4
votes
2answers
2k views

Neutralizing TCA washes [closed]

Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is commonly used for protein precipitation but the wash waste needs to be neutralized prior to disposal. What exactly is required to effectively neutralize TCA waste? Do I ...
12
votes
0answers
127 views

What have the L-systems (Lindenmayer systems) been actually used for in biology?

Wikipedia: An L-system or Lindenmayer system is a parallel rewriting system and a type of formal grammar. L-systems were introduced and developed in 1968 by Aristid Lindenmayer, a Hungarian ...
2
votes
3answers
325 views

Blood urea nitrogen and usage of proteins?

I have been reading some books and am getting slightly confused. Here is roughly what I have read. The greater the blood urea nitrogen the greater the usage of proteins (since blood urea nitrogen ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

What is the meaning and significance of extreme pathways

Can someone please explain me what extreme pathways are? I found this definition in this article: Extreme pathways are a unique and minimal set of vectors that completely characterize the ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Requirements for soil sample transportation over long distance

I need to collected soil sample from agricultural area far away from my lab. It would required about a week for the sample to arrive to lab. I need the soil sample for genomic DNA isolation (...
46
votes
5answers
5k views

Life without DNA?

I'm by no means an expert in the field, merely a curious visitor, but I've been thinking about this and Google isn't of much help. Do we know of any lifeforms that don't have the conventional double-...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Why are plants referred to by their Latin species names, and not by their popular names?

Often the names of herbal ingredients in certain cosmetics products are given by their scientific names like Anthemis nobilis instead of chamomile or Lavandula angustifolia instead of lavender. Is ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Are grasshoppers monogamous?

Noticed two grasshoppers jumping together on the porch, and started wondering if they are monogamous? I am aware they have males and females.
-1
votes
1answer
42 views

Do herbaceous plants have woody parts? [closed]

Do herbaceous plants, especially perennial plants have woody parts, like woody stem?
0
votes
0answers
72 views

Does bromophenol blue cause a shadow on agarose gels stained with SYBR Gold?

Bromophenol blue in loading dye is known to cast shadows/absorb emitted light signal from DNA on Ethidium bromide gels during imaging. But if SYBR Gold is instead used as the nucleic acid stain, does ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Is NADPH unstable in UV light?

I am working on an enzyme activity assay using NADPH as a cofactor. The MSDS for NADPH Tetrasodium Salt, tells to store it in a place away from heat and light. Does this include UV light or just ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Would a person live longer, if such a person lived in a planet with lower gravity? (say, Mars) [closed]

I was wondering: some companies plan to colonize Mars, many of us know. But if one were to live on Mars, would this person live longer? It seems to me that a lower gravity would mean less overall ...
5
votes
1answer
207 views

Do deaf people sleep better?

Since deaf people can't hear, is relaxing and falling asleep easier for them? In general, do they sleep better than hearing people? Of course some hearing people have no trouble getting to sleep, but ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Do epidermal differentiated cells release cutin, like guard cells?

Cutin is released by epidermal cells. Do epidermal differentiated cells like guard cells or trichomes or root hairs also release cutin? Many thanks.
8
votes
4answers
564 views

Why people like to see pornographic scenes, but do not feel the same about eating scenes? [closed]

This question may seem funny, but I think biology must have good answers. I think no more explanation is needed. I really thought about this and searched for an answer, but there is nothing yet. If ...
8
votes
1answer
196 views

Is our color vision calibrated to sky, vegetation, and blood?

Our color vision is based on three types of receptors (cones) which are sensitive to three distinct locations on the spectrum: 420–440 nm, 534–555 nm, and 564–580 nm. We label them "red", "green", ...
0
votes
1answer
122 views

What specific mutations can cause an apoptosis mechanism to malfunction?

What specific mutations can cause the apoptosis mechanisms in a cell to malfunction? Are any such mutations 'reversible' , somehow or are they generally permanent? what kind of mutations can happen ...
4
votes
2answers
63 views

If one endures the same form pain over a long period of time, would the pain begin to lose intensity?

Metaphorically thinking, if one endured the pain of constant burning for decades, would the pain slowly lose its strength?
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Species Identification: Spider

I usually would search for myself, but I need to be super sure about the identification because I need to know if I need to get an exterminator in here or not. (I think it might be a giant house ...
1
vote
2answers
79 views

Can someone identify this stinging plant?

I have no idea where this plant came from, or what it is. What I do know is its leaves are covered in little hairs, there's little thorns growing all over it, and just by rubbing its leaf it burns you ...
1
vote
3answers
115 views

What fraction of sites are expected to be polymorphic?

Question Consider a very long (eventually infinite) DNA sequence of neutral sites. Consider a panmictic population of constant size $N$ with a per site mutation rate of $\mu$ where all individuals ...
4
votes
2answers
21k views

What are the functions and differences between axons and dendrites?

My textbook doesn't do a very good job of pointing out what the differences between the two are. It basically mentions axons only in the same breath as the synapse (that synapses are the endings/tips ...
5
votes
1answer
369 views

What flowering green plant is this?

I got this green plant as a gift many years ago, but I have never seen it flower before. It has a strong, pleasant scent and cool flowers so I'd really would like to know what it is.
0
votes
0answers
53 views

Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
9
votes
3answers
10k views

What is the distinction between chemokines, cytokines, interferons and interleukins?

They all seem to describe molecules of similar function and many people seem to use them interchangeably. Also please include any other similar molecules if I've forgotten any in the list above.
10
votes
1answer
1k views

How do female hormones cause blood to clot?

