0
votes
0answers
2 views

Where do enzymes get energy from?

Enzymes work to lower activation energy, but there still needs to be an input of energy to drive the reaction. Where do they get this energy from? To the best of my knowledge, many enzymes do not ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Is it possible to express the cistrons from a polycistronic insertion fragment in a single plasmid?

I have a insertion fragment that I wish to express from pUC19 in Escherichia coli. The insertion fragment is a sub-section from a larger operon sequence and contains just the last two cistrons from ...
0
votes
2answers
13 views

how can we differentiate between respiration and breathing?

I am a student of 10th grade and I eagerly want to learn biology. I want to ask a basic question hope you guys don't mind and answer me in positive way to exchange biological knowledge. My question is ...
3
votes
1answer
11 views

Can scientists name themselves in the scientific name when they discover a new taxon?

There are sometimes people names in taxonomy, like Myotis keenii was names after Mr. Keen who contributed to discover the species. So, if you discover a species and someone else is constructing the ...
1
vote
0answers
6 views

Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
0
votes
0answers
8 views

What are some commonalities between biology systems and semiconductor physics?

It seems that fundamentally both neural system and semiconductors are operating using similar principles on the same scale. Things such as drift and diffusion current plays major role in both systems. ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Has a new functional structure ever been observed arising spontaneously?

Have we ever observed a new functional biological structure arising spontaneously such as a new functional organ (sensory or otherwise. such as tracing some creature in the past few hundred years ...
-4
votes
0answers
11 views

Sister replacement with female mates? [on hold]

I have a bad relationship with my sister and I often grow obsessed toward selective females from time-to-time. Often I notice that these obsessions have no sexual desires; I do not feel a need to have ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

Reliability of Sanger sequencing

Hailed as the "gold standard" of sequencing, I was wondering to what Sanger sequencing owes its incredible accuracy to. If possible, I would like a quantification of the accuracy (because I doubt it ...
0
votes
2answers
14 views

Stop codons and exons?

If we had a hypotheical gene called gene exampleGene and this gene had 5 exons, labeled A, B, C, D, and E in that order on the chromosome, could it be the case that the stop codon for this gene be on ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in anything we currently know about ...
5
votes
1answer
197 views

What is this insect? Found in Peru

I took the pictures today in Cusco Peru. It is the third insect of its class in a month. I never see it before. I thought that it is a wasp, but I think it's really thin to be a wasp. It's about 4 or ...
2
votes
0answers
9 views

How did the introduction of artificial light changed the life cycle of a plant?

Plants in urbanized areas are constantly exposed to artificial light after sunset. In their natural habitat there is a more distinct day and night cycle. Since light is an important factor in a plant ...
2
votes
1answer
15 views

Is it in principle possible to revive an extinct species having no living relatives?

Is it, in principle, possible to revive an extinct species having no living close relatives but whose DNA and other tissues have been preserved? What about the case where there are no living ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Which protein complex is composed of the greatest number of different kinds of proteins, and how many types are involved?

Why are some protein complexes composed of many different types of proteins? How many different types are they composed of? In particular, which protein complex has the greater number of different ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Does suffocation pain involve nociceptors?

I never suffocated myself so not entirely sure, but when you suffocate, it's painful, right? But of course different kind of pain than being injured or sick. What I'm wondering is, if the "painful" ...
-3
votes
1answer
29 views

What is a new biotechnology issue? [on hold]

I'm looking for any new biotechnology issue related to Biochemistry, Metabolic processes, molecular Genetics, or other relevant fields. If anyone knows of an issue that has solid resources around I'd ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How long has to be DNA? [on hold]

We have learned that the same information are saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA split and connect again (while reproduction), it has to fill into the atom-exact place?
2
votes
1answer
26 views

What is genodiversity good for?

I saw some documents which were trying to say that they can prove via sweat smell selected by women that humans are developed to find a partner with similar genes. At the first glance, I refused it as ...
-2
votes
0answers
12 views

Spring turnover in lake [on hold]

During spring, the water at the top is at 0 degrees, and that the bottom is at 4 degrees (with a small middle part in between with intermediate temperatures). In spring as water warms at the top, its ...
5
votes
1answer
196 views

Biological origin of shuddering during sleep

What is the biological origin of the following behavior: Sometimes, during the early, formative phase of sleep (when you have a gradually dimming consciousness of what all is happening around), you ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Are more molecules of ADP than inorganic phosphate returned to the light reaction in photosynthesis?

During the dark reaction, 9 molecules of ATP are consumed for every 3 carbon dioxide molecules, yet only 6 molecules of inorganic phosphate ultimately leave the cycle. Does that mean that there is a ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

What is the connection between exercise and muscle growth

From a physiological perspective, all that is done during exercise is the expending of energy in the form of ATP to fuel muscle contraction and extension. When I looked up why muscle grow due to ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Why do flagella form a bundle only when they rotate counterclockwise during chemotaxis?

During Chemotaxis in bacteria with flagella, the flagellar rotation dictates how the cell moves. If the flagella rotate counterclockwise, then they form a bundle at one end of the cell (---O) and ...
-2
votes
1answer
24 views

Standard DNA extraction protocol [on hold]

Which DNA extraction protocol in plant and other biological complex is acceptable method for article?
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Protein Folding [on hold]

I am planning to do my Masters thesis in Biophysics in the topic of "Thermodynamics of Protein folding " It would be great help if anyone could suggest me the proper way to start with like which ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Does the term “upper extremity” include hands?

