3
votes
0answers
23 views

Does Doxylamine have any Influence on the Monoaminergic System?

Does doxylamine have any affects on the monoaminergic system? Specifically I am interested in adrenergic or serotonergic activity but additional information on its dopaminergic activity won't hurt ...
5
votes
2answers
149 views

HIV Rapid Tests

The hiv antigens that are used in the oral rapid tests, are they infectious? The tests do not contain any actual virus but I am curious if the antigens themselves could somehow create the virus on ...
7
votes
3answers
4k views

How do warm-blooded animals keep their temperatures constant?

Warm blooded animals like us keep their temperature constant irrespective of their surroundings. But how do they do that? Energy should be supplied from the inside. I assume that reactions like making ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Which Enzymes are Responsible for the Biodegradation of Noladin Ether?

Which enzymes degrade the CB1-specific endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether? (Noladin ether)
4
votes
2answers
826 views

Chromosome 2 fusion?

I read this article by Jeffrey Tomkins and Jerry Bergman claiming to debunk chromosome 2 fusion. Is there anything wrong with these conclusions? " 1.The reputed fusion site is located in a ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Which Enzymes are Responsible for the Biodegradation of Beta-endorphin?

Which enzymes are responsible for the biodegradation of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin?
4
votes
1answer
132 views

Are serotonin levels in humans affected by light?

I'm reading this Wikipedia article on light therapy and noticed a peculiar statement: The production of the hormone melatonin, a sleep regulator, is inhibited by light and permitted by darkness ...
1
vote
0answers
104 views

What are the biomarkers for autoimmune diseases? Significancy, related diseases, detecting mechanisms [closed]

I think this is a trick question, since to understand what are the biomarkers we need to understand what are the encoding genes that make the antibodies. Then, I would explain the reason why to ...
3
votes
2answers
77 views

What chemical or biochemical agents do plants use to inhibit each other's growth?

As I just learned, allelopathy is the action by which plants regulate the growth of other nearby plants. I have hear of ethylene is a general signal for growth and fruit ripening in particular, but ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What are studies linking dietary choices over life with probability of reaching higher ages? [closed]

Are there big studies that link diet and lifestyle choices with the probability of reaching a certain age? What are their conclusions?
-2
votes
1answer
91 views

Good place to ask health based questions? [closed]

I like the development of biology.stackexchange.com, but it is still in an early stage and far from perfection. While we develop it further, could you guys help me finding places to ask questions ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Are humans hardwired to continue gathering resources after the costs outweigh the benefits?

An animal will stop foraging in a berry bush if the perceived cost of searching for berries remaining is greater than the cost of finding another bush which isn't as picked over. People do the same ...
3
votes
1answer
267 views

Questions regarding ELISA

I have recently peformed an ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but I still have some questions, let me first outline what I did: We had a number (20) of tubes containing fake 'bodily fluids' ...
6
votes
2answers
211 views

How do infectious bacteria know when their numbers are high enough to attack a host?

When you get sick, you generally don't contract enough bacteria at once for them to succeed in battling your immune system, right? Their numbers must gradually increase in the host's body before they ...
6
votes
1answer
248 views

Is there a normal human melatonin concentration to light level curve?

I'm looking for a graph or a curve that would show the typical concentration of melatonin in blood or saliva for humans over 24 hours. It would be good to know the photoperiod for the same human as ...
2
votes
2answers
106 views

Possibility of orthogonal view for a creature?

Just a pure curiosity: Does there exist a creature with an orthogonal view to the world instead of perspective? What would be an optical explanation for possibility/impossibility?
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Do plant-plant interactions inhibit growth?

Plants produce lots of compounds that inhibit (kill or irritate) microorganisms and insects. They have defenses against plant viruses and infections. What kinds of compounds or hormones to plants ...
13
votes
2answers
394 views

Evolution in 37 years, is it possible?

I am confused, can evolution ( speciation ) really occur in such a short time ? In 1971, biologists moved five adult pairs of Italian wall lizards from their home island of Pod Kopiste, in the ...
5
votes
1answer
48 views

Can paper/plastic currency serve as a medium for pathogens?

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/15/health/15real.html seems to indicate for a surface, to serve as a medium, the following properties are relevant animation humidity temperature The article ...
13
votes
2answers
3k views

How many people are required to maintain genetic diversity?

Imagine humans were to colonize a distant planet and it was a single one-way trip. How many people would they need to bring? Obviously 2 is the minimum, but that would result in a lot of inbreeding. ...
2
votes
1answer
195 views

Can Taq polymerase be used instead of polymerase Vent exo (-)?

Instead of using polymerase Vent exo (-), can I go with the usual Taq polymerase? Do the PCR conditions change (the temperature and master mix concentrations ) in the these two conditions? Do the ...
1
vote
0answers
175 views

What are the tissues affected by thyroid hormone called? [closed]

I found this question and I wonder if it is asking some general name where both T3 and T4 have an effect. I cannot find any such single name. Is there any single name of tissues that are affected ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Is there a term to quantify how spread a character is on a phylogenetic tree?

Is there a term which can quantify how 'spread out' a particular character is on a tree? I want to distinguish between a character which is only restricted to a particular clade vs. a character that ...
6
votes
2answers
156 views

Is warmth/temperature sensed linearly or on a different scale?

I understand that the atmospheric temperature is sensed relative to external body temperature. However, is the sensation of warmth registered linearly, or is it on a logarithmic scale, similar to ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

How is olfactory acuity rated/measured?

Acuity of one's sight is rated on the 20/20 scale. An online search appeared to indicate there is no comparable 'standard' to rate olfactory acuity. How is acuity of the olfactory system rated?
4
votes
1answer
160 views

How does a tiger have stripes?

