2
votes
1answer
87 views

Does this equation have a typo? (Systems Biology, singular value decomposition) [closed]

I'm reading a systems biology paper, and I'm suspecting there's a typo in an equation, but I want to make sure. The article is "Systemic metabolic reactions are obtained by singular value ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

Cranial Nerve Decussation

I want to get my head round this once and for all so if you guys could help me would really appreciate it! I understand lesions to the optic nerve. It is the other nerves that I find difficult. So ...
0
votes
2answers
515 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
-1
votes
1answer
69 views

Late control mechanisms of blood pressure (arterial) level? [closed]

I first covered the fast and moderate control mechanisms which I think are Fast control: Baroreceptive reflex (tonus), Chemoreceptive reflex (CO$_2$). Moderate control: Bicarbonate (ECF), ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Effect of respiration on Arterial pressure

I am trying to explain the effect of respiration on arterial pressure. I am looking preferably some visual way to show it. How can you show the effect of respiration on arterial pressure? I am ...
5
votes
2answers
50k views

What does 5' and 3' mean in DNA and RNA strands?

What are 5' and 3' in DNA and RNA strands? Please clarify with some images and please use simple English.
1
vote
1answer
276 views

question about directional selection

Cattle breeders have improved the quality of meat over the years by which process? A) artificial selection B) directional selection C) stabilizing selection D) A and B E) A and C I know the answer is ...
0
votes
1answer
190 views

vestigial structure question

If a species has a vestigial anatomical structure that it no longer uses, would you expect this structure to disappear over many generations through the action of natural selection? Always, sometimes, ...
1
vote
3answers
424 views

What would happen if you combined the world's deadliest diseases & viruses?

What would happen if you took the deadliest diseases/viruses in the world and combined them in a single medium (a solution of water or a test subject)? Would the strongest virus defeat the rest or ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Do “transcription factor binding site” and “operator” mean the same thing?

Can the terms "transcription factor binding site" and "operator" be used interchangeably in all contexts when referring to a DNA sequence, e.g. regardless of a cell type, whether or not the binding ...
3
votes
4answers
236 views

Why do the humans become sleepy after meals?

I don't know about all the mankind, but I know enough people, who becomes sleepy after their meals. Also, I'm not sure, what kind of food do they consume, but I personally get sleepy almost from any ...
3
votes
4answers
151 views

Translation of mRNA?

We inserted an insulin gene from human into bacteria. Will translation of the gene (protein formation) occur in bacteria? If translation occurs then why does it occurs, give a reason for this?
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Bioinformatics : Drawbacks of using ORA(Overlap Analysis)

What do you think are the potential drawbacks/weakness of using ORA to explain distinction between two phenotypes. I identified a few which were the dependencies of DE and the statistical method used ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Cloning of a sheep.. Dolly?

Dolly the sheep was a clone. When she was born she was eight years old on her 1st day of birth, her mother (from which she was cloned) was also eight years old. What is a molecular reason behind this ...
5
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the current consensus, if any, about why long term potentiation is not clearly correlated with learning?

I was watching a video where a professor said that according to some experiments, Long Term Potentiation (LTP) is correlated with better learning, while in yet other experiments, LTP is correlated ...
19
votes
1answer
516 views

Natural examples of XOR functions at the cellular level

We can often think of cells as a sort of circuit on macromolecules, and can show that they can accurately and robustly implement functions like $\text{MAJ}(x_1,...,x_n)$ (return $1$ if more than half ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Is the Andraka pancreatic cancer test real?

In the wikipedia article about Andraka's pancreatic cancer test there are some controversial statements. On one hand there are many glorious words about the method, also some awards, also some ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is the number of PCR cycles limited?

I've been told that the maximum number of cycles in PCR is between 20 and 30. Is this true, and what are the reasons for this limitation?
1
vote
1answer
234 views

Agglutination test using antibodies

Agglutination test Latex agglutination using bound antigens : by coating soluble (non - particulate ) antigens on to microscopic latex spheres, their reaction with a particular antibody can be ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

How are lophotrichous flagella of helicobacter pylori produced?

I am thinking the mechanism is something like first adhesins (mucinase). Howevever, this does not seem to be enough. How are the flagella of H. pylori produced?
2
votes
1answer
262 views

Regarding kidney transplant

One of the options is correct Kidney can be taken from a dying person who has the a) cessation of neurological function only b) cessation of cardiac function only c) cessation of ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Book on yeast reproduction, evolution and on the use of yeast as model organism

I am looking for a good book in: Yeast reproduction mating types Recombination mating type determination mechanism Yeast evolution Yeast as model organism and its use in experimental biology It ...
0
votes
2answers
218 views

Why can we breathe only oxygen?

Plants has the capacity to take in both CO2 and oxygen, that's during day CO2 and at night oxygen. Why don't humans have such a capability?
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Evolution, self organization and neuroscience

I have rudimentary knowledge of evolution, and biology in general, so bear with me if this question is a bit naive. Let's say we have a particular trait, like highly sensitive peripheral vision. ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Has H.pylori paracellular activity?

