2
votes
1answer
68 views

Why is duck fat less saturated than cow fat?

Why does the composition of fat in animals vary? Is there an evolutionary advantage to producing fat that is less or more saturated?
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Why are some chemical dangerous to aquatic environment only?

Recently I was changing the thermal grease on my PC. I have noticed on the back of box, that the grease is not dangerous when ingested or when touched. But there was specifically stated, that is ...
2
votes
1answer
303 views

Anaerobic respiration choice in E. coli

Under anaerobic conditions E. coli has two options to generate ATP: fermentation (substrate-level phosphorylation), and respiration (proton gradient, chemisomotic phosphorylation). Which is favored? ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Anatomy suffixes?

Here are some suffixes I want to know their meaning: -ium: trapezium (carpal bone) -ius: trapezius (column muscle) -ous: Talous and calcanous (tarsal bone) -alis: Acromialis, Ulnaris (shoulder ...
8
votes
1answer
822 views

How do Benzodiazepines induce Rewarding (Euphoric) effects?

Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that serve as positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor by binding to their own "site" on the aforementioned receptor. By doing this they produce ...
48
votes
1answer
13k views

Why do Humans not produce Vitamin C like other mammals?

Why do most mammals produce their own Vitamin C? Why do Humans not?
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Allergic rhinitis vaccine

Note : Any answer to this question will not be (and should not be) taken as medical advice. One of my friends has allergic rhinitis and has been prescribed an oral vaccine. He is allergic to 3 ...
4
votes
1answer
142 views

Epistasis Involving Multiple Loci

The following problem is from Schaum's Outlines on Genetics, 5th edition, by Elrod and Stansfield. I'm having some trouble solving it. It is found under a section entitled "Interactions with Three ...
9
votes
3answers
11k views

What's the worst that can happen from eating too many spicy peppers? Can you die?

Some peppers, such as the habanero or Carolina reaper are extremely spicy, and when eaten in larger amounts than one is accustomed to, can cause some discomfort. I've also heard anecdotes claiming ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

On which part of the DNA will the new DNA nucleotide connect? [closed]

My question is: Where will the new DNA nucleotide connect on the (part of the) DNA shown on the picture? Will it connect to the phosphate group? What does the 5' --> 3' mean? Thank you in ...
3
votes
1answer
709 views

Death by exsanguination not painful?

Several places on the internet seem to purport that animal sacrifice is painless because exsanguination causes no pain. That sounds unscientific to me and an attempt to appease culture than than using ...
1
vote
0answers
104 views

Why does low temperature make RuBP, GP and TP concentrations fall in Calvin cycle?

In my A level revision guide and places on the internet it states that at low temperatures levels of RuBP, GP and TP all fall. However I don't quite understand how this is the case, because as far as ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Can frequent ultrasound diagnostics be harmful?

Are there any short or long term effects apparent in tissues if a zone (or the whole) of human body is scanned with ultrasonic waves often?
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Can someone provide resources on human electromagnetic frequencies?

Pardon all of my questions below. I'm basically looking to find online resources regarding my inquiry. If you can answer any of them off the bat, that would be awesome!! It seems that humans and ...
1
vote
2answers
307 views

How are proteins formed?

Somewhere, I have read that we need to consume proteins to make amino acids to make new proteins. What does it suggest? How do we make proteins from proteins?
2
votes
0answers
46 views

$F_{ST}$ and the genetic variance in metapopulations

From this video (21'15''), the speaker gives the following formulae in order to calculate the between and among populations genetic variance from the $F_{ST}$: $$V_{Among Pop} = 2 F_{ST}V_G$$ ...
5
votes
1answer
222 views

What happens to fecal matter if it's continually re-eaten?

After class today, the topic of eating one's one fecal matter came up. There was a sharp divide as to how people thought the defecations would change. I realize this is a bit of an odd question but ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

How does a blunt force stimulate histamine to develop early stages of inflammation?

I know that viruses and sharp forces can stimulate mast cells by cut or by a virus infecting them and then release histamine. How can blunt force do this and cause inflammation? It doesn't have the ...
1
vote
3answers
188 views

Are hens and roosters the same species?

I know that one is a female chicken and the other is male chicken. Are the chickens laying eggs considered the same species as those that we use for poultry meat? Or, are they different sub-species, ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Why are hens so different from other birds? [closed]

Hens lay many eggs during their lifetime (at least, I don't know of one which can lay more eggs) and they can't fly. Compared to other domestic animals it seems to me they are the least capable of ...
3
votes
1answer
953 views

What is the biological function of nose hair?

What is the biological function of nose hair? In general, can we consider underarm hair and pubic hair to be vestigial structures?
3
votes
2answers
129 views

Highly spherical Radiolaria; does this image accurately depict the organism?

If I understand correctly, Cenosphaera spp. is a type of Radiolaria, which is a type of zooplankton. The following is an image of Cenosphaera spp. is from the supplementary material (Figure S2) of ...
4
votes
1answer
124 views

Is it possible to condition the body to reduce bruising?

I do combat sports, and in these sports there are a lot of hits that can cause bruising. I've found that, over time, physical conditioning can reduce and/or eliminate the bruising to the point where ...
2
votes
2answers
115 views

Do people with colorblindness have less cones or no cones of a certain type?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness#Red.E2.80.93green_color_blindness Protanopia (1% of males): Lacking the long-wavelength sensitive retinal cones, Deuteranopia (1% of males): ...
4
votes
1answer
314 views

Is there an antagonistic association between Penicillium and Aspergillus?