I see on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_limb that the term "upper extremity" seem to include hands. However, in many hospitals, there is a "Hand & Upper Extremity Service", which would tend to ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

When is Water Produced During Photosynthesis?

The formula for photosynthesis is: $$6CO_2+12H_2O \rightarrow C_6H_{12}O_6+6O_2+6H_2O$$ I can count the carbons, the waters on the reactant side, the oxygens, and the glucose, but I cannot seem to ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

Analyse a ECG graph

I have a project about extracting features from a homemade ECG. I need PQRST points from the heart beat. The ECG I'm using have 3 electrodes that attaches to the chest. The problem is I don't know ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

How Does NADPH Reduce 1,3-BPG?

If NADPH returns to being NADP+, then that means one proton and two electrons have been incorporated into 1,3-BPG. If only one proton and one electron were attached to the carbon in 1,3-BPG (removing ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

How long do the periods of systole and diastole last?

The background to this is i'm doing some work using ECGs for an animation of the heart and i'm having trouble defining the end points of these periods, particularly diastole. Currently, the only ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Why do fingers swell during winters? [on hold]

Why do fingers swell during winters (of temperature 5-15 degree celsius)? During winters mine and many others's fingers swell. is it due to blood circulation or what?
3
votes
0answers
25 views

What is this frog?

(Man, there's a lot of 'What is this X?' questions here...) I saw this while walking in Cyprus in early April. It was at about 100m altitude, in woodlands, sitting in the sun on a concrete step ...
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Quantitative Trait Locus process?

I do not seem to understand the concept of Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL's), can anyone explain it to me in detail? Reading the wikipedia article helped somewhat, but I do not understand it well. What ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

How can we create a living dinosaur using DNA technology?

I'm wondering what would we need to do to create a living dinosaur using DNA technology? If it is not possible with current technology, will it ever be feasible? In the movie Jurassic Park, ...
3
votes
2answers
53 views

Are there human cells, apart from red blood cells and platelets, without a nucleus?

I know that blood platelets and erythrocytes do not have a nucleus. Are there more cells in the human body without a nucleus, such as pancreas, cartilage, or lung cells?
4
votes
2answers
95 views

I have a black tiny bug crawling all over the house

This bug is crawling all around the house it stays within the shadows and moves very very slow, i have never seen it jump or run, it just moves very slowly P.S. those bugs as u can see are smaller ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Protein secondary structure prediction

I'm trying to predict the protein secondary and 3-D structure for the sequence [Q1NN20] and need some help getting the ball rolling. I'm getting confused with how and when to use Jpred, swiss-mod, ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

The future of human evolution [on hold]

While in college I read a book that said human have stopped evolving internally, but rather we now evolve externally in the form of technology, ie instead of growing claws we make a knife. Is this ...
3
votes
1answer
18 views

Does the palate truly house the sense of taste?

Source: Your “palate” is the roof of your mouth, and by extension, your sense of taste. I was reading Etymonline's entry for palatable {adj.}, which cites and derives from palate {noun}: ... ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Is blood an organ according to biology?

It consist approximately 7 percent of body weight. By definition organ is composed of multiple tissues. Blood is a fluid, a circulating tissue. Therefore can we call this fluid system a liquid ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Why are 2 electrons transported from photosystem II at the same time?

I only know that electrons are captured by the primary electron acceptor and then go through the electron transport chain, ultimately ending up at photosystem I. But why do 2 leave photosystem II in ...
4
votes
1answer
27 views

What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis?

Hello my Professor has been teaching about apoptosis and sometimes makes the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic. I am not sure if I know for sure what this means. Does this just refer to ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What's a good simple test for cDNA library quality?

How do I assess the quality of a cDNA library? I want to clone CDS copies of genes from a library, but I don't know what's a typical expectation of getting a full length clone even for a shorter ...
4
votes
1answer
29 views

Are all protein composed of all the amino acid (in animal) or are there less diverse protein?

I have a question about amino acid composition of proteins: Are there proteins in animals that are made up only from a small subset of amino acids? So instead of all 20 amino acids let's say only 6-14 ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Why do some proteins “use” a beta barrel structure instead of alpha helices in transmembrane space?

Most proteins are fixed in the membrane by alpha helices. But some use beta barrels. Wikipedia describes beta barrels as used for porins, preprotein translocases, and lipocalins. To me, a coiled coil ...
4
votes
1answer
29 views

Are stem cell lines also kept worldwide like HeLa cells?

There are HeLa cells, which were taken from sick cancer patient and now is growing worldwide in different laboratories for experiments. HeLa cells can be kept because they are immortal and so they are ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

What light conditions facilitate communication between birds with black and white plumage?

I'm studying two populations of birds: Population A and Population B Population A has a small white patch on its neck. Population B has a large white patch on its neck. See attached diagram. It is ...
4
votes
1answer
16 views

In human females one X chromosome is inactivated forming Barr Body. Then How exactly Haemophilia is dominant? check description for details

Suppose a female has one X chromosome normal and one chromosome with Haemophilic gene. Now suppose if the X chromosome which is normal is inactivated will the female show haemophilia?
4
votes
2answers
118 views

Do acetyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and acetyl-glutamate carry any charge?

Do the following compounds have any charge? If not, then why? If yes, is there any database that would give me this information if the compound is negatively or positively charged? The compounds are ...

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