2
votes
1answer
103 views

Mutation rate in viruses

Mutation rate is a phenotypic trait that evolves. The process of evolution of such kind of traits are often referred to as evolvability. I am wondering about the evolution of the mutation rates in ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Which direction are wild beehives combs oriented?

Is it on the North-South axis, the East-West axis or some other orientation?
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Aren't current explanations for the evolution of human cooperation a little too reductionist?

Lately, I've become a believer in the limits of reductionist explanations especially in areas like complex systems and biology. So, without wasting any more time, I'll get to my question.. Whenever ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Do vitamins help our memory?

It is commonly believed that vitamins can help our memory. Is this really true? What is the biological basis of this? Is there any specific research paper on the subject?
0
votes
2answers
154 views

DNA sequence from the middle of a gene

Someone gives you a short DNA sequence that comes from the middle of a gene. 5'- TCTAACTGATTAGC -3' 3'- AGATTGACTAATCG -5' From this sequence, determine the ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Why prefer $MgSO_4$ over $MgCl_2$ in recipies [closed]

Many molecular biology recipes use MgSO4 (and not MgCl2). Is there indeed a preference? If so, why?
-1
votes
1answer
549 views

How to convert nanogram to picomole? [closed]

I have lets say 10ng/uL of RNA. How can I convert it to picomole? I need it to calculate how much magnetic beads I need. This is the product: ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Is the regulation of lactose operon different between Gram + and Gram -?

I know that in E. coli the lactose operon is shut down by CAP protein when binding cAMP. Is this true also for Gram positive bacteria?
1
vote
1answer
42 views

What are good data on the Human Metabolic Model and where can I get them?

Trying to get a good SBML representation of the Human Metabolic Model for use in Flux Balance Analysis and drug targetting (i.e. gene knockout) simulations. What are good sources for these data? ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

Where can I find the metabolic network for the human erythrocyte?

Where can I find the metabolic network of the human erythrocyte (red blood cell), in SBML format? The red blood cell metabolic network is a model that's usually employed in the literature [see refs ...
2
votes
2answers
366 views

What modern insects are not (flying OR descended from flying ancestors)?

What modern insects are not flying or descended from flying ancestors? (I read somewhere that 99% are, so of course I instantly became curious which aren't. xD ) EDIT: Sorry, I should have been ...
2
votes
6answers
246 views

Sequence analysis software suites

I have used DNAStar laser gene and VectorNTI in the past for cloning, primer design, sequence alignments, etc but no longer have access to these. Are there any comparable replacement suites or what ...
1
vote
2answers
186 views

How do you find pre-miRNAs from mature miRNA Blast output?

So in short, I did a blastn with standalone blast using all known miRNAs against the EST sequences in a genome (word length 7 and e-value 0.01). Now to confirm one of the next steps would be obtain ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Does this equation have a typo? (Systems Biology, singular value decomposition) [closed]

I'm reading a systems biology paper, and I'm suspecting there's a typo in an equation, but I want to make sure. The article is "Systemic metabolic reactions are obtained by singular value ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

Cranial Nerve Decussation

I want to get my head round this once and for all so if you guys could help me would really appreciate it! I understand lesions to the optic nerve. It is the other nerves that I find difficult. So ...
0
votes
2answers
555 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
-1
votes
1answer
69 views

Late control mechanisms of blood pressure (arterial) level? [closed]

I first covered the fast and moderate control mechanisms which I think are Fast control: Baroreceptive reflex (tonus), Chemoreceptive reflex (CO$_2$). Moderate control: Bicarbonate (ECF), ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Effect of respiration on Arterial pressure

I am trying to explain the effect of respiration on arterial pressure. I am looking preferably some visual way to show it. How can you show the effect of respiration on arterial pressure? I am ...
5
votes
2answers
52k views

What does 5' and 3' mean in DNA and RNA strands?

What are 5' and 3' in DNA and RNA strands? Please clarify with some images and please use simple English.
1
vote
1answer
279 views

question about directional selection

Cattle breeders have improved the quality of meat over the years by which process? A) artificial selection B) directional selection C) stabilizing selection D) A and B E) A and C I know the answer is ...
0
votes
1answer
194 views

vestigial structure question

If a species has a vestigial anatomical structure that it no longer uses, would you expect this structure to disappear over many generations through the action of natural selection? Always, sometimes, ...
1
vote
3answers
427 views

What would happen if you combined the world's deadliest diseases & viruses?

What would happen if you took the deadliest diseases/viruses in the world and combined them in a single medium (a solution of water or a test subject)? Would the strongest virus defeat the rest or ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Do “transcription factor binding site” and “operator” mean the same thing?

Can the terms "transcription factor binding site" and "operator" be used interchangeably in all contexts when referring to a DNA sequence, e.g. regardless of a cell type, whether or not the binding ...
3
votes
4answers
243 views

Why do the humans become sleepy after meals?

I don't know about all the mankind, but I know enough people, who becomes sleepy after their meals. Also, I'm not sure, what kind of food do they consume, but I personally get sleepy almost from any ...
3
votes
4answers
153 views

Translation of mRNA?

We inserted an insulin gene from human into bacteria. Will translation of the gene (protein formation) occur in bacteria? If translation occurs then why does it occurs, give a reason for this?
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Bioinformatics : Drawbacks of using ORA(Overlap Analysis)

What do you think are the potential drawbacks/weakness of using ORA to explain distinction between two phenotypes. I identified a few which were the dependencies of DE and the statistical method used ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Cloning of a sheep.. Dolly?

Dolly the sheep was a clone. When she was born she was eight years old on her 1st day of birth, her mother (from which she was cloned) was also eight years old. What is a molecular reason behind this ...
5
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the current consensus, if any, about why long term potentiation is not clearly correlated with learning?

I was watching a video where a professor said that according to some experiments, Long Term Potentiation (LTP) is correlated with better learning, while in yet other experiments, LTP is correlated ...
19
votes
1answer
526 views

Natural examples of XOR functions at the cellular level

We can often think of cells as a sort of circuit on macromolecules, and can show that they can accurately and robustly implement functions like $\text{MAJ}(x_1,...,x_n)$ (return $1$ if more than half ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Is the Andraka pancreatic cancer test real?

In the wikipedia article about Andraka's pancreatic cancer test there are some controversial statements. On one hand there are many glorious words about the method, also some awards, also some ...
10
votes
3answers
3k views

Why is the number of PCR cycles limited?

I've been told that the maximum number of cycles in PCR is between 20 and 30. Is this true, and what are the reasons for this limitation?
1
vote
1answer
237 views

Agglutination test using antibodies

Agglutination test Latex agglutination using bound antigens : by coating soluble (non - particulate ) antigens on to microscopic latex spheres, their reaction with a particular antibody can be ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

How are lophotrichous flagella of helicobacter pylori produced?

I am thinking the mechanism is something like first adhesins (mucinase). Howevever, this does not seem to be enough. How are the flagella of H. pylori