1
vote
0answers
29 views

What is the distribution of the expected number of lineages in a birth-death tree after time T?

I've been looking at The reconstructed evolutionary process by Nee et al. 1994 and they provide a number of equations dealing with the birth-death process, specifically the "reconstructed" birth-death ...
3
votes
1answer
561 views

Why do genetic drift generates negative linkage disequilibrium?

The very first sentence of the abstract of this article is: "In finite populations subject to selection, genetic drift generates negative linkage disequilibrium, on average, even if selection acts ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

How did people's liking of ceremonies evolve? [closed]

Habitual group activities are prevalent across many animal species, particularly in mammals, especially in primates. However, I do not see any evolutionary benefit of this. 'Ceremonies' take time, ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
0
votes
1answer
160 views

What is possibly wrong with my gel electrophoresis when i don't see bands of DNA ladder? [closed]

![enter image description here][1] What was possibly wrong in my gel electrophoresis when I didn't see bands of DNA ladder? I'm running a 2% electrophoresis gel (65v for 2h) to confirm the presence ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

BSA for trouble shooting failed PCRs?

I am using PCR to amplify a 1000bp region of the CytB mt gene. Some of the samples had not amplified and I wish to change the reaction components (or use additives like BSA) to attempt at getting ...
4
votes
1answer
246 views

Math behind the Genetic Relationship Matrix

The genetic relationship matrix (GRM) can estimate the genetic relationship between two individuals (j and k) over m SNPs and i representing a specific SNP. What I dont understand from their equation ...
9
votes
1answer
524 views

Why are cell lines frozen in vapor phase?

For most of the cell lines I've come across, ATCC recommends storing them in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen. I'm taking that to mean any place above the level of liquid in the nitrogen storage ...
8
votes
1answer
248 views

What is the mechanism behind tinnitus?

I seem to have come across two contrasting explanations for tinnitus induced by loud noises- i.e. damage to the hair cells in the cochlea. On the one hand, I have read that damage to the hair cells ...
1
vote
1answer
266 views

Albinism inheritance problem: what are the father's alleles if he got an albino kid?

Albinism is caused by a recessive gen "c". A normal man marries an albino woman. The first son happened to be albino. What are the possible phenotypes of the parents? What is the chance that their ...
4
votes
2answers
56 views

Is the sun's damage to skin sufficient to warrant protection anytime the average person goes outside or just for extended periods?

According to the American Academy of Dermatology website, Everyone needs sunscreen Sunscreen should be used every day if you will be outside. The sun emits harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays year round. ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How is Glycophorin A and straphylococcal related to Escherichia coli and what does readily purified mean in this context?

I am reviewing the paper "Glycophorin A Dimerization Is Driven by Specific Interactions between Transmembrane Alpha-Helices." There is a statement in the abstract which I don't understand: "The ...
5
votes
2answers
168 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
4
votes
1answer
75 views

History: Do evolutionary and ecological processes occur at the same timescales?

Classically, it was thought that evolutionary processes occurred at a much slower pace than demographic/ecological processes. Nobody, ever thought about incorporating both processes into the same ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the swimming pool water harmful to frogs who jump in? If so, how?

Here is an odd question: Frogs have permeable skin. Indeed, via capillary action, frogs absorb water through their skin. Chlorine is in principle a harmful substance. I am sure what percentage of ...
8
votes
2answers
373 views
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Catabolism and muscle energy intake

From my own reading, there are three ways used by the body to produce energy: Alactic anaerobic (direct degradation of ATP and creatine phosphate for regeneration of ATP) Lactic anaerobic (breakdown ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

Cut strand of hair longevity?

Quick and useless question : what can be the longevity of a cut strand of hair, assuming we kept it in (good) normal conditions ? Any idea ?
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Unsure why Synechococcus moves at angle in cuvette

I'd really appreciate your help. I'm working with Synechococcus. In my experiment, I have Synechococcus in a solution of milli-Q water. I illuminated it with a focused white light through a pinhole ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

How much does the nutritional value of insects depend on what they're fed? [closed]

Insects are often touted as being the food of the future due to their nutritional value and small amount of resources required to raise them. However, how dependent is the nutritional value of an ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

Do mutations come in pairs? [closed]

As DNA is organized in a double-helix, a change in one strand must be accompanied by a corresponding change in the other strand. Let's say an original sequence CATCAT mutates into CATGAT. The other ...
9
votes
1answer
74 views

Use of Gene Guns

Gene guns (biolistic particle delivery systems) use gold or tungsten atoms coated with plasmid DNA and bombard it on cells. Their use, as far as I understand, is mostly limited to plant cells. From ...
6
votes
2answers
269 views

What is the latency between paired neuronal responses in the brain?

