives and breeds in the northernmost parts ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Electroporation of one-cell embryo?

Would electroporation be successful on a one/two-celled mouse embryo? If it would, what buffer could be used and what percentage of cells would be viable? Thank you.
1
vote
2answers
46 views

The Ancient Kingdom of Monera

Why exactly were bacteria and archaea kingdoms separated from the now unused kingdom of Monera? Aren't they the same? They are both prokaryotes, so what is the difference?
4
votes
0answers
38 views

How can E. coli proliferate so rapidly?

The E. coli has a genome with approximately 5×106 bp. The main DNA polymerase involved in its chromosome duplication (DNA pol III , the one with highest processivity) can polymerize ~103 nucleotides ...
2
votes
1answer
21 views

Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
0
votes
0answers
67 views

Is there any truth to at-will pregnancy rejection? [on hold]

First and foremost, if you feel intense anger that this question is being asked, I share your anger. The fact is, I just don't know. But I've seen this alleged phenomena used in discussions ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Why proteins are building blocks of life? [on hold]

I like to think that normally C and H are oxidized in the nature. Yet, plants, using sun energy, break the oxigen away and build carbohydrates, like sugar/glucose. Basically, any plant is just bunch ...
4
votes
1answer
663 views

Are all dinosaur bones radioactive?

I watching some TV program some time ago and a guy in it mentioned that when-ever museums display real dinosaur bones (as opposed to a replica) the bones are painted over with a lead paint, because ...
3
votes
1answer
15 views

Can virus resistance be acquired through generational exposure?

If I have a squash plant that has a mosaic virus of some kind, and I breed its descendants (via seed) for generations, each with exposure to the same virus, will future generations be likely to ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

How to tell if a beverage will hydrate or dehydrate?

Beverages of any type generally contain some measure of water. However, in the case of some liquids, the non-water components take more water from the human body to filter out than the water contained ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What is considered to be human? [on hold]

Perhaps this isnt the correct forum but ill try none the less. I have two parts to this: 1- What is Human? I struggle to grasp this concept, we are a species but what seperates us from the likes of ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

What is the probe that absorbs at 450nm in the presence of NADH in this assay?

The colorimetric assays by Biovision and Sigma Aldrich seem to utilise a probe that binds to or reacts with NADH in order to cause absorbance at 450nm which can then be quantified by a ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Why do haemophillic females $X^hX^h$ die before birth?

I just came across a statement in my book , while reading genetics, that haemophiliac females do not survive till birth (the reason not mentioned here why) . Before posting this question here I ...
-1
votes
0answers
22 views

What is serological profiling [on hold]

I read an abstract, but couldn't understand many things. These are the follows: 1. What does serological profiling mean? 2. What does stage specific responses mean? 3. "The antibody response from the ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

How do I identify the protein with the highest Disulfide bond density? i.e protein with highest ratio of Disulphide bonds per Peptide bond? [on hold]

I want to list all proteins in the protein database and list them by the ratio of number of disulphide bonds per peptide bond. I am not particular about the reliability of identification of ...
-2
votes
0answers
16 views

Relation between double helix CGTA and dominant / recessive genes [on hold]

How could I understand the relation BB ~ 25%, Bb ~ 50%, bb ~ 25% of being bald versus CGTA? What has one thing to do with the other?
0
votes
1answer
9 views

Primer design for HLA locus

i have designed primers for HLA locus DPA1(exon 2 region) based on Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design guidelines. primer will start from intron regions to cover full exonic region. ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Nutritious protein substance for vitamin enhanced crop?

I am not a bio or science major, but we have a subject, like an elective on biotechnology and we were tasked to think of a product that hasn't been invented yet. My groupmates and I thought of a ...
1
vote
3answers
29 views

What is the basic structure of the nuclear lamina

What gives the nucleus its shape is a mesh of intermediate filaments called the nuclear lamina. It forms an interface between the chromosomes and the inside of the nuclear envelope. If these ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

How would i describe a Cladogram as paragraph? [on hold]

I have this paragraph that i have halfway finished, but i do not know what to put in the spaces. A Cladogram is a branching diagram that represents the proposed phylogeny or evolution of a species ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

How we share pain?

When somebody else tells me about his or her itching or pain in some specific body part I sometimes begin to feel similar feelings. I can think of about three explanations: I feel pain all over my ...
4
votes
1answer
201 views

Why AZT is selective towards HIV and doesn't impair human DNA replication?

I've found this article, which is a very old one (from the time when nucleoside analogs where researched as a possible way to prevent replication of virus genetic material, before the HIV epidemics). ...
4
votes
1answer
39 views

Do cell membranes have more phospholipids in one layer than in the other?

Assuming the cell membrane to have a spherical shape, geometry tells us that the area of the inner leaflet is smaller than the area of the outer due to the difference in radius between them. Does this ...
2
votes
1answer
10 views

Are the proteolytic enzymes in syconiums and nettles identical to those in rennet?

I would like to compare rennet capability under various conditions. The issue is, I don't want to use calf rennet, but I can't figure out if nettle and syconium, which also coagulate milk, contain ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Standard solution for alkaloid separation in HPLC [on hold]

In the middle of my college project, I am in need of performing alkaloids separation from Aloe-vera using HPLC. Can anyone help me by mentioning the standard solution to be used for this separation?
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Show the relationship between genes when we have a proof crossing and types are given [on hold]

At the tomato A- round fruit, a- long fruit, B- smooth fruit, b- creasy fruit. In a proof crossing we have these types: 24 individuals Ab, 266 AB, 246 aB, 24 ab. Show the relationship between genes. ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Why sigmoid curves appear in quantitative analysis of many biological phenomena? [on hold]

I know two examples: 1-The binding of hemoglobin to oxygen (binding of oxygen to one site of hemoglobin induces conformational changes which increase the affinity of the other sites for oxygen - the ...
-3
votes
0answers
30 views

I am a biology student and m confused about my future after intermediate now m seeking a profession beyond medical line [on hold]

I want to know all the career options associated with biologystudent except medical professions ......Plz provide the best options...... Scope Benefits Demand Earning
-3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why do humans need a heart? [on hold]

When I looked up the function of the heart, it says the heart pumps blood throughout the body. But the blood is already throughout the body, as it is recycled back to the heart. It is a chick-egg ...
1
vote
4answers
51 views

Why are there both stop and start codons?

Based on my understanding from wikipedia, there is the (RNA) start codon AUG and the stop codons UAA, UGA, UAG. AUG can also encode Methionine, I'm assuming if it appears in the middle of a mRNA ...

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