2
votes
1answer
41 views

How do processes of one osteocyte establish contact with processes of the adjacent cells within the mineralized matrix?

Are the processes and canaliculi formed and contacts established after the osteocytes are embeded in the matrix or are they formed during the embedding process itself. Is there any evidence to suggest ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

What happens during a Raynauds episode?

Raynaud's phenomenon can be a serious health issue, as the blood flow to the extremities, mainly the fingers is compromised, causing fingers to blanche, and then turn blue. Severe Raynaud's can cause ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

Why doesn't Diabetes cause death by starvation?

The main cause for diabetes is lack of insulin in the body. Insulin is the hormone that allows body cells to absorb glucose from the blood. With out insulin, the body cells can't get glucose from the ...
2
votes
4answers
126 views

Why is too much glucose harmful?

I learned the citric acid cycle in biotechnology school and how cells work; about ADP and ATP and how the Cellular respiration (C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2+6H2O) works. I am interested in understanding why ...
4
votes
1answer
144 views

Does a non-extinct gliding species of bird exist?

According to wikipedia was Archaeopteryx rather glider than capable of active flight. As a hunting strategy it crawl up to a tree (or other high positioned place) and glide from it to a prey. Most of ...
2
votes
1answer
204 views

Why does a housecat (or other predator) play with it's food before killing and eating it? Does it make the food taste better?

I've read a couple people theorize that a cat playing with a mouse causes the mouse's body to be flushed with adrenaline before the final kill and that this adrenaline makes the meat more ...
1
vote
1answer
317 views

Identifying structures from anterior end of dissected prawn

Note: This image might be disturbing. I want to know what the red and the black structures (directly posterior to the red structure) are. I guess it's the heart.
5
votes
1answer
47 views

Implications of what the discovery of Naia means

Recently a discovery was made of a ~12,000 year old girl in Hoyo Negro in Mexico. This has been covered by many different news agencies. I'm confused however by many of the reports. Does it ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

About molecules and their shape

When a molecule is being used in some biochemical process it has a certain 3-d structure. Is this maintained throughout it's usage or can one specific molecule change it's 3-d shape while it is being ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Periods of Heavy Speciation

I have a set of microRNA ages with corresponding labels suggesting which clade they first emerged from. For instance, for hsa-mir-1, let's say, it would have an age of Eutheria. I have several peaks ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why are particulate matter toxic to humans?

There are many studies on fine particles (PM2.5) and their fully negative effect on human health. There doesn't seem to have any positive aspect of inhaling particles, except very particular ones, but ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Where do flies go?

Where are flies attracted most? Apart from food odours, of course. Why do they seem to be attracted by hot and humid places? Do they prefer shades or light? Why do they tend to get inside very easily? ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
0
votes
1answer
592 views

If penis reconstruction from a clitoris is possible why isn't penis enlargement possible?

I don't understand why, if a penis can be reconstructed from a clitoris for sex change, surgical penis enlargement is not possible.
3
votes
1answer
123 views

Identifying internal structures of dissected fish

Note : Images displayed below might be disturbing to some people. I have dissected a fish for the first time ! I have some idea of what some of the structures might be but I am not sure and so would ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

Thrombus and Embolii

Can treatment of thrombus cause embolism, in case of very high blood pressure, that may even lead to a heart attack ? As the very high Blood pressure may cause some of the enzymes not act completely ...
8
votes
1answer
65 views

Is there any completely Computation Drug ever launched in market?

I am working in bioinformatics(part of it in Drug Designing) for years, still if I have no idea about it. As it is too hard to prove (Pass all Clinical trials) and get FDA Approvals. So, My question ...
2
votes
1answer
329 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
7
votes
1answer
221 views

Refractory period in action potential

I know that the part E in this graph is definitely the part of refractory period. My question : Will there be any effect on B,C or D if a stimulus is given at time B,CorD respectively ?
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Sequence alignment scoring

The following table is from Deonier's text Computational Gene Analysis at p. 152. This is an exercise in global sequence alignment and scoring of alternative sequences. The text proposed a solution ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

bacterial cell wall degradation in humans

can human degrade the D-amino acid present in bacterial cell wall, I'm confused about it i have read somewhere that human can do so.If yes than why we need antibiotic to kill bacteria???If it is not ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Cancer cure statistics questions

I have a question about cancer cure statistics. Many of the cancer literature or databases I have come across speak about 5 year or 10 year survival rates. In this case survival means that the patient ...
6
votes
2answers
218 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...
6
votes
3answers
109 views

Hebbian theory “fire together” clarification

Donald Hebb states it as follows: "Let us assume that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its stability.… ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Can neurotransmitter depletion cause short-term drug tolerance?

I'm curious to know if neurotransmitter degradation factors into drug tolerance and neural conduction and, if so, to what extent. As I recall from textbooks I read as an undergrad, one mechanism of ...
1
vote
2answers
209 views

Significance of synthesis of D-glucose in plants..?

why plants can only synthesize D-glucose why not L-glucose along with D glucose. I know it very well that plants have only enzymes which can synthesize D-glucose but Why not they have enzymes which ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Does documentation exist that shows the evolutionary connection between common horses and the okapi?

I'm trying to put together some documentation on the relation between the common (modern) horse and the okapi. I've found a tree that shows that connection but it has no references. I'm hoping that ...
7
votes
1answer
221 views

Why do Mangoes have a single large seed, and not multiple small ones?