Is there any data on how long it takes for signals to propagate from one neuron to its neighbors in complex networks, such as the brain (particularly the neo-cortex)? If not, is there any reasonable ...
3
votes
2answers
267 views

What insect is in this photo?

Found in Russia, in the kitchen. It is about 1–2 cm length.
4
votes
1answer
362 views

What kind of caterpillar is this?

I've made a photo using the reversed 58 mm lens and my cropped DSLR: Could you please help? I really don't know where this came from. I found it in Russia.
7
votes
2answers
128 views

Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t (...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Does alcohol really do more damage to the body of a child compared to an adult?

Beside the fact that children and teens (people under the age of 18 year) usually have less body weight than the average adult, is there a biologically fundamental difference between the damage done ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Best articles on Rad51/Rad52

What are the best journal articles to read on Rad51/Rad52 in the context of homologous recombination and cancer?
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Interaction study of oligomeric proteins

I'm dealing with two different protein(say, protein_a and protein_b) which stays in an interacting-oligomeric form in biological system. I have so far successfully been able to purify both the ...
28
votes
1answer
4k views

Why is the brain white?

I have read many articles about how the brain is the most power-hungry organ in any living complex organism, requiring about 70% of it's oxygen supplies in the resting state. Since the usual medium ...
0
votes
1answer
182 views

How long do human egg cell grow up?

I read article about alcohol harm where written that child may bear with birth defect cause mother used to drink alcohol 10 years ago so egg cell stay damages that long. I don't believe that human ...
4
votes
2answers
81 views

Why lab technicians use indirect (antibody reaction) method for diagnosing?

In microbiology we have two types of microbial diagnosis. The direct method is where we detect the invader's DNA, Antigens or culture to see the exact pathogen while the second, indirect, method is ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Is the PCT of the nephrons of the kidneys of marine vertebrates to minimize the natural tendency for exosmosis?

For marine vertebrates, the concentration of salts outside their body (in the water, that is) is more than that inside their body. So, there is a natural tendency for exosmosis to occur. To minimise ...
16
votes
1answer
40k views

Can a person really die quickly from biting their tongue?

A common trope in certain circles (like Eastern martial fiction), is someone committing quick suicide by biting his or her tongue. But is this really possible? The internet turns up millions of ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

What is the C765-Gal4 driver? [closed]

What is a gene driver and what does C765 stand for? Is Gal4 a transcription factor? Source: "Dynamics of Dpp Signaling and Proliferation Control"
0
votes
0answers
94 views

How to get Population Genotype Frequency from 1000 genomes Perl API

Posted a similar question on Biostars but got no response. Not sure if I'm allowed to link to it? Basically I want to pull genotype frequency data for a population group (such as CEU) instead of ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Why do we itch? [duplicate]

Here I have a simple question why do we itch? Is it because of some alteration of the skin or just a reflex action by the CNS? I am asking for a reasoned scientific answer to this.
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
6
votes
1answer
252 views

iodine: how did they manage without it in old ages? (People who were living far from the sea)

Knowing that today iodine comes either from fish products or (artificially) enriched table salt, how did people who lived far from the sea survive before (especially during the the Middle Ages)? Edit ...
9
votes
2answers
243 views

Cause of hexadactylisim in Amish people

Is it caused by inbreeding of many generations within an isolated population?
0
votes
0answers
76 views

How to mimic / approach some animals/insects' anabolism?

This article states that some shelled animals - spiders, scorpions, crabs, worms and other creatures - have metal atoms in their claws, jaws and fangs. I believe through anabolism, since they eat sand,...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why would mutation rates increase in a tumour?

This article describes a tumour: Swanton found that even the primary tumour was surprisingly varied. He found 128 mutations among the various samples, but only a third of these were common to all ...
5
votes
2answers
55 views

Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine.
3
votes
2answers
75 views

Madrid, Noise by the river: Bird or cricket?

I currently live in Madrid, Spain. In July there was a loud animal near the river, in an out of town area surrounded by grassland, with trees along the river. It's continued into August, though it ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

does phagocytosis dependent on opsonization?

does phagocytotic activity of macrophages and neutrophils depends on opsonization by IGg (antibody) and C3 complex,if it does, so then why macrophages and neutrophils are categorized in Innate immune ...
3
votes
1answer
126 views

If nerve consists of many axons, where are then their soma located?

This question has haunted me for two years. Wikipedia mentions : A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Does tremor frequency generally increase as Parkinson's disease progresses?

I've been trying to research this question, but most if not all the on-line journals require costly subscription, and the studies that are posted look at tremor frequency with regards to other factors....
8
votes
2answers
239 views

If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...

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