2
votes
1answer
53 views

Trigger allergic reaction in non-allergic people?

Is there a proven way to trigger an allergic or allergic-like reaction in non-allergic people? I have wondered if this is possible, since allergies are basically just a form hypersensitivity - so ...
9
votes
2answers
6k views

What is the difference between SOLiD, 454, and Illumina next-gen sequencing?

I've started teaching myself about next-generation sequencing in preparation for a new job, and I'm wondering what the main differences are between the 454, SOLiD, and Illumina/Solexa machines, in ...
3
votes
2answers
225 views

Short-term Lamarckism in asexual single cell organisms

I was reading through the Karr et al. (2012) whole-cell computational model. One of the things they did was to induce single-gene disruptions in their model. They observed several to be fatal, but: ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Simple diffusion of lipid-soluble molecules through phospholipid bilayer — does anything get “stuck” in transit?

It's a pretty elementary concept, and when I first learned of it I don't think I had the foundations to even think of such a question, but I found myself the other day thinking about the amphipathic ...
4
votes
2answers
217 views

Question about equilibrium potential formula

My biology book says, that the equilibrium potential for an ion with a charge of +1 is: $$E_{ion}= 62mV \biggl(\log\frac{[ion]_{outside}}{[ion]_{inside}}\biggr)$$ Where does the 62 mV come from? How ...
4
votes
1answer
41 views

position of cell penetrating peptide

I'd like to add a cell penetrating peptide to my custom peptide (30aa). Can I just add it to the end of the peptide sequence or does it have to be positioned on an outward facing external chain?
10
votes
2answers
169 views

protocol for pulldown of DNA breakpoints?

Is there any method to do pulldown enrichment of DNA breakpoints from a cell? I have found this paper reporting a method to enrich for the DNA single-strand breakpoints from meiotic recombination ...
5
votes
2answers
53 views

Prostaglandin F2-alpha production in men

I am trying to find information on Prostaglandin F2-alpha, specificaly production in men. Could somebody explain how this prostaglandin is produced? What types of cells are producing it, production ...
1
vote
1answer
398 views

What is the advantage of circular genomes for bacteria and linear genomes for other organisms?

Bacterial are a great group of organisms. They have circular genomes and never went toward linear genomes while other organisms show the opposite strategy and don't have circular genomes (disregarding ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

Does an allergic reaction kill body cells?

I have wondered what actually happens in an allergic reaction that causes the symptoms such as pain, rash etc. Is it possible that the human body actually kills its own cells in the process?
6
votes
2answers
743 views

Why is absorbance at 280 nm for protein solution going up when I measure repeatedly?

I have been measuring my protein solutions' concentrations by diluting them in water 20 fold with a final volume of 100 uL and then measuring the absorbances of these solutions in 96 well plates with ...
-1
votes
3answers
151 views

A question regarding evolution

I'm not a biologist so bear with me. I know that the DNA molecule carries extremely large amounts of information. If the process of evolution is driven by completely random process .I think about it ...
9
votes
1answer
156 views

Systems identification in small neural network

When analyzing data from cortex, we often try to understand what each neuron does in terms of its inputs from other neurons - a specific kind of a systems identification strategy. Most current ...
3
votes
2answers
457 views

What are gram negative and positive bacteria?

I've just finished a course of double antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori in my stomach. I looked up H. pylori and found that it was a gram-negative bacterium. I looked up gram-negative and didn't ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Why did animals evolve genders? [duplicate]

The majority of animals have two genders, and both are needed in reproduction. It seems like it would be more advantageous for creatures to be hermaphrodites, since they could mate with any member of ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of beta-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of $\beta$-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal ...
1
vote
0answers
285 views

How do Opioids Stimulate a Histamine Release?

Histamine is a neurotransmitter that also has peripheral functions such as the regulation of gastric acid secretions, allergic responses, etc. I know that opioids stimulate a release of histamine but ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

Manipulating Gut flora in vivo

I am tasked with designing an in vivo experiment in humans that requires manipulating the gut flora in one sample group to gauge its effect. Please suggest ways of doing this besides administering ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA?

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? I know of: Buprenorphine Butorphanol Nalbuphine Pentazocine Are there any others? If so I would like you ...
10
votes
3answers
341 views

Athletes: nature vs. nurture?

Having watched a lot of olympians the last few weeks, I was struck by how many of them have actually spent their wholes lives/careers training for their one event (be in running a marathon, or ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

Do sulfate reducing bacteria help during the formation of the mineral dolomite in low temperature environments?

Do sulfate reducing bacteria help during the formation of the mineral dolomite in low temperature environments? Wikipedia says The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Do cold blooded animals generate any heat?

In explaining energy and work to an 8 year-old I said that all conversion of energy generates heat as a by-product. For example, cars generate heat in their engines and running generates heat in our ...
1
vote
1answer
107 views

Interlocus Contest Evolution means suicide?

I was reading Matt Ridley's "Genome" book. I am trying to understand the Interlocus Contest Evolution in his X-Y chapter. I do not understand why the X and Y chromosome would want to kill each other. ...
3
votes
2answers
201 views

What software is there available for Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) pharmacological studies?

QSAR modelling in pharmacology basically hangs on using mathematical modelling to approximate the effects different molecules will have on various pharmacological targets. I would like to know what ...
4
votes
0answers
72 views

What are the mechanisms that cause bananas to ripen? How is or isn't it related to the banana peel ripening? [closed]

So recently our commercial kitchen got some bunches of bananas with a curious feature. On the inside they were firm and delicious (no jokes, please), on the outside they looked incredibly sickly. ...
4
votes
1answer
735 views

Why is second pKa value of phosphoric acid different across different sources?

