1
vote
0answers
34 views

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? [closed]

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? I know of: Buprenorphine Butorphanol Nalbuphine Pentazocine Are there any others? If so I would like you ...
5
votes
2answers
185 views

What kind of bird species is this?

Every now and then I got a glimpse of this bird which I'm pretty sure is not native to Northern Germany where I live. There are at least three of these birds around but I usually only see something ...
1
vote
1answer
500 views

What is Chronic immobilization stress (CIS)?

I am trying to self study BNDF a little bit when I found this article: Abstract Stress impacts multiple systems within the CNS, including the hippocampus. A key molecular mediator in hippocampal ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

Manipulating Gut flora in vivo

I am tasked with designing an in vivo experiment in humans that requires manipulating the gut flora in one sample group to gauge its effect. Please suggest ways of doing this besides administering ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Do sulfate reducing bacteria help during the formation of the mineral dolomite in low temperature environments?

Do sulfate reducing bacteria help during the formation of the mineral dolomite in low temperature environments? Wikipedia says The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

How do circulating androgens contribute to higher rates of hirsuteness in some women?

I was reading up on ethnic groups in which the women are naturally more hirsute (such as South Asian women) in the context of evolving standards of beauty. I came across this statement on a forum: ...
2
votes
3answers
3k views

Do cold blooded animals generate any heat?

In explaining energy and work to an 8 year-old I said that all conversion of energy generates heat as a by-product. For example, cars generate heat in their engines and running generates heat in our ...
9
votes
2answers
6k views

What is the difference between SOLiD, 454, and Illumina next-gen sequencing?

I've started teaching myself about next-generation sequencing in preparation for a new job, and I'm wondering what the main differences are between the 454, SOLiD, and Illumina/Solexa machines, in ...
5
votes
1answer
183 views

Why does strenous exercise cause vision of “lights”?

I had a hard climb a week ago. I got so tired then any time I closed my eyes I saw these lights inside my head. I see these lights almost every time that I run fast or some thing like that. What are ...
6
votes
1answer
184 views

How does skin healing work?

I stacked my bike and split my head right open. About three weeks later the scab falls off and the skin is sealed over, like magic! How does it all work? How does the brain know that part of the ...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

What's the difference between a plant and an animal?

Are there some living things where the distinction between plant and animal is blurry or unclear? I wouldn't know where to put something like yeast. I also thought of photosynthesis, but then I ...
4
votes
1answer
870 views

Why is second pKa value of phosphoric acid different across different sources?

Am I missing something very fundamental here for phosphoric acid's second pKa value? I check the Wikipedia page and these are the values: (1) 2.148, (2) 7.198, (3) 12.377 Then I check Sigma-Aldrich ...
4
votes
0answers
75 views

What are the mechanisms that cause bananas to ripen? How is or isn't it related to the banana peel ripening? [closed]

So recently our commercial kitchen got some bunches of bananas with a curious feature. On the inside they were firm and delicious (no jokes, please), on the outside they looked incredibly sickly. ...
9
votes
1answer
164 views

Systems identification in small neural network

When analyzing data from cortex, we often try to understand what each neuron does in terms of its inputs from other neurons - a specific kind of a systems identification strategy. Most current ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Can you consider a human as alive, or is it the cells on the body that are alive?

Sorry if this question seems strange, but in the recent time I have been interested in the question of what life is and how you can define life. My question: How long can individual cells live on a ...
9
votes
2answers
633 views

Which sex has higher variance of reproductive rate in modern societies - male or females?

Who has a more varied reproduction rate in modern western societies - men or women? The average rate is the same of course, but I wonder which sex have higher variance - higher variance means that ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

How does formaldehyde cause protein-DNA crosslinking?

How does formaldehyde cause protein-DNA crosslinking? I would guess it's because the strongly polar water molecule interacts strongly with polar residues on a protein-DNA complex, and adding a less ...
10
votes
2answers
342 views

Why Do Most Humans & Cats Have Blue/Bluish Eyes At Birth?

I've read that the eye color at birth for most humans and for cats may not always be the the true genetic color at first. This is due to the lack of melanin in the iris. This makes sense as there is ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

What does effect would Sulforaphane have on Kennedy's Disease?

Sulforaphane is a isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables including broccoli and cauliflower. Its 2D structure is as follows: It's been found to serve as a histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Do Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Selectively induce Apoptosis in Cancer cells without inducing the same in healthy human cells?

Do Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Inhibitors (e.g. cerulenin) selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells without inducing the same in healthy human cells?
3
votes
2answers
73 views

How common is bacterial mediated transformation? In plants? In animal cells?

The most common method to transform plants is by soaking plant tissue in cultures of agrobacteria (this is not their current classification) which transfer DNA into the plants. Is lateral gene ...
11
votes
4answers
5k views

What nutrients can humans absorb in the mouth?

For instance, I realise being able to absorb simple sugars in the mouth is pivotal in the rapid action of oral glucose gel. Thus I was wondering what nutrients in general can be absorbed directly ...
4
votes
1answer
660 views

What is the average volume of the hippocampus?

I'm trying to find any information on sizes of the hippocampus? Ideally in the average adult male & female brain
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Does Sansevieria trifasciata really absorb Carbon Dioxide at night?