On most female-hormone supplements you get a warning that is something like this: The use of a combination hormonal contraceptives (CHC), like NuvaRing, is associated with increased risks of ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

What is the fluid clearance rate inside the retina?

I'm attempting to model the chemical concentration between several compartments of the eye, including the retina. Does anyone have any idea what the rate of fluid removal is in the retina, or could ...
2
votes
0answers
118 views

Do domesticated animals necessarily live longer than wild animals? counterexample wanted!

Generally domesticated animals do not need to worry about their food and other predators. They have a lower probability to get sick. However, it seems there is no sharp difference between wild pigs ...
5
votes
1answer
81 views

Is transplantation of neurons between species possible?

Can brain tissue from one species be implanted into the brain of another species? Because the brain is tolerant to the introduction of antigens (it is said to be immuno-privileged), I was wondering ...
5
votes
1answer
241 views

How to calculate the percentage of heterozygous cells based on a gene map

I've encountered the following question and am quite stumped by it. A female with genotype AABBCC has been hybridized with a male that has the genotype aabbcc. The first generation (F1) has been ...
2
votes
2answers
131 views

Osmotic Pressure and Enzyme Activity

Is it true that in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the rate of reaction does not vary with varying osmotic pressure? Instead of just a true or false answer, why does it, or why does it not vary with ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Correct enzyme nomenclature

I notice many wikipedia articles, courses, pathway sites use a different abbreviation for the same enzyme. Eg: Wikipedia lists the abbreviation of phosphoglycerate mutase as PGM, whilst wikipaths ...
7
votes
1answer
82 views

How does chromosome fusion get fixed in the population?

It's well known that one of human chromosomes is the result of fusion between two chromosomes in a primate ancestor. If we put anthropocentrism aside, it becomes clear that fusion events happened a ...
0
votes
0answers
86 views

Saline solution for animals

A popular "well-known fact" is that all creatures on Earth consist mostly of water (i.e. H2O). Indeed, a liquid called "normal saline solution" is just a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride in distilled ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

How does botulinum toxin enter the blood stream from the digestive tract?

To my understanding, large polypeptides such as botulinum toxin cannot pass the intestinal lining intact. How, then, can it enter the bloodstream and cause botulism poisoning?
3
votes
1answer
99 views

Do bees make honey from fallen fruit?

I know bees make honey from nectar, and I know they drink the juice of fallen fruit, but do they actually make honey from fruit, or do they only eat from it for themselves?
10
votes
3answers
548 views

Why are the organs for reproduction and urinary excretion combined?

We eat food for getting energy to our body parts, and we excrete the wastes through urine, feces, and perspiration. Why has nature combined the urinary tract with the genital system (urogenital ...
6
votes
2answers
55 views

Why do epithelial cells arrest in response to serum?

Primary epithelial cells, for example human mammary epithelium, fail to proliferate (arrest) in serum-containing medium. Therefore, a common growth medium for epithelium contains pituitary extract ...
1
vote
1answer
448 views

Generate full dimer from monomer with C2 symmetry?

I downloaded a PDB file of a dimer, but it only contains the monomer, and it says that the dimer can be obtained from C2 symmetry. For an example see here: http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/explore.do?...
4
votes
2answers
829 views

Is it true that bees and wasps don't sting if struck by hand while they are in flight?

Is it true that wasps don't sting if struck by hand while flying? I know of one person who claims to have done this at least 20 times and has never been stung. And out of curiosity (not that I'd want ...
4
votes
2answers
409 views

Does learning increase the number of neurons in the brain?

I am attempting to understand neurogenesis related to learning. Does learning increase the number of neurons in the human brain? What would be some good scientific publications to read?
10
votes
1answer
96 views

Can a lizard shed a regrown tail again?

Some lizards are famous for their ability to voluntarily shed their tail to elude predators (Autotomy). After a while, the tail will be regenerated, though with slightly different qualities, as ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Why is there a compound highlighted in red in a KEGG Module search?

Considering the following module: http://www.kegg.jp/kegg-bin/show_module?M00115+C00003 why is the compound C00003 marked in red?
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Presence of reaction module in bacteria but not in Eukaryotas (human)

From the statistics page, I found that the Module-M00008 is present only in bacteria and not Eukaryotes. Why so? I noticed that all the compounds necessary or the reaction are present in human body ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

shRNA knockdown not showing with Western

I've recently been performing shRNA transfections and was hoping to get some advice on why I'm not seeing any knockdown via western blot I transfected by MDAMB468 breast cancer cell lines with shRNA ...
1
vote
1answer
207 views

Can roots have cuticle, especially aerial roots?

In my school biology book, it is written that cuticle covers the epidermal cells in aerial parts of plants and root epidermis doesn't have cuticle. My question is that whether aerial roots, in plants ...
3
votes
2answers
87 views

Cell line immortalisation biosafety

Cell lines are often immortalised by artificial expression of proteins which specifically cause the knockout of important cancer suppression genes or the activation of proto-oncogenes. Cellular ...
6
votes
2answers
68 views

Can a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color-vision deficiency?

Women possess two X chromosomes. However, during development, when the embryo has about 32 - 64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by an lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Color vision across species

Is it true that color vision is sex-linked for all species with binary sexes? Is there an evolutionary significance to the fact that color vision is X-linked in humans? E.g., only female humans can be ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

What information does the KEGG Module statistics page show?

While browsing through the home page of KEGG Module, I clicked the button named Module statistics. Can someone tell me what does these numbers signify? What are they the statistics of?

15 30 50 per page