1
vote
0answers
17 views

Why not use lactase to aid the break down of lactose when making biofuels?

I did an experiment using nine different substrates (Lactose + lactase, corn, sugar cane, glucose control, wood, grass, no yeast control and yeast control) and observed their fermentation rates. ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

A case study on copying a part of another person's paper to your own paper without mentioning the source [on hold]

Here's a quote from the paper: Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency Nature 505,641–647 (30 January 2014) ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

SNPs and locations

I am new to reading raw DNA. When comparing two people's raw data, why does one person have a different SNP than the other, at the same location, on specific chromosome? But on a different chromosome ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Protein x-ray crystallization reference for bioinformatics

I am looking for references or tutorials which introduce the field of protein x-ray crystallization, but without going into all the experimental details. I just want to learn whatever is relevant for ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

dsRNA and immune response

If there is dsRNA in the cell (long enough), will it always bring immune response? What type of immune response it will be? Killing the cell if it has some amounts of dsRNA?
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Cannot conjugate Biotin-labeled DNA to Streptavidin-labeled solid surface

I have been trying to immobilize DNA by the bioconjugation of biotin and streptavidin, but I cannot get this work. I added EDC and streptavidin to COOH ...
16
votes
7answers
2k views

Is there anything that is completely non-toxic to humans at any dose?

Lately I have seen a number of unrelated "scientific" debates over whether certain substances should be outlawed because they are toxic to humans. My initial, informal reaction is usually to respond ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

Plasmid in the nucleus and gene expression

If we insert a plasmid into a human nucleus that contains exact copy of gene and all relevant promoters to produce some human protein, will the cell create functional protein from that plasmid only ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Why don't breast enlargements leave any marks of surgery on breasts?

If we get stitches, we get marks left on the skin, but there are no marks for breast enlargements. I saw a YouTube video about a breast enlargement wherein a doctor makes a cut. Where does the cut ...
5
votes
2answers
18 views

Does the cooperative eye hypothesis apply to canines?

After researching why humans have white scleras when most primates have dark scleras, I stumbled upon the cooperative eye hypothesis. It proposed that white scleras may have evolved on behalf that it ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

why reptiles still stimulate even after the death?

I saw a video in which a decapitated snake head still tried to bite. I also saw a video in which a man was hit by the moving tail of a dead crocodile. So why do reptiles move even after the death? ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Are alleles passed down and shuffled randomly to the offspring during meiosis or fertilization?

If it does occur during meiosis, are the alleles switched over from one sister chromatid to the other during the crossing over process in Prophase I?
3
votes
1answer
15 views

How long do zebra fishes remain transparent?

As larva, zebra fishes are transparent, at least up to 5-6 days. I wonder what would be the upper limit of the transparent period. This is of relevance considering purposes for imaging. The question ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Why White Blood Cells (WBCs) do not react to foreign bodies like sperm?

Why do the white blood cells allow foreign bodies like sperm to exist inside body cavity without any reaction? White blood cells function is to fight against foreign bodies (from the text books).
-1
votes
2answers
58 views

Why scientific names of animals & plants are made difficult to spell & remember?

Why scientific names of animals & plants are made difficult to spell & remember? Mango: it is easy to spell. Corvus splendens: it is difficult to spell
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Is there a comprehensive answer to teach how to classify between good and bad biology research paper? [on hold]

Is there an comprehensive answer to teach skills on how to distinguish between good and bad biology research paper on correctness? I want to self teach myself on graduate level biology before ...
-2
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the difference between plant's cotton & medical cotton? [on hold]

What is the difference between plant's cotton & medical cotton? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Why there are two rounds of cytosine de-methylation in mammalian development?

I assume that the key biological meaning of cytosine de-methylation during germline development in germline progenitor cells is to reset imprinted genes and then set methylation pattern on these genes ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Which biosynthetic pathways take place in the plastid and were are they located?

I know that the isoprenoid, jasmonate, glucosinolate, fatty acids, chlorophyll, starch, and aromatic amino acid syntheses are located in the plastid. But I don't know if they are located in the ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Why do humans not regrow arms and legs? [on hold]

We regrow some things but not arms, legs, fingers, toes, ears, etc. Why not? Ignore this: I am being warned my question does not meet quality standards so I am adding this paragraph.
1
vote
0answers
26 views

How do you determine if donated, stored blood is viable?

Think about stored donated blood; What should we check before transfusing it to a patient, to see if blood is still viable? What methods to use? What components should it have in what levels, to be ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Why is it important to study chromatin to understand cancer?

Many labs and many projects in biology institutes and university departments have been starting to study chromatin. Chromatin states, chromatin interactions, chromatin loopings, chromatin behaviours, ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Why does my silver hair now have gray roots [on hold]

My hair started turning gray/silver at an early age. After years of coloring it, I finally stopped coloring it ten years ago. I developed a beautiful head of silver/white hair. Slowly, my roots ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

How can a plant become resistant to glufosinate?

From Wikipedia, the mode of action of the non selective herbicide Glufosinate is: Phosphinothricin is an glutamine synthetase inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Glufosinate-treated plants ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

Is it correct to run ANOVA for two experiment groups of microarray data? [on hold]

I use Genesis software and run ANOVA for 2 groups: probes and controls, since there are no ttest and nonparametrics implemented. I wish to know: is it statistically correct enough? ANOVA is the ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

What does it mean when a patient suffering from malignant tumor (cancer) has been declared cured?