I was just thinking about this, wouldn't it make more sense for a mango to have multiple seeds, as it would allow more seed propagation?
2
votes
1answer
222 views

Why does chewing enrage me?

Whether it's snacking on chips, munching on salad, or simply chewing gum, when I hear someone do it within an earshot, it drives me completely bonkers! It doesn't matter if it's my girlfriend, my ...
4
votes
2answers
187 views

Where can I find a list of common enzyme cofactors and/or co-enzymes?

Where can I find a list of enzyme cofactors and/or co-enzymes, ordered by how common they are? For example, $O_2$, $H_2O$, $ATP$, $ADP$, $NAD$, should be ranked in the first places, because they ...
4
votes
2answers
218 views

Effect of testosterone hormone on cell signalling and behaviour?

A steroid, testosterone was injected in female body which led to development of secondary sexual characters but these characters were not developed over night (Response was very slow). What could be ...
5
votes
2answers
556 views

biologically speaking, what's the difference between sleeping and just resting?

I can lay down in a rested position with my mind at ease, but no matter how relaxed I am or for how long i do it, it seems I'll still need sleep eventually. What's the difference - what is occurring ...
4
votes
1answer
86 views

What does hemozoin do?

My bio book refers to HEMOZOIN that is responsible for the shiver during malaria. How does hemozoin work to raise the body heat?
3
votes
1answer
793 views

Long term liquid food diet by blending/grinding all quality foods one would normaly eat, not any weight loss or prepared drinks

I want to know what are the effects of not using your teeth to grind foods but preparing it before eating with blending and grinding them into a liquid. Here I am not talking about any weight loss or ...
2
votes
1answer
161 views

what is the margarine metabolism in our body?

margarine is commonly used food ingredients that contribute to both inflammation and obesity , but actually I want to know the margarine metabolism in the human body I can find some resources talk ...
4
votes
1answer
54 views

Microbial Fuel Cell Reaction

I found a formula online which explained the reaction which occurred in the anode chamber of a microbial fuel cell but there was a typo $\small NADH + Ferredoxin_{(ox)} (NADH-Ferredoxin\ ...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Why does crying lead to a running nose and reddened nose tip?

Why do we have a running nose for quite some time after crying? It persists even after we stop crying. Why is it so? I have faced this always. Also, why does our nose redden on crying for long?
4
votes
2answers
282 views

How many different protein coding genes are in the Human Biome?

There are approximately 20k protein-coding genes found in the human genome. This number is presumably very small when considering all the genomes found in the diverse microbes associated with the ...
4
votes
1answer
194 views

Why do we feel cold on having fever?

Why do we feel terribly cold on catching fever of any sort, however our body becomes hotter? Why is it that a rise in temperature makes the sufferer feel colder? Also, sweating symbolises betterment ...
3
votes
1answer
259 views

How does sucrose protect bacterial cells in lysozyme solutions?

I have a microbiology question. When we put bacterial cells in sucrose solution with concentration higher than 0.5M we observe plasmolysis - the cytoplasmic membrane detaches from the cell wall due ...
6
votes
1answer
66 views

Is telomere shortening consistant over consecutive cell divisions from zygote to a differentiated cell?

Considering the complexity of embryogenesis, a temporal referance would be helpful to coordinate the developmental sequences during embryogenesis and fetal development which is to be completed within ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Re-solidify disturbed agar plates

I am stuck in trouble while pouring LB agar onto my petri dishes. I had to add kanamycin to my plates just before it started to solidify, out of forgetfulness, which I tried to mix using the tip. The ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Dark veil when getting up too fast

I was asking myself this weird question. When you get up or stand up too fast, sometimes, you see something like a dark veil, and you aren't able to see anything distinctly for 2 or 3 seconds, then ...
9
votes
1answer
792 views

Did the eugenics program in Nazi Germany have a measurable effect? [closed]

Did the killing or sterilisation of people considered as living a "life unworthy of life" in Nazi Germany have any measurable effect on the "average health" of Germany? Is there any statistical ...
3
votes
0answers
82 views

Why are watermelons sweeter in the center?

Today I had a slice of watermelon and when I reached the outer parts of the pulp I wondered why those are less sweet. Whether or not the sugar occurs in crystalline form in watermelons is still an ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

People say the cardiac cycle depends on blood pressure? How so?

I know what the cardiac cycle is. There are two phases diastole and systole. One is the relaxed, and the other is the contracted form of the heart. The diastole is where blood is pumped to the ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there any biological reason that professional swimming is dominated by white people?

I suppose that the question should be turned around to "Why is it extremely rare to see black people competing in professional swimming?" because it is the absence of this phenotype while watching the ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

How do mushrooms react to being grown in a microgravity environment?

I'll use Agaricus Bisporus as an example mushroom. If cultured in potato dextrose yeast extract agar, will the resulting growth grow in a normal pattern? Will the sporocarps emerge from the surface ...
6
votes
1answer
199 views

Are there any other animals that become attached to a non-living object?

Do any animals become psychologically attached to any non-living object that is not useful to the animal for any of its physical needs, like some children do to stuffed animals? Some children are so ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

If the xylem of a woody plant is composed of dead tissue, how does sapwood become heartwood?

If the xylem of a tree is composed entirely of dead tissue, then that means the sapwood is dead. If so, how does it transform into heartwood, and what starts the process?

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