3
votes
0answers
9 views

Photolysis of Water?

In chemistry, I studied the decomposition of water as being $2H_2O_{(l)} \rightarrow 2H_{2(g)} + O_{2(g)}$. However, when water is split, the equation is $2H_2O_{(l)} \rightarrow 4H^+ + 4e^- ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

How to find food powder studies in pubmed?

I'm looking for studies comparing food powder with traditional solid food. How to find these studies in pubmed?
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Powdered meal replacement vs regular meal

Can a person live with this alternative nutrition? Of course, assuming that eating pleasure is assumed the same. The nutrients that contain are far better than average meal a person eats the majority ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

The ring formation of ringworm

I know ringworm is caused by a fungus on the skin, nails or scalp but what causes the rash to form as a ring instead of like a normal spread out rash?
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Surface Power Density of Fluorescing Reaction

I am looking to find out what is the ballpark power density of a fluorescing PCR reaction using a SYBR Green or Taq Man dye might be. Is it on the order of $E_e=1mW/cm^2$, less or more? Any help of ...
-1
votes
0answers
13 views

ncbi+ build blast_demo app [on hold]

Has anyone recently been building the ncbi+ toolkit? My question is: What is the minimum required configuration to build blast_demo app? Because I have tried to make only the core lib and that takes ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Energy consumption of a resting synapse

What is the energy penalty of maintaining rarely used synapse? I'm wondering if forgetting is cheaper than remembering unnecessary details.
0
votes
0answers
18 views

How do disinfectant sprays work? Difference with antibiotics [on hold]

Most disinfectants say they kill 99.9% of germs, I'm wondering how do they do that exactly. Also, there are bacteria resistant to the most powerful antibiotics. Would a disinfectant kill them anyway ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Do aerobic bacteria precipitate in a liquid culture?

In most books aerobic bacteria is shown growing only at the top of a static liquid culture tube? Shouldn't have precipitated instead of floating on the surface?
3
votes
1answer
17 views

Magnetic-activated cell sorting vs. FACS

When sorting cell populations it is possible to use either magnetic-activated cell sorting or fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS). I am wondering when you would choose either technique and what ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Is [O2] different in a 5 mL liquid media?

Is there a drastic difference between top and bottom of the tube, with no stirring?
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Do “non-human” animal like cat, dog, bird or fish think about future while sleeping? [on hold]

I don't think "non-human" animal like cat, dog, bird or fish think about future while sleeping. I think when sleeping, the "non-human" animal will feel rather think about anything. I think when ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

Decreasing Solubility as Solvent Moves Higher in Paper Chromatography

In paper chromatography, as the mobile phase (I used 1:9 acetone/petroleum ether) climbs higher and higher, will the solubility of the solutes decrease as the solvent moves higher? I speak mostly ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Why would an ale give less of a hangover than a lager?

I got into an argument surrounding beer type and hangover. Apparently there is a opinion that ales give you less hangover than lagers do (considering same alcohol content consumed). My understanding ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Does breathing air containing 3% carbon dioxide gives you a headache?

As far as I know, breathing air containing relatively high levels of CO2 may get you a headache. I also know that CO2 level in the fruit bodies of peppers can reach levels as high as 3% at certain ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

How do I make conclusions from the autoradiograph of a Southern blot?

Here's another question taken from "Concepts of Genetics," Klug et al (10ed), revolving around a paternity test. PCR and a Southern blot were carried out in order to determine whether 3 chimpanzees ...
5
votes
2answers
27 views

Comparative Genomics

Are orthologs and paralogs examples of conserved genes? Orthologs are the genes or DNA that is present in 2 different species, having once been present in a common ancestor. It comes about by a ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

Difference between facilitated diffusion and secondary active transport in cells

Specifically, what is the difference between facilitated diffusion carrier processes (passive transport) and secondary active transport co-transport processes (active transport)? They seem to be the ...
4
votes
2answers
229 views

Help me identify this spider from my garden

Found this in my garden today in Sydney, Australia (specifically Lane Cove). Can you tell me what it is?
1
vote
0answers
6 views

variance in zygotic gene expression across species

I found this review on the Maternal-to-Zygotic transition (MZT), describing how developmental control switches from maternally deposited RNAs to zygotic expression. I was struck by figure 1, and the ...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

How is instinct carried from one generation to another?

How can non-structural information, specifically instinct (a fixed pattern of behavior that an organism reverts to as a response to certain stimuli), be passed on from generation to generation (such ...
7
votes
1answer
48 views

What determines the spiral direction of plants?

Some plants and vines spiral clockwise as they go along (right direction) and some spiral anticlockwise (left direction). What determines which direction they spiral along? At first I believed it to ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

A non human adaptive behaviour with a spandrel

Is there any adaptive behaviour in non humans which, when it is functioning as it was selected to do, creates a spandrel behaviour? In evolutionary biology, a spandrel is a phenotypic ...
2
votes
0answers
8 views

Biofilm microtiter experimental design

We sequenced RNA using RNA-seq from biofilm (attached to bottom) and planktonic growing bacteria (supernatant) in 3 mL microtiter plates. I'm not sure how is possible to obtain planktonic cells ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Fats as energy source

As we Know that the preferred source of energy for our body (source) are carbohydrates but heart muscles are an exception need some explanation for this exception, that why the preferred source of ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

How does a metronome help in controlling breathing rate?