Comment by Anongoodnurse, has made me curious as to what a doctor means when (s)he says "The cancer is cured" to a patient. My idea up till this point (based on what I read and what I learned in my ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Basic Gene/Chromosome/Genome/Protein question.. which comes first? [on hold]

How are they ordered? Genes make up Chromosome, and Chromosomes make up a Genome... So, where does Protein come into play? What do you call Genes that are spliced together to form something new? ...
5
votes
1answer
773 views

What is the field of view for the human eyes?

I'd like to know how much a person can see regarding the angles. If it is a rectangle, I'd like to know it's height and width. But if is another shape, I'd like to know which kind of shape and the ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Is recombination suppressed in the males of all Drosophila species? Any other species?

Following up from this question, I am wondering if the phenomenon of genome-wide suppressed male recombination is limited to Drosophila melanogaster or is common to all Drosophila? The answer to the ...
4
votes
1answer
12 views

What Websites Have Image Libraries for Bacteria and other Microorganisms

What Websites Have Image Libraries for Bacteria and other Microorganisms? With age of cell phone microscopes and hand held spectrometers it would be interesting and valuable to be able to compare ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Is it correct to compute pairwise and multivariate correlations between gene expression values on log2 and heavily normalized data? [on hold]

Is it correct to compute pairwise correlations between microarray expression values on log2 and heavily normalized data? In other words: should I normalize and standardize microarray data for ...
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

What software/approach to use to build a graph based on microarray gene expression correlation?

What software to use to build a graph based on microarray gene expression mutual correlation? I have tried Cytoscape`s Reactome FI and a recipe from R bioinformatics cookbook, however, need a more ...
5
votes
1answer
23 views

What is a positive epitope fragment

What is a positive epitope fragment? I found one paper on the subject: COBEpro: a novel system for predicting continuous B-cell epitopes by Michael J. Sweredoski and Pierre Baldi
0
votes
1answer
43 views

why male penis not considered as cartilage? [on hold]

Penis don't have bone like ears & nose, then why why male penis not considered as cartilage? en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartilage
2
votes
0answers
16 views

Controlling reflexes

If the reflex arc carries signals from receptor neurons in my fingertips and relays that information to an effector, how can this be overridden when picking up hot things like food which would ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Are boat-tailed grackles efficient flyers?

The boat-tailed grackle's deep-V tail would seem to cause a great deal of drag or even downward deflection (like an airplane's elevators). How much does this actually affect the bird's flight?
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Length of sleep time

Why do we wake up after 6-8 hours of sleep ? Why don't we sleep for lets say 20-30 hours ? What mechanism is it that controls when to wake us up and how does it determine the moment that we should ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Crossing white eyed Drosophila with sepia eye

So, I'm doing some drosophila experiments with my high schoolers and I had really poor production of wild type individuals for doing the experiment resulting in not enough to cross with everyone... I ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Gene expression for mouse feeder cells (inactivated MEFs)

I'm looking for a paper with gene expression data for mouse feeder cells, inactivated by gamma radiation or mitomycin C. Ideally I'd like RNA-seq data but I'll use microarray data if that's all there ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Is there tea allergy? [on hold]

In every day when I drink more tea than other drink I have to go to water closet more often than other days. Does it cause any allergy or any other reason behind it?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Are there any conventional standarts to microarray experiments data representation to biomedical journals? [on hold]

Are there any conventional standards to microarray experiments data representation to biomedical journals and thesis committee? Should I save raw data or send them log and prenormalized data sets? Is ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the adequate rational approach and software to visualizing VCF genome comparison files? [on hold]

What is the adequate rational approach and software to visualizing VCF genome comparison files? Have >100 VCFs with errors from tuberculosis whole genome comparative research, need to filter files and ...
2
votes
2answers
34 views

How to retrieve full gene names list and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any)?

How to retrieve full gene names and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any other software or language)? Is it possible ice versa: having full gene ...
5
votes
2answers
56 views

What does units/mg mean for Streptavidin

I got streptavidin for surface reaction. The label says "biotin binding: 16 units/mg". What does units/mg mean? Does it mean "1 mg biotin can bind to 16 units ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

What kinds of cells does human saliva contain?

I have heard that our saliva contains cells. What cell types can be found in human saliva?
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Swellings with Variegated consistency

I am interested in knowing the names of all swellings with variegated consistency. I have come across the following: Malignant swelling with partial necrosis Caseated tuberculous lymph nodes ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

How does Haloxyfop control young grassy weeds in fields of broadleaved crops?

Haloxyfop (haloxyfop-P-methyl) is a selective herbicide used to control grassy weeds in young stages. The mode of action (iirc) is basically inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). Why does ...
8
votes
2answers
44 views

Are codons that map to the same amino acids interchangeable?

(disclaimer - I'm just getting interested in genetics so sorry if this is an obvious/silly question.) I see from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_code in the section on the RNA codon table a ...
2
votes
0answers
16 views

What is the most complex biological organism (or precursors) that we have been able to synthesize from raw materials?

In the Miller–Urey experiment they produced several amino acids. I'm not sure if there were other similar experiments that got further. ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Dehydration from caffeine, alcohol and other

Tea, Coffee, Beer, Coke etc… I wonder if the benefit from amount of fluid we get from them is bigger or smaller then the handicap of dehydration. In other words it is worth to drink them if we want ...

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