3
votes
1answer
111 views

What fish (and/or shellfish) species with a multi-year life-cycle, besides salmon, die after spawning?

Most species of salmon die after spawning. Are there any other types of fish that spawn once and then die after a multi-year life-cylce? Is this a rare life history strategy among our human exploited ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

List of dinosaurs synonyms

Is there a comprehensive list of dinosaurs synonyms with indications of which name is now considered correct? Something like "there's no brontosaurus, there's only Apatosaurus", "there's no ...
2
votes
1answer
559 views

Thermodynamics of Forming Peptide Bonds

Which of the following shows the correct changes in thermodynamic properties for a chemical reaction in which amino acids are linked to form a protein? A) +ΔH, +ΔS, +ΔG B) +ΔH, -ΔS, -ΔG C) ...
2
votes
2answers
139 views

How to retrieve full gene names list and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any)?

How to retrieve full gene names and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any other software or language)? Is it possible vice versa: having full gene ...
25
votes
7answers
5k views

Is there anything that is completely non-toxic to humans at any dose?

Lately I have seen a number of unrelated "scientific" debates over whether certain substances should be outlawed because they are toxic to humans. My initial, informal reaction is usually to respond ...
12
votes
1answer
235 views

Why are fly not scared when landing on a monitor with changing graphics?

I have been wondering why would insects in general, not be scared when important changes happen on your monitor where they have landed... If you move even just a finger, they are scared to death and ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

How does Trifluralin kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Trifluralin (2,6-Dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills the weeds as they ...
10
votes
2answers
292 views

Can canines communicate with each other using gaze direction?

After researching why humans have white scleras when most primates have dark scleras, I stumbled upon the cooperative eye hypothesis. It proposed that white scleras may have evolved on behalf that it ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Heart Rate being normal when under treatment for the bends

When you surface from diving too quickly; you get "bends" - these are caused by gas bubbles forming in your lungs (especially nitrogen). This causes breathing problems if not treated since the bubbles ...
3
votes
1answer
99 views

Are abrasions considered closed wounds?

A closed wound is one where skin is intact and underlying tissue is not exposed to the environment. Abrasion is an erosion of skin usually due to sheering force. In most cases the dermis is intact ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Alternative plant taxonomies to Linneaus

In addition to Linneaus-inspired taxonomies of the botanical world, I suppose there are some other proposals for different kinds of taxonomic accounts, perhaps for specific sub-domains of botany or ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Do Parasaurolophus have hands with fingers to grab?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasaurolophus#mediaviewer/File:Parasaurolophus_cyrtocristatus.jpg I cannot tell if the hands have fingers strung together to form a hove, or fingers to grab. I have ...
6
votes
0answers
114 views

Up to date, extensive documentary about dinosaurs?

I just finished reading the Wikipedia page about dinosaurs, and I very much enjoyed it. I knew that much of what I learned in the 80's as a child is (and was) incorrect, and now that I am a parent, I ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

How does Isoxaben kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-1,2-oxazol-5-yl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills ...
6
votes
1answer
73 views

Why doesn't Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl damage cool season lawns?

For controlling bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, a serious perennial grassy lawn weed in my area, I use the herbicide Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. It kills the bermudagrass rather well, without damaging the ...
-1
votes
3answers
709 views

Why scientific names of animals & plants are made difficult to spell & remember?

Why scientific names of animals & plants are made difficult to spell & remember? Mango: it is easy to spell. Corvus splendens: it is difficult to spell
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Polychromatic Fur considered against Monochromatic Hair

As I was gazing at a strand of fur that had shed from my cat, I was struck by the alternating bands of white, black, and tan. It seems that genetically coding for such an intricate coat pattern would ...
2
votes
1answer
201 views

Does increased cell turnover cause cancerous mutations?

If a certain set of cells or tissue are undergoing a lot of reproduction and repair cycles for some reason, does this inevitably lead to cancerous growths? If the mutation rate exceeds the normal ...
9
votes
1answer
67 views

Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

Why did animals evolve genders? [duplicate]

The majority of animals have two genders, and both are needed in reproduction. It seems like it would be more advantageous for creatures to be hermaphrodites, since they could mate with any member of ...
4
votes
2answers
322 views

Why White Blood Cells (WBCs) do not react to foreign bodies like sperm?

Why do the white blood cells allow foreign bodies like sperm to exist inside body cavity without any reaction? White blood cells function is to fight against foreign bodies (from the text books).
3
votes
1answer
563 views

Why are sperm cells not attacked by the female immune system? [duplicate]

Whenever a foreign particle enters into someone's body, it is attacked by the white blood cells. I just want how it is that, when sperms enter the female body, they are not attacked by the the woman's ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Why don't breast enlargements leave any marks of surgery on breasts?

If we get stitches, we get marks left on the skin, but there are no marks for breast enlargements. I saw a YouTube video about a breast enlargement wherein a doctor makes a cut. Where does the cut ...
8
votes
1answer
142 views

How does Halosulfuron-methyl kill nutsedge, while leaving lawn grass and most weeds undamaged?

I use Halosulfuron-methyl to control yellow and purple nutsedge in lawns. This chemical acts by interfering with the acetolactate synthase enzyme, which quickly slows cell division, and growth at all ...
1
vote
0answers
149 views

Why not use lactase to aid the break down of lactose when making biofuels?

I did an experiment using nine different substrates (Lactose + lactase, corn, sugar cane, glucose control, wood, grass, no yeast control and yeast control) and observed their fermentation rates. ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

Diffusion of Hypotonic solution into solution with glucose and starch

Cell walls are selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules. Sometimes the selectivity is passive and a reflection of the physical laws governing diffusion. We can do simple experiments that ...
3
votes
2answers
143 views

Would a plant need light if the chemicals gained by photosynthesis were given through the roots or as a foliar spray?

