4
votes
1answer
2k views

What is a catalytic domain of an enzyme?

Is this another name for the active site of an enzyme? What does the structure of the catalytic domain of an enzyme look like?
6
votes
1answer
98 views

Receptors for red and far-red light in plants: Shade avoidance

Franklin (2009) describes how plants use the ratio of the red wavelength (660-670nm) over the far-red wavelength (725-735nm) (R:FR) in order to avoid shading. My question is: which receptor is ...
4
votes
1answer
436 views

What do you call a virus when it's cured?

When a cure has been found for a virus, can it be called such anymore? Virus implies it's something you've contracted that you just have to live with until (hopefully) your body can overwhelm and ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

Mechanisms of bone growth

The length of a bone is caused by growth of hyaline cartilage which is then replaced by bone tissue. How do cells know whether they should grow the hyaline cartilage? What are the key molecules that ...
5
votes
1answer
170 views

Mechanism of Muscle Growth

According to this video (sorry for the poor reference but it represents my level of understanding in physiology), muscle grow as a consequence of repairing micro-lesions. How are these micro-lesions ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Modeling intracellular interactions between sender and receiver bacteria

I am involved in a modelling task of a biological process described as follows: -- "Objective: to model behavior of a sender receiver type system The process goes as follows Pre-signal [PS] is in ...
1
vote
1answer
203 views

Are there anatomical differences between male and female mammal brains before action of hormones?

is there any evidences of these differences during development stages prior to hormone driven sexual differentiation? mice studies ?
8
votes
3answers
1k views

What is this microscopic image from Peter Gabriel's New Blood album cover?

This image appears on the cover of Peter Gabriel's album New Blood. It appears to be a photograph of some microscopic biological cell. But it doesn't look like a blood cell to me. What kind of ...
6
votes
2answers
524 views

Why do different pain killers have different effects on people?

I've noticed some pain killers working great for me, while others have no effect. Works for me Aspirin APC † Naproxen Doesn't work for me Paracetamol Diclofenac Tramadol I doubt there ...
2
votes
0answers
64 views

Among xerophyte plants, which one grow faster and consume water the least? [closed]

In an effort to select for the most suitable plants to possibly colonise desert and stop its expansion, what would be the xerophyte plants that grow the faster and expand on surface, while using the ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Does Spinning dancer has anything to do with your eyesight

I came across the spinning dancer as part of the brain test to determine left brain vs right brain dominance. I saw the dancer is turning clockwise. The other people around me saw it turning ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

How to calculate relatedness in haplodiploid organisms (mainly full sisters and full brothers)?

I have tried to calculate the relatedness for haplodiploid organisms, but cannot understand the calculations behind full sister and full brother. (taken from Wikipedia: haplodiploidy I have managed ...
2
votes
0answers
80 views

How likely is it that through dog breeding, tail-wagging has been disassociated with happiness?

I am not a biologist, so sorry to anybody for misinformation in this post. If I understand correctly, dogs evolved the ability to show emotions through various sounds and tail-wagging in order to ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Creating Sperm via cell culture adaptation

I am wondering if it is theoretically possible to create "artificial sperm" via cell culture adaptation. That is at very high level, can you replace the genes of one sperm cell with those of another ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Hormones and body mass

I was wondering how some animals (bulls, elephants etc.) become so large by only eating grass or plant based material and why some humans can build large amounts of muscle and mass without a proper ...
2
votes
1answer
657 views

What are the ways to test for protein in the canine urine?

I know that one way is to use the reagent sticks and the refractometer, but this is inaccurate. Is protein distinguishable when using a microscope? Is it time sensitive(i.e. have to test it right ...
1
vote
1answer
161 views

Can Mono-Cell or other organism self-replicate?

I have a question regarding how organism replicate them self to create an other organism, We know that in animal reign, we need a male and female that will generate a new being. what I want to know ...
3
votes
2answers
44 views

recolonize earth desert with plants : which plants first?

if willing to recolonize earth desert , let's say sahara or any dehydrated and sterile land, without intensive human intervention, what would be the first plants / algae / fungi /bacteria to grow ? ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Thermochemistry of gabapentin

So I am taking a new class at my institution called Theoretic Nuclear Thermochemical Pharmacology, (I know big name, it's an elective from a real pioneering fronteirsman in our department :P) and I am ...
5
votes
1answer
35 views

Need to make a library of mammalian coding sequences

I want to clone ~100 different coding sequences from human or mouse into an expression vector to analyze phenotypes in tissue culture. I can do all of the steps, but I'm not sure what I should use as ...
3
votes
1answer
307 views

Why is Psoriasis treated with Cortisone, when stress (which releases Cortisol) is known to aggravate the condition?

It is well known that stress isn't good for psoriasis , yet why do we treat the illness with Cortisone, a compound very similar to cortisol (and "has a similar name, genesis, and function", according ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the biological reason for a burst appendix being potentially lethal?

Given that the appendix does not seem to be used by the human body, what is the biological reason that it is potentially lethal when this organ bursts? Also, what would cause the 'burst'?
3
votes
3answers
362 views

What is this tissue?

Does anybody recognize this picture and can tell me what organ it came from?
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Is body energy production and consumption cyclical?

If we look into how energy is produced by the humans, it always involves some kind of periodicity: fuel combustion rotates engines, water rotates turbines, nuclear chain reactions heat up water, which ...
3
votes
2answers
119 views

What does it mean to have different “metabolism”?