I'm new to the Bio/Medical field so kindly bear with me. I am doing studies on volunteers to formulate algorithms for evaluating Respiration rate from ECG and accelerometer data. I learned about this ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

What is Vagal modulation of Heat Rate? [on hold]

I'm a signal processing engineer working on algorithms for heart rate and respiration rate detection using ECG signals. I'm new to the Bio/Medical field, so kindly bear with me and consider the ...
1
vote
2answers
382 views

Organisms that contain rare chemical elements

By accident, I found a slide from a Polish chemical presentation, that talks about a small group of biological organisms which contain chemical elements not found in the human body, like: B (boron), ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Do bacteria precipitate in static liquid culture media?

We performed 36h biofilm cultures and would like to know if this time is enough to planktonic bacteria to precipitate. Since we observed biofilm formation one the surface of the microtiter plate. ...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

Naturally making green hair. What chemicals to use? [migrated]

Is there any chemical that is biologically produced in humans, that when impregnated in hair follicles, produces green hair? If current keratin follicles cannot do that, pick another biochemical for ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Correct/complete representation of RTPCR statistics

In papers reporting a relative quantification of gene expression by RTPCR, I often see a bar chart with mean ± standard error or deviation, with the deviation belonging to biological replicates. This ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Current Trend in Evolution of Human Intelligence [on hold]

Up front, I am specifically not interested in philosophical or ethical considerations re Eugenics and related concepts. In an effort to receive a concise answer I'll post a narrowly defined question ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
5
votes
2answers
54 views

Does freezing microorganisms such as probiotics kill them?

Does freezing microorganisms such as probiotics kill them? If not, what is the process that allows them to "come back to life" after the temperatures are increased? As an example, lets say you ...
10
votes
2answers
67 views

Do macrophages get nutritional value from the pathogens that they eat?

X-posted on reddit AskScience here. I know that macrophages engulf foreign bodies and transport them to various waste excretion pathways (sorry if the terminology is wrong), and if the foreign bodies ...
4
votes
0answers
18 views

Why do plants produce so many hybrids as a kingdom?

Why do plants produce so many hybrids? I have read that they are the largest kingdom of organisms to do so. Does this have something to do with polyploidy events?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Genetic Relationship Matrix

The classical definition of the Genetic Matrix G = ZZ'/2p(1-p) where Z = M - P where P = 2(p-0.5) I don't have a background in biology but understand Maths and ...
5
votes
1answer
30 views

Are prosauropods ancestors of all sauropods?

My daughter, while reading a book about dinosaurs, asked me if prosauropods are ancestors of all sauropods. Are they? From the name ("pro-sauropods"), I guess that they are, but am I right?
6
votes
2answers
101 views

What is the purpose of using two layers of gel in SDS- PAGE?

I just made a SDS-PAGE with a top layer of stacking gel and a bottom layer of separating gel with different pH values of 0.5M Tris-HCl. The stacking was 6.8 and the separating gel was 8.8. What about ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

When are carbon acquisition transporters up-regulated? [on hold]

When are carbon transporters up-regulated in bacteria? Depends on the internal/external nutrient concentrations ratios?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

pI and pH relation in electrophoresis of proteins [on hold]

In a electrophoresis of proteins with a pH of 8,6; proteins which migrate have a pI lower or higher than pH?
3
votes
2answers
12 views

What is correct MVM vs. MMV?

I'm writing up a report and I see conflicts everywhere on the internet. Should it be Murine Minute Virus (MMV) or Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). The followup question is does it really matter.
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Experiment using nocadazole [on hold]

Nocadazole is a compound known to inhibit microtubule polymerisation and is widely used in laboratory, among other to synchronize cells. I am designing an experimental set up in which I want to treat ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Bacterial metabolism during growth phases [on hold]

I would like to know what are the main metabolic differences between the bacterial growth phases. References are appreciated. Thanks!
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Is there any alternative to cryopreserve cell lines without -80 freezer?

My university's -80 freezer just broke down and the repair will take 4 months according to the vendor. Is there any other way to preserve cells? Maintaining lot of flasks until the freezer is repaired ...
6
votes
1answer
49 views

Why is it harder to sequence plant genomes than animal genomes?

Plants seem to be less complex organisms than animals, but despite that there are less plant genomes sequenced. Is that because plant genomes are more complex, for example in terms of regulatory ...
6
votes
1answer
206 views

Why does the membrane of a neuron not stay at its depolarized state?

When an action potential is transmitted along the axon, the membrane reaches its depolarized state by opening Na+ channels. Both K+ (potassium) and Na+ (sodium) are now on both sides with close to ...
11
votes
3answers
104 views

Are there single-celled organisms that have evolved from multi-cellular ones?

I'm reading this paper about transmissible cancer cells in clams (Metzger et al. 2015) and I was wondering if there are any single-cellular organisms that are around today that are suspected as having ...
-1
votes
2answers
51 views

Hopeful Monsters in Plants? [on hold]

Does anyone know of any research/examples on Hopeful Monsters in Plants? I define Hopeful Monsters as organisms of a species that have macroevolutions to prompt new speciations. These ...

15 30 50 per page