Am I missing something very fundamental here for phosphoric acid's second pKa value? I check the Wikipedia page and these are the values: (1) 2.148, (2) 7.198, (3) 12.377 Then I check Sigma-Aldrich ...
6
votes
2answers
433 views

What is the relationship between migraines and histamine?

A family member suffers from migraines so I have been reading a little around the subject. There seem to be any number of "triggers", but I have seen mention several times of the role of histamine ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Is the theory of evolution being disproved by bats?

For some species the Darwin's theory evolution makes perfect sense. I can easily imagine how, for example, the giraffe has evolved to its current appearance: the natural selection was favoring ...
7
votes
2answers
163 views

Is it possible for parasitic wasp to alter the behaviour of it's host after emerging from it?

I know that parasitic wasp larvae could live for a long time inside their alive host (eg. caterpillar), but I always thought that they kill the host when they eventually get out of it. But once I've ...
10
votes
2answers
334 views

Why Do Most Humans & Cats Have Blue/Bluish Eyes At Birth?

I've read that the eye color at birth for most humans and for cats may not always be the the true genetic color at first. This is due to the lack of melanin in the iris. This makes sense as there is ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

What does effect would Sulforaphane have on Kennedy's Disease?

Sulforaphane is a isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables including broccoli and cauliflower. Its 2D structure is as follows: It's been found to serve as a histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Do Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Selectively induce Apoptosis in Cancer cells without inducing the same in healthy human cells?

Do Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Inhibitors (e.g. cerulenin) selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells without inducing the same in healthy human cells?
4
votes
1answer
524 views

What is the average volume of the hippocampus?

I'm trying to find any information on sizes of the hippocampus? Ideally in the average adult male & female brain
4
votes
1answer
107 views

Why do we yawn?

I've read a new study which suggests that yawning may help you keep a cool head. Also, the findings might hold some hope for sufferers of insomnia, migraines, and even epilepsy. Is there any ...
4
votes
2answers
294 views

Extraretinal photoreception in mammals? [duplicate]

A Finnish firm Valkee sells light-ear-plugs against thing such as jetlag. I asked a researcher in Aalto university how do they really work and he responded ...
3
votes
0answers
79 views

Papers linking telomeres and aging [closed]

I'm currently writing a piece of work about telomeres and aging, and wondered if you could share some good papers you've either read or know of.
3
votes
1answer
231 views

The fundamental importance of R.E.M. Sleep. (Rapid Eye Movement)

Question: I know that experiments have been conducted to determine the importance of R.E.M. sleep in our sleep cycle. It is particularly important for learning, information synthesis, and recovery ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

What is the point of being selection-free?

I'm reading "Highly efficient endogenous human gene correction using designed zinc finger nucleases" by Urnov et al. They propose a way to use zinc finger proteins for gene therapy. They repeatedly ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Why do cells have an average 'life span'

I've heard of Henrietta Lacks. As a result of a genetic mutation, her cells never died. I've heard/read that overtime, our cells stop multiplying as much, (as an effect of aging). Why? Why do we age? ...
1
vote
1answer
181 views

What is the best way to read and normalize large amounts of Agilent data into R? [closed]

I have a large amount of Agilent data (580 text files that are ~200 MB in size each) that I'd like to normalize. I've run into a problem in that my machine (with 8 GB of memory) still runs out of ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

What accounts for size variation in breeds of dogs?

My assumption is that dogs vary so much in size because of artificial selection pressures coming from human breeders, but are there genetic loci that roughly determine approximate size? Do other ...
4
votes
1answer
250 views

Why am I getting low transformation efficiency with DB3.1 E.coli cells?

I am making competent cells using DB3.1 E. coli cells. Even after following the exact protocol (Inoue method for ultracompetent cells) given in 'Sambrook and Russel', I am not getting transformation ...
15
votes
4answers
906 views

Why does the cold make us sick?

From the moment we learn to communicate, we always get told, whether by our parents, or our teachers, or by anyone else, to avoid the cold, or to put a jacket on to avoid catching a cold, to dry our ...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

Are all Autoreceptors Downregulated by their Respective Endogenous Ligands?

I know that the 5-HT1A and $\alpha$2 adrenoreceptors receptors serve as autoreceptors for serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine respectively and are down-regulated by repeat exposure to their respective ...
1
vote
1answer
168 views

are female bonobos “always” pregnant?

Given that bonobo chimps are more sexually active then humans, are the females almost always pregnant? if not how not? also are they so sexually active in the wild as well or is it just in captivity? ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
4
votes
2answers
129 views

Are all known germs benign in small enough quantities? i.e. Why do we wash our hands?

We know that we wash our hands because germs can get into our body through the nose, the mouth, the eyes, cuts, etc. But I doubt we can completely clean our hands of germs every time we wash them, ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

Resource for model organism anatomy/physiology for biological experiments

I'm looking for a resource that best surveys the anatomy and physiology of common genetic model organisms, and how their characteristics are particularly useful for biological experiments. For ...
8
votes
2answers
137 views

How can a three-base codon evolve from a two-base codon?

Inspired by this question among others. It's widely suggested that the current 3-base codon system of encoding protein sequences in DNA evolved from an earlier 2-base codon system. This makes sense ...
7
votes
2answers
776 views

How do I prepare and clone from E. coli DNA?

I'm looking for a protocol to get genomic DNA from an E. coli sample so that I can clone a small portion of it using PCR into a plasmid. (< 500 bp in this case). It seems OWW (Open Wet Ware) ...

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