41
votes
1answer
29k views

Why Does Salt Water Help Sore Throats?

I am having some trouble understanding how salt water, a simple solution, could so effectively remove the pains of a sore throat. I do believe that the answer is closely related to hypo/hyper-tonic ...
5
votes
2answers
143 views

Premise of life cycle synchronization between predator and prey

While reading about the predator satiation hypothesis of the periodical cicadas' 13/17 year life cycles, I started wondering about its premise. By the way, I understand the math behind the prime ...
9
votes
4answers
904 views

What prevents predator overpopulation?

I've often heard that a population, human or otherwise, will continue to grow as long as there is food available (assuming nothing else is killing them off). It makes sense: if you have food you can ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Is it a medical condition to not able to recall the word in a language while having a conversation [closed]

While having a conversation it happens to some peopl that clearly they know there exists a perfect word to be used but can not recall it during the conversation in real time and hence forced to use ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Hot water bath and Infertility

From here: Effect of temperature. Sperm cells will not mature at core body temperature in most mammals (spermatogenic DNA polymerase b and recombinase activities exhibit unique temperature ...
6
votes
4answers
704 views

If Evolution Is In Progress, Why Fight Extinction?

Natural selection is a central tenet of evolution. However, most biologists seem determined to prevent the extinction of the species that have been selected against. Why is this? Preservation of ...
9
votes
2answers
455 views

Why do birds move their heads abruptly?

When we humans look around, we pan smoothly from one side to the other. Birds on the other hand seem to point their head in one direction for a while, then abruptly point their head in another ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

What is topological crossover?

I read about "topological crossover?" in this paper 1, Table 1. What does this refer to? Thanks
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Why does death exist? [duplicate]

The biological purpose of an organism is to reproduce and as soon as reproductive age is passed, aging kicks in and eventually leads to death. (This is what I learned from a gerontologist.) But then, ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

How to decide if genes are linked in an unordered mapping problem?

From what I understand, if the tetrads resulting from a cross exhibit the same number of parental ditypes as there are nonparental ditypes, then the genes under consideration are said to be unlinked. ...
4
votes
1answer
117 views

Why do the proportion of predators increase at mass extinction events?

Why does predation surge with mass extinction? It is caused by extreme selective pressures over resource competition that forces certain species to adapt to predatory niches?
3
votes
1answer
134 views

How do cats survive falling from great heights?

Among mammals, cats are able to land safely when falling from great heights. For example, when compared to dogs or humans they can survive drops from relative large heights. How do they manage? A ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Why is the resting potential of a neuron so close to the equilibrium potential of K⁺?

I know this has something to do with the K+ leak channel. I just don't understand how. I know that 3 Na+ are pumped out for every 2 K+ pumped in. This makes the cell interior net negative. I know ...
-3
votes
1answer
87 views

Human Species of Males/Females [closed]

Why is it that when there is discussion about Race/Subspecies it is never about the genetic/physical differences between males and females. So every argument has been about physical and geographic ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is it about the housekeeping genes that makes them almost immune to gene regulation?

When it comes to eukaryotes, including ourselves, we have all different kinds of specialized cells and tissues that are so different, yet originally all came from the same single cell. And apparently ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Are there U-rich transcriptional pause sites?

I've heard a statement in a talk that U-rich sequences cause transcriptional pausing. The intuitive explanation for this was that the UTP concentration is lower in the cell than the ATP concentration. ...
4
votes
0answers
61 views

Why aren't circadian rhythms exactly 24 hours long?

Most organisms exhibit circadian rhythms that have a periodicity of about, but not exactly 24 hours. Why is this? And to what extent can variation in periodicity in circadian rhythms among the ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

How to engineer chromosomal duplications?

Specific genetic engineering of chromosomal aberrations like deletions, inversions and translocations are doable by using the CRISPR/Cas system or the other programmable nuclease systems. Insertions ...
8
votes
2answers
63 views

All UniprotIDs of a cancer pathway

I need to download all uniprotIDs of a cancer pathway, say the AKT Signaling. It may be super easy, but I don't know which resource to look at since it is a new field. How/where do I find these?
9
votes
1answer
773 views

How are we able to find the specific sites at which DNA binding proteins bind?

We know that some DNA binding proteins are site specific, that is they recognise and bind to a specific nucleotide sequence. My question is how can we precisely tell at which sites they bind? Is it ...
6
votes
2answers
76 views

SNPs and locations

I am new to reading raw DNA. When comparing two people's raw data, why does one person have a different SNP than the other, at the same location, on specific chromosome? But on a different chromosome ...
6
votes
1answer
98 views

Receptors for red and far-red light in plants: Shade avoidance

Franklin (2009) describes how plants use the ratio of the red wavelength (660-670nm) over the far-red wavelength (725-735nm) (R:FR) in order to avoid shading. My question is: which receptor is ...
7
votes
1answer
223 views

What evolutionary advantages are provided by ovoviviparity?

I read that some sharks are ovoviviparous. What advantages and disadvantages are provided by this type of reproduction as opposed to egg laying and live birth?
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Why I have to pee more often in low temperature? [closed]

I realised that I have to pee more often in winter or simply the temperature is low. Is there any scientific explanation, or just simply psychology?
1
vote
0answers
132 views

First documented beneficial mutation?