A vague question, but let me try to explain. My friend explained to me that in females, some cells use one X chromosome, while all others use the other X chromosome. This can result in some ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

Where might I find a list of all recorded instincts by species? [closed]

Where might I find a list of all recorded instincts (possibly with all other attributes) by species? Thanks, Chenz
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Is it ok for Chili pepper plant's fruits to fall into its soil?

I wonder if Chili pepper's fruits which fall into the soil near the plant will harm it, since the peppers are so spicy for people.
4
votes
1answer
140 views

Conjugate secondary antibody

Why is the secondary antibody conjugated to the enzyme in ELISA, instead of the primary antibody? Wouldn't it be easier to conjugate the enzyme to the primary antibody?
13
votes
1answer
570 views

What light intensity starts melatonin release in humans?

I'm interested in whether any studies have determined the intensity of light at eye level that starts melatonin release in humans. I know that: melatonin release is suppressed by blue light with ...
6
votes
1answer
456 views

If re-boiling does not curdle the milk, can that be taken as an indicator that the milk hasn't developed the bacteria (and their toxins)?

Usually when left in hot temperature, the milk curdles (which I know when I boil it and it starts separating). If the re boiling does not curdle the milk, can that be taken as an indicator that the ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

Will climate change affect flower population?

There is a flower population elevated 1000 meters above sea level. If climate change causes a 12⁰C increase in temperature over the next 10 years, what will happen to the flowers?
6
votes
1answer
95 views

Proteins that are strongly overproduced in E. coli and S. cerevisiae?

I'm looking for some pointers to proteins that produce at really gigantic levels in E. coli and yeast (S. cerevisiae). Can anyone point to some champion proteins? Even in inclusion bodies and non ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

What causes tree lines?

There is an area of where there is a distinct line of only trees on one side and only shrubs on the other (right next to each other). What could cause this? My attempt: I said there could be a ...
4
votes
2answers
272 views

Hershey and Chase experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QJ4CjFsflA This is a link to Hershey and Chase experiment. According to this experiment, we conclude that DNA is the genetic material. But how do we conclude that DNA ...
6
votes
3answers
694 views

How to map the Gene name to its Gene Symbol?

I am learning in Gene data lately so I apologize for the silly questions in advance. I read a paper for a cancer on human which found some important genes. For example, the paper listed one of genes ...
8
votes
3answers
274 views

What kind of event would cause the current Mitochondrial Eve to be replaced by a new one?

Apparently all living humans are matrilineal descendants of a single woman who lived 200.000 years ago. She is called Mitochondrial Eve. But at the time she lived there was a different matrilineal ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

High protein turnover rate and protease inhibitors?

I work with mice, and I want to see what happens to some specific proteins in the mouse brain after IL-1b injection (intracerebroventricular). I have a problem: when I measure the mRNA and protein ...
6
votes
2answers
19k views

What is the function of the RNA primer in DNA replication?

During DNA replication, RNA primase puts an RNA primer in the lagging strand. What is the function of this RNA primer? Why can't the enzymes put DNA fragments directly?
7
votes
2answers
971 views

Bacterial cell lysis - what solution to use?

I am trying to determine how quickly detergents act on bacterial cells (cell lysis). I would like to compare some detergents at difference concentrations for bacteriolytic activity. I don’t care about ...
4
votes
1answer
145 views

Are there oligocellular organisms in nature and, if so, what are they like?

I'd think protozoans can be oligocellular, but I haven't found any examples, and I'm curious to know what is the minimum number of cells an organism can have other than a single cell.
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Experiments in vitro vs those with dead organisms and fixated tissue

Does the term in vitro necessarily imply that the organism/organs/cells of study are dead? If not, is there an alternative latin term to refer to studies of dead biological matter ? (e.g. in ...
9
votes
3answers
371 views

What vegetation would thrive in the Martian atmosphere? [duplicate]

Most plants require carbon dioxide for their photosynthesis, which Mars has in overabundance. Would atmosphere composition (let's ignore temperatures for the purpose of this question) of Mars allow ...
4
votes
2answers
167 views

What to look for when buying a light microscope?

I am a science lover and want to buy a microscope to explore things around me. Like studying cell structures, microorganisms, blood and plants. It would be great if there is way to photograph slides. ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

Does the DNA sequence of a butterfly match that of the caterpillar it used to be?

Just had this thought occur to me. If one were to take a DNA sample(or is it RNA?) of a caterpillar before it became a chrysalis, and attempt to match the sample against one taken after the chrysalis ...
11
votes
1answer
106 views

Vaccination and population dynamics of an epidemic

I'm trying to figure out how should a vaccination model be built to correlate with population density, and I'm having problems to understand meanings of the results I receive when I apply theory on ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Gene & Protein nomenclature: N-Myc, c-Myc, et. al

Can someone explain (or point me to an explanation of) exactly what is meant by all the different symbols I see used for writing genes and proteins? I think I know that for genes, we use an italic ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the evolutionary rationale for palm sweating?

Sweaty palms seems to be a reaction to stress, anxiety, etc. For our forest-inhabiting primate ancestors sweaty palms could cause unwanted side-effects such as slipping off tree branches under ...
6
votes
1answer
127 views

Why does getting certain chemicals in cuts hurt?

More specifically, shampoo. What are the mechanics of detecting a noxious chemical stimulus in terms of which receptors recognise what, how do they do it, and how is this information relayed to the ...
16
votes
4answers
1k views

Why does the cold make us sick?

From the moment we learn to communicate, we always get told, whether by our parents, or our teachers, or by anyone else, to avoid the cold, or to put a jacket on to avoid catching a cold, to dry our ...

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