I know that it has transcellular activity i.e. it can pass through neighbouring cells. However, I am not completely sure if it does not have paracellular activity, see this: H. pylori did not ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

2 blue eyed children

My husband had light brown eyes. His father had hazel and his mother, light brown as well. His younger brother however, has blue eyes. Both my children have blue eyes. Is this possible? I thought once ...
2
votes
2answers
106 views

Why do people use anti-inflammatory drugs?

Why people should take anti-inflammatory drugs, when inflammation is a physiological way to defend our organism?
2
votes
2answers
309 views

Why are transcripts translated from 5' to 3' direction?

What is the mechanism? In other words, how does the tRNA know whether the codon is in 5' to 3' direction? I also heard that anything that is translated from 3' to 5' direction is degraded. Is it true? ...
4
votes
2answers
195 views

How can I fetch nucleotide sequences based on ENA accession numbers and positions?

I have a list of ENA accession numbers and a start and end position in each sequence. In the end I want to align all those sequences, but first I have to fetch them and the list is too long to do that ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Dinuclei cellular mechanism

I am no biologist, but I have this question buzzing in my mind. It's a matter of curiosity What happens when two nuclei occupy the same cell? Would we expect the embryo (if it lives) to have complex ...
-1
votes
1answer
939 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

How do you express and detect GLP-1 receptors?

I am currently working with a peptide which is an analogue for glp-1, but during invitro studies am not able to detect for the presence of GLP1- receptors. The cell line used is Min-6. How do I detect ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

How far in evolutionary distance is the P-distance estimator “accurate”?

I'm reading Yang's computational molecular evolution and in the very first chapter it says the P distance is a "simplistic distance measure" between two sequences. It is the number of different sites ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Pseudosexual reproduction

Research projects with artificial life generally use creatures that are haploid. The offspring randomly inherit some genes from one parent, and some genes from the other parent. Q1: Are there any ...
4
votes
2answers
147 views

GO terms for non-model organisms

I have a list of differentially expressed genes from an RNA-Seq experiment in Xenopus laevis that I'm looking to functionally annotate with GO-terms. As X.laevis is not listed in DAVID it seems I have ...
6
votes
1answer
76 views

Healing rate of cut while suffering from a cold

I recently cut my finger fairly deeply with a box cutter and had to have it stitched. During the healing process I contracted a strong cold/mild flu (a sore throat and runny nose with a high fever, ...
4
votes
1answer
184 views

Does playing music during sleep actually suppress rather than rouse the brain?

I've long been interested in the effect of music/sound on dreaming, and even built 2 apps that play music during REM period. Now I'm looking at this article about FMRI studies of a sleeping brain, and ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Is there a homeostatic setpoint for number of hours of sleep required by a human?

I've heard this TED.com talk about dieting and it mentions that there's a very definitive setpoint within the human brain about how much a human should weight. The speaker mentions that after as much ...
2
votes
3answers
258 views

Why do we dream?

Is there any specific reason behind why we dream. Why sometimes we are getting wierd and unusual dreams. Sometimes we cant even recall what we dreamt off. Why this happens?
0
votes
2answers
225 views

How to determine the actual flux in the human metabolic model of a cell line?

The problem to be solved is to determine what the flux values are for the different reactions in the human metabolic model. As far as I understand, a good way to do that would be to use gene ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

To understand clearly extraintestinal diseases

Extradistestinal disease seems to prefer to "bowel" diseases, I think this is about diseases outside gastrointestinal tract so stomach. Consider diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease ...
1
vote
1answer
442 views

why can't we digest cellulose [duplicate]

I have a very tricky question....all the veg and fruit cells contain cell wall and it is made of cellulose when we eat how our body digest though we don't have the enzymes to breakdown 1-4 beta ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Chaos theory and population cycles of odd periodicity

I have just begun to read about Chaos theory and have come across the statement that "Period three implies chaos." My question: Does any odd period imply chaos or only 3? If so, how can populations ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Correlating Ki values of pesticides to bacterial growth

Four pesticides P1 to P4 are reversible inhibitors of an enzyme E that is essential for the growth of a bacterium B. Their Ki values are given in the table below. Each of these four pesticides ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Correlating beta-lactamase expression to absorbance

When penicillin-resistant bacteria are grown in liquid culture media, β-lactamase is secreted into the medium. The supernatant of such a medium can be assayed for β-lactamase activity. ...
1
vote
0answers
54 views

Cambrian explosion and evolutionary arms race

I've seen many times mentioned in textbooks and popular articles that a reason of the Cambrian explosion is an 'evolutionary arms race' between predators and prey. But this isn't really a sufficient ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

What is lack in sense of smell called?

People who lack the sense of hearing, vision and speaking are called Deaf, Blind and Mute. But what is the person called if he/she lacks the sense of smell? Is there any case like that?
1
vote
0answers
33 views

water stress expression markers in arabidopsis thaliana

So far I found papers that show studies using RNA arrays on whom they categorized water stress gene markers in root. Water stresses were reproduced by different protocols (manitol...) but always on ...
0
votes
2answers
51 views

Is there any format for official Physiological/Medicine answers? [closed]

Assume you have an exam which has 5 extensive questions and 60 minutes. You do not have time to cover most if you write everything in essay format. If you start to write essays, you do not really have ...

15 30 50 per page