If you took the chemicals a plant gains through photosynthesis and put it through the plants' roots or by injection, or used as a foliar application for intake through the stomata, would the plant ...
6
votes
0answers
70 views

How to measure Na/K channel activation at the membrane level?

Assume that there are two different signals occurring on the ECG - during depolarization and repolarization in the standard ECG. I was advised not to use the standard ECG in measuring the exact ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Are alleles passed down and shuffled randomly to the offspring during meiosis or fertilization?

If it does occur during meiosis, are the alleles switched over from one sister chromatid to the other during the crossing over process in Prophase I?
3
votes
1answer
27 views

How long do zebra fishes remain transparent?

As larva, zebra fishes are transparent, at least up to 5-6 days. I wonder what would be the upper limit of the transparent period. This is of relevance considering purposes for imaging. The question ...
8
votes
0answers
93 views

How to define “Quasifixation” in continuous approximation of finite population?

Background Many models including the famous very first models derived by Sir Ronald Fisher in his early career, assume infinite population size. In an infinite population, an allele can rise in ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Cannot conjugate Biotin-labeled DNA to Streptavidin-labeled solid surface

I have been trying to immobilize DNA by the bioconjugation of biotin and streptavidin, but I cannot get this work. I added EDC and streptavidin to COOH ...
5
votes
1answer
194 views

Plasmid in the nucleus and gene expression

If we insert a plasmid into a human nucleus that contains exact copy of gene and all relevant promoters to produce some human protein, will the cell create functional protein from that plasmid only ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Relation between a compound's toxicity and it's concentration level

I know that ammonia is toxic for the body since it disturbs enzymes of mitochondria. I want to know that why the ammonotelic animals don't get affected by it? I mean that even if there is plenty of ...
5
votes
3answers
214 views

Which fruit compounds affect the speed of fructose absorption?

Blood fructose levels are not regulated by insulin in the human body. This means that the body absorbs pure fructose very fast, and it raises the blood fructose levels rapidly. Do fruits/ vegetation ...
2
votes
0answers
16 views

Why there are two rounds of cytosine de-methylation in mammalian development?

I assume that the key biological meaning of cytosine de-methylation during germline development in germline progenitor cells is to reset imprinted genes and then set methylation pattern on these genes ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Which biosynthetic pathways take place in the plastid and were are they located?

I know that the isoprenoid, jasmonate, glucosinolate, fatty acids, chlorophyll, starch, and aromatic amino acid syntheses are located in the plastid. But I don't know if they are located in the ...
6
votes
1answer
103 views

Gender and age-specific mutation rate in plants

Background General concept According to Cochran and Harpending (2013), mothers transmits on average a number $x$ of new mutations to their offspring. This number $x$ is independent of the age of the ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

How can a plant become resistant to glufosinate?

From Wikipedia, the mode of action of the non selective herbicide Glufosinate is: Phosphinothricin is an glutamine synthetase inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Glufosinate-treated plants ...
7
votes
1answer
54 views

What is a positive epitope fragment

What is a positive epitope fragment? I found one paper on the subject: COBEpro: a novel system for predicting continuous B-cell epitopes by Michael J. Sweredoski and Pierre Baldi
2
votes
2answers
2k views

What is in the space between neurons in a brain?

When neuron animations are displayed, there are frequently seen neurons, axons arranged in a lattice with a lot of empty space between. I'm interested if there is indeed empty space in the brain, or ...
4
votes
1answer
205 views

Why is hyper pigmentation the common aftermath of skin lesions and abrasions?

I'm aware that melanocytes produce melanin, giving color to the skin, but why are these cells recruited or overactive when healing skin abrasions, lesions and sores when T-cells and inflammatory ...
5
votes
1answer
59 views

What Websites Have Image Libraries for Bacteria and other Microorganisms

What Websites Have Image Libraries for Bacteria and other Microorganisms? With age of cell phone microscopes and hand held spectrometers it would be interesting and valuable to be able to compare ...
1
vote
2answers
309 views

What are the differences between a benign tumor and swelling?

What are the differences between a benign tumor and an injury related swelling? And can swellings due to injury turn into a benign tumor?
1
vote
1answer
117 views

Basic Gene/Chromosome/Genome/Protein question.. which comes first? [closed]

How are they ordered? Genes make up Chromosome, and Chromosomes make up a Genome... So, where does Protein come into play? What do you call Genes that are spliced together to form something new? ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Is recombination suppressed in the males of all Drosophila species? Any other species?

Following up from this question, I am wondering if the phenomenon of genome-wide suppressed male recombination is limited to Drosophila melanogaster or is common to all Drosophila? The answer to the ...
0
votes
1answer
9k views

why male penis not considered as cartilage? [closed]

Penis don't have bone like ears & nose, then why why male penis not considered as cartilage? en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartilage
1
vote
0answers
92 views

What software/approach to use to build a graph based on microarray gene expression correlation?

What software to use to build a graph based on microarray gene expression mutual correlation? I have tried Cytoscape`s Reactome FI and a recipe from R bioinformatics cookbook, however, need a more ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

Are boat-tailed grackles efficient flyers?

The boat-tailed grackle's deep-V tail would seem to cause a great deal of drag or even downward deflection (like an airplane's elevators). How much does this actually affect the bird's flight?
1
vote
1answer
88 views

How was the origin of CTVT parasitic cancer determined?

The wikipedia article on CTVT says that the tumor cell has 57-64 chromosome while a normal dog has 78 chromosomes. Similarly while all chromosomes in dogs except the X and Y chromosomes are ...

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