Some Aspergillus species appear to like walnuts. My question concerns the association of Penicillium and Aspergillus. No sooner does Aspergillus colonize a walnut (or some other challenging carbon ...
6
votes
1answer
399 views

Why is there no cure for Dandruff?

It looks like a simple problem, affecting almost half of the population at the post-pubertal age and of any gender and ethnicity [wikipedia]. What is so complex about finding a cure? Also, if you know ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

What exactly are “floaters”? [duplicate]

i was reading this artical after hearing about it on the news, while reading i saw the term "floaters" which made me remember of a recent Family Guy Episode in which there is a joke about them in ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

What does “thermodynamic equilibrium” mean for an enzyme-substrate complex?

From Fersht, Enzyme Structure and Mechanism p. 87: The Michaelis-Menten mechanism assumes that the enzyme-substrate complex is in thermodynamic equilibrium with free enzyme and substrate. In ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Religion and Genetics

Are there studies that investigate the heritability of believing in supernatural things (or related concepts)? Or stated differently. Are there studies that ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

What is the fastest but not venomous snake?

Is it known which non-venomous snake can attack most quickly? I guess it is a snake that attacks its opponent by bites, and not some kind of constrictor.
2
votes
1answer
372 views

What marine animals exhibit deep hibernation/aestivation?

Do marine animals exhibit deep hibernation/aestivation as land-based creatures do? If not, Why?
4
votes
1answer
162 views

Identify this large exotic bird spotted in Taipei, Taiwan

A few months ago while backpacking in Taipei I found this very intriguing large bird facing off a curious puppy in a fairly busy pedestrian area. The bird did not attempt to fly. None of the ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

Resting and action membrane potential..?

In the resting membrane potential of neurons the inside of membrane is kept negative and outside of membrane is kept positive by the utilization of energy through Na-K Atpase pump, While during action ...
2
votes
0answers
96 views

Transportation of bacteria

I would like to take an apparatus containing bacteria to another country (Bolivia) from the U.S.. How do I determine whether I am allowed to do this? The bacteria are: ...
1
vote
0answers
127 views

Is the default kmer 25 value in Trinity still ok for assembly of 150bp reads from Illumina HiSeq 2500?

I will soon be receiving Illumina HiSeq 2500 data (150bp PE stranded reads). In the past we have been using Trinity as our assembler of choice, but it uses a default kmer value of 25. I believe this ...
6
votes
1answer
516 views

What is the effect of garlic on intestinal flora?

Now that we can compare whole microbiomes, has there been investigations on the effect of garlic (or diallyl disulfide, its main ingredient) on intestinal flora? From the proven antimicrobial ...
5
votes
2answers
7k views

Which human cells have the longest and shortest lifespan?

Which cells in a human have the longest lifespan? Which cell has the shortest lifespan?
1
vote
1answer
32 views

How are cyclic hormones characterized?

I have a question regarding the description of a subset of peptide hormones, called cyclic hormones. Two examples of cyclic hormones would be somatostatin and melanin-concentrating hormones. I know ...
2
votes
1answer
180 views

Plant's phylogeny tree to identify which of them are closer (genetically) with another plant

I'am trying to create a phylogeny tree from some plants, as the post's title says, to help me conclude which of those plants are closer genetically with another one plant. So let's say that this is ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

I2D vs STRING for protein-protein interactions

Can someone clearly explain me the differences between STRING and I2D(Interlogous interaction database) ? What does each database do best ? Which database is better for what kinds of studies etc ?
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Do primitive lymph nodes exist in 12th week embryo?

Someone told me that primitive lymph nodes do not exist during this week. However, others say they can. Here is a picture about inguinal lymph nodes from here. No primary lymph nodes are visible ...
2
votes
0answers
105 views

Why the plants are not black but green? [duplicate]

if the evolution makes the species better then why the leaf and trees are not black?? black colour absorbs more ligth than simply the green color so a black plant should make photosinthesis better ...
4
votes
1answer
451 views

What is in Mosquito bites?

I was wondering what is in the mosquito bites, which causes the swelling of the skin at the bite and also the itching. I know that the mosquito injects some stuff, but what is it?
3
votes
1answer
105 views

How does the counter current mechanism concentrate urine?

The movement of ions like sodium into the interstitial space causes water to passively diffuse out the descending loop of Henle. How does this concentrate the urine? The solvent is removed at one ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

How long does it take for memory to disperse after death?

1: There seem to be cases where coma patients with a non-active brain (i.e. flat EEG) have regained full consciousness. => Apparently memory and knowledge are stored independent of brain activity. 2: ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Activity of DNA glycosylase

I am wondering how DNA glycosylase works from the chemical point of view. Sometimes in papers I can see that they are doing activity assays with 1M NaOH and I am trying to understand why using 1M NaOH ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

How deep does water have to be so a mosquito can lay viable eggs in it?

I read about this idea for a mosquito trap (with a rather tactless name) where the idea seems to be that because the water available for the mosquito eggs is so shallow, they will die somehow or not ...
4
votes
1answer
234 views

Are there any organisms that lack ATP synthase?

ATP synthase is used by cells to synthesise ATP from ADP using energy from a proton gradient. Depending on which sites I look at, this is either a universal feature of living cells, or it's "almost ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

What does “regulatory genomics” mean?

I have read about basics of molecular genetics ,although its not a thorough in-depth knowledge. I would like to know about "regulatory genomics". What is it actually?
3
votes
1answer
238 views

What do the Clustal Alignment Symbols Mean?

Occasionally I will run protein alignments on peptide families and I can never remember what the symbols mean to show degrees of identity. What do they mean?

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