I've been reading up on beneficial mutations, and am curious when we discovered and documented the first one. Can anyone point me to the first documented beneficial mutation? Per request, let me ...
5
votes
3answers
223 views

How does menstruation proceed during one period?

I'm simplifying things here: A. Does a woman bleed constantly, like a drop every 10 minutes? Two hours without pad or tampon and your underwear is dirty? or B. Does a woman bleed suddenly a ...
4
votes
1answer
180 views

How does Pothos grow in only water?

The popular potted plant, Pothos aureus (or Epipremnum aureum) is happy to grow in a jar, with only water, for years. How is this possible when other plants need at least Nitrogen, Phosphorus and ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

What senses are active while sleeping?

During sleep, our body activity decreases. I am wondering on the extent of the lowering of this activity regarding our five senses. Clearly, the sense of touch is still very efficient since shaking a ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Why did humans become bipedal?

Somewhere in evolutionary history homo started walking upright and became bipedal. You hear these hypotheses that, by walking upright, they could see better across the grassy savannas to escape ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

Is there a standard formula/calculation for sexual dimorphism?

Is there a standard, or most accepted, way to present a value for sexual dimorphism? For example, one could use $$\frac{\text{Female value}}{\text{Male value}} -1$$ This would give negative values ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Blood circulation - How to expand blood capillaries?

Do blood capillaries expand? If yes, through what means can it be done? And can warm water also be used to expand blood capillaries?
0
votes
0answers
53 views

Phenotype choice for one of a MZ twin pair in a genetic association study

I was having a discussion with a colleague and this question came up... It is commonplace in molecular genetics studies to only genotype one of a pair of monozygotic twins (and then implicitly impute ...
9
votes
3answers
6k views

What makes a gene dominant or recessive [duplicate]

We all carry two copies of each gene (outside of male sex chromosomes). If the two differ from each other often one is dominant and one recessive. How does this mechanism work on a molecular level? ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

Was Earth's atmosphere more buoyant in the prehistoric era then today?

The mass and size of the dinosaurs and prehistoric insects continues to amaze me. I read from an earlier post that oxygen was more abundant during the prehistoric era. However supporting the weight ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

How does beta branching stop alpha helices from forming?

I am told that beta branching interferes with alpha helix formation. Problem is that I don't see how beta branching has anything to do with alpha-helix formation. Beta-branches are on the outside of ...
17
votes
3answers
48k views

Why can white hairs get dark again?

I have learned (probably in high school?) that hairs turning white is caused by the part of the folicle which produces the pigment dying and being replaced by an air bubble. This sounds very ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

How to get a pdb file of a single atom?

I am trying to get a pdb file that contains a single atom, it doesn't matter if it's Hydrogen or another atom. How can I obtain this? Are there any pdb files with just a single atom available to ...
2
votes
2answers
161 views

Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles

I'm undergraduate physics student, but I've always been interested in biology. So I have a couple of questions about an application of the evolutionary principles to practice. Agony as the last ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

How to measure heat loss in Tardigrades

I want to measure metabolism in tardigrades (a jar of 30 tardigrades). I know that an easy way to measure metabolism is heat loss; I can just measure the temperature of the water before and after a ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

What fish (and/or shellfish) species with a multi-year life-cycle, besides salmon, die after spawning?

Most species of salmon die after spawning. Are there any other types of fish that spawn once and then die after a multi-year life-cylce? Is this a rare life history strategy among our human exploited ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

List of dinosaurs synonyms

Is there a comprehensive list of dinosaurs synonyms with indications of which name is now considered correct? Something like "there's no brontosaurus, there's only Apatosaurus", "there's no ...
2
votes
1answer
566 views

Thermodynamics of Forming Peptide Bonds

Which of the following shows the correct changes in thermodynamic properties for a chemical reaction in which amino acids are linked to form a protein? A) +ΔH, +ΔS, +ΔG B) +ΔH, -ΔS, -ΔG C) ...
2
votes
2answers
139 views

How to retrieve full gene names list and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any)?

How to retrieve full gene names and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any other software or language)? Is it possible vice versa: having full gene ...
25
votes
7answers
5k views

Is there anything that is completely non-toxic to humans at any dose?

Lately I have seen a number of unrelated "scientific" debates over whether certain substances should be outlawed because they are toxic to humans. My initial, informal reaction is usually to respond ...
12
votes
1answer
236 views

Why are fly not scared when landing on a monitor with changing graphics?

I have been wondering why would insects in general, not be scared when important changes happen on your monitor where they have landed... If you move even just a finger, they are scared to death and ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

How does Trifluralin kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Trifluralin (2,6-Dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills the weeds as they ...
10
votes
2answers
292 views

Can canines communicate with each other using gaze direction?

After researching why humans have white scleras when most primates have dark scleras, I stumbled upon the cooperative eye hypothesis. It proposed that white scleras may have evolved on behalf that it ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Heart Rate being normal when under treatment for the bends

When you surface from diving too quickly; you get "bends" - these are caused by gas bubbles forming in your lungs (especially nitrogen). This causes breathing problems if not treated since the bubbles ...
3
votes
1answer
100 views

Are abrasions considered closed wounds?

A closed wound is one where skin is intact and underlying tissue is not exposed to the environment. Abrasion is an erosion of skin usually due to sheering force. In most cases the dermis is intact ...

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