We hear talk of different body types, and that it is more difficult for certain people to lose weight than others. On the other hand, when my physician recommends that I lose weight, they say that it ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Is there any way the food industry can benefit from biofilms?

I realize all of the disadvantages, but I am wondering if the food industry can actually benefit from the formation of biofilms.
2
votes
1answer
171 views

How does the human body use energy?

As far as I know the glucose gets processed from carbs and fats and as a result carbon dioxide, water and "energy" are released. The carbon dioxide and water are expelled by the body, and then energy ...
4
votes
1answer
38 views

Which C. elegans would be appropriate for general study?

Would wild type N2 be best or Dyp-11? I know they're different, but I just want to observe the worms to see life stages, movement, etc. Dyp-11 seems like it would be easy to see but N2 is the wild ...
2
votes
2answers
155 views

Do couples having children later in life act as an evolutionary mechanism?

Ok, this may be just wild nonsense and I have to warn that my knowledge on the subject is limited. I was reading about how in some countries people choose to have children later in life. After that ...
15
votes
2answers
5k views

How and why did mammals go back to the oceans?

If I understand evolutionary biology correctly, mammals first evolved on land as small, rodent-like creatures, in a time when reptiles were dominant on land. Eventually, they diversified into the ...
4
votes
1answer
129 views

Definition of “structural underdominance”?

In Stathos and Fishman (2014), the authors refer to the concept of structural underdominance. The first time they mention it is in the first paragraph of the second page (left column) and the term is ...
6
votes
1answer
384 views

Does every wave length of UV kill bacteria?

Will every wave length of UV work for killing bacteria? So will UV A, UV B and UV C all work? Or will only the shortest of the three, UV C, work? Also, will the average UV lamp help against bacterial ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

Evolutionary motivation behind number of neurons in DCMMP

I'm studying neuro-anatomy right now and I was surprised to learn that there are only three neurons along the Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscal Pathway (DMLP) which relays mechanical sensations from the ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

Where can I upload non-human Genotype data?

I have genotype data from few chicken population and I want to (need to) upload them somewhere online with free access. I have searched the web but I haven't found any place for non-human genotype ...
4
votes
1answer
596 views

Troubleshooting SDS-PAGE of trypsin-treated BSA

I am currently working on SDS-PAGE technique having 20% acrylamide concentration for hydrolyzed BSA protein. Here I attached a gel photo for trypsin hydrolyzed BSA. I don't know , is it a good result ...
4
votes
0answers
76 views

Does this “fleeing spiders leaving fields of webs” phenomenon have a name?

I have recently seen images of big areas covered in spider webs: After flood in Australia ...
3
votes
1answer
165 views

How many times can a human get chicken pox?

How many times can a human get chicken pox? For example: I got chicken pox, and recovered. If I was infected with HIV, and I am exposed to chicken pox again, can it infect me second time?, According ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

How do Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese?

I learned in my food microbiology class that Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese. However, I was wondering what type of mechanisms do these ...
5
votes
1answer
46 views

What's the duration between the binding of adrenaline to β-AR and the first translated protein?

Binding of adrenaline (epinephrine) to the β-Adrenergic receptor leads to formation of cAMP (via G protein activation), activation of protein kinase A and subsequently to the expression of specific ...
0
votes
1answer
349 views

Answer the questions in one word with help of clues and images given [closed]

Name the things associated with Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek - (6 pictures are given for help and four of them are associated with these clues) a)Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe these and hence ...
4
votes
2answers
187 views

What governs the size of animal bodies?

Million of years ago there lived dinosaurs up to 36 m high. About 10,000 years ago lived Machairodontinae -compared to cats today they were huge. About 400,000 years ago lived Mammuthus trogontherii: ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

What Causes Shin Splints? [closed]

My shin splints are clearly tied to running. Though the pain level doesn't seem to correlate to my running intensity. So what is it about running that causes shin splints? My real hope is that if I ...
6
votes
1answer
102 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
2
votes
3answers
99 views

Is the quality of sleep dependent on sleep duration?

I've been facing this lately, where I will wake up in the middle of the night after sleeping for perhaps 2-3 hours and be wide awake, but when I go back to sleep, I wake up more tired than before. ...
16
votes
2answers
4k views

How many humans have been in my lineage? Is it almost the same for every human currently living?

If I were to count my father, my grandfather, my great-grandfather, and so on up till, say chimps, or the most common ancestor, or whatever that suits the more accurate answer, how many humans would ...
4
votes
1answer
112 views

Which factors may affect a choice of an oviposition place in nocturnal moths?

Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) is a small brachypterous (females have stunned wings - unable to fly) moth which places eggs on thick branches. I would like to know which abiotic and biotic factors ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

TV's so loud when I turn over

Scenario: I'm about to fall asleep with the T.V. on. Having completely forgotten that it was, no longer even hearing it, just before falling asleep I turn over with a 'fresh' ear and it's blaring. If ...
12
votes
3answers
319 views

Why is green fur not a thing?

In most biomes on earth, and certainly in the most densely-populated, the best camouflage color or pattern for an animal would be a variant of green, so as to blend in with the leaves and grasses of ...
24
votes
1answer
8k views

What do you see when your eyes are closed?

If you are in pitch black and you close your eyes, you sometimes can see strange shapes of various colors. A lot of the time these shapes and colors change as you observe them. This phenomenon still ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

Is there an association between environmental and mutational robustness?

The robustness of a genotype is the ability of this genotype to resist (always produce the same phenotype) to various parameters such as mutations and environment. The ability of a genotype to resist ...

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