There's a claim that Sansevieria trifasciata (Mother-in-law’s Tongue) generates oxygen from carbon dioxide during the night. This seems surprising to me: that process requires energy; plants generate ...
9
votes
2answers
176 views

Birds placing sticks on train tracks?

I live in a semi-rural area in Germany, close to a park which trains go through every 20 minutes. Today, I saw something that left me perplexed. There is a large population of birds that look like ...
4
votes
1answer
108 views

Why do we yawn?

I've read a new study which suggests that yawning may help you keep a cool head. Also, the findings might hold some hope for sufferers of insomnia, migraines, and even epilepsy. Is there any ...
6
votes
3answers
608 views

Is there any kind of immortality in plants?

I asked a question about immortality of hydra and learned good things about senescence. Now I would like to know about immortality in plants, if there is some kind of immortality in plants and how ...
5
votes
2answers
263 views

How to find Exons in mRNA Computationally

I'm having trouble finding a method to find exons in the original DNA sequence used to create the mRNA, even given the sequence of the mRNA, as I cannot find a way to reliably identify the beginning ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

Why don't we form immunity to some infections?

I read another question, and its answers, about how vaccines work, but I don't see there, and and don't understand, why some infections can, seemingly, not be immunized against at all. For example, ...
3
votes
1answer
241 views

The fundamental importance of R.E.M. Sleep. (Rapid Eye Movement)

Question: I know that experiments have been conducted to determine the importance of R.E.M. sleep in our sleep cycle. It is particularly important for learning, information synthesis, and recovery ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Why do cells have an average 'life span'

I've heard of Henrietta Lacks. As a result of a genetic mutation, her cells never died. I've heard/read that overtime, our cells stop multiplying as much, (as an effect of aging). Why? Why do we age? ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

What is the point of being selection-free?

I'm reading "Highly efficient endogenous human gene correction using designed zinc finger nucleases" by Urnov et al. They propose a way to use zinc finger proteins for gene therapy. They repeatedly ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

What accounts for size variation in breeds of dogs?

My assumption is that dogs vary so much in size because of artificial selection pressures coming from human breeders, but are there genetic loci that roughly determine approximate size? Do other ...
3
votes
2answers
218 views

What software is there available for Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) pharmacological studies?

QSAR modelling in pharmacology basically hangs on using mathematical modelling to approximate the effects different molecules will have on various pharmacological targets. I would like to know what ...
1
vote
1answer
189 views

What is the best way to read and normalize large amounts of Agilent data into R? [closed]

I have a large amount of Agilent data (580 text files that are ~200 MB in size each) that I'd like to normalize. I've run into a problem in that my machine (with 8 GB of memory) still runs out of ...
1
vote
1answer
175 views

are female bonobos “always” pregnant?

Given that bonobo chimps are more sexually active then humans, are the females almost always pregnant? if not how not? also are they so sexually active in the wild as well or is it just in captivity? ...
3
votes
1answer
109 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Resource for model organism anatomy/physiology for biological experiments

I'm looking for a resource that best surveys the anatomy and physiology of common genetic model organisms, and how their characteristics are particularly useful for biological experiments. For ...
3
votes
0answers
38 views

Are all Autoreceptors Downregulated by their Respective Endogenous Ligands?

I know that the 5-HT1A and $\alpha$2 adrenoreceptors receptors serve as autoreceptors for serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine respectively and are down-regulated by repeat exposure to their respective ...
5
votes
1answer
261 views

Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...
4
votes
1answer
272 views

Why am I getting low transformation efficiency with DB3.1 E.coli cells?

I am making competent cells using DB3.1 E. coli cells. Even after following the exact protocol (Inoue method for ultracompetent cells) given in 'Sambrook and Russel', I am not getting transformation ...
8
votes
2answers
145 views

How can a three-base codon evolve from a two-base codon?

Inspired by this question among others. It's widely suggested that the current 3-base codon system of encoding protein sequences in DNA evolved from an earlier 2-base codon system. This makes sense ...
3
votes
1answer
150 views

Which Receptors are Involved in the antidepressant effects of SSRIs?

From what I've read the major receptor subtypes involved in the antidepressant effects of SSRIs are: 5-HT1A 5-HT2C 5-HT3 5-HT6 Please cite journal articles to back up your claims, I don't want any ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Why do genitals feel frozen when freefalling?

I don't want to add much more about that. Since childhood I noticed a chilling effect, even when doing rollercoaster-type activities.
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Which Receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis? [closed]

Which receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis? I know that the 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, D2, κ-opioid and NMDA receptors are likely involved in psychosis.
4
votes
1answer
48 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

Colloids in digestion

I am looking for examples of colloids involved in digestion for a cross-curricular (bio-chem-physics) lesson plan. Although I have found references implicating colloids in both lipid and protein ...
3
votes
2answers
955 views

Why do some animals have 8 Limbs (e.g. Spiders, Octopuses)?

Octopuses have 8 tentacles, spiders have 8 legs. Is there something special about 8? It seems like an animal that needs 360° mobility has 8 legs.
4
votes
1answer
310 views

How does the eugeroic modafinil work?

How does the drug, modafinil (Provigil), exert its eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting) effects? I've read that it works by increasing dopamine and histamine concentrations in the CNS and by serving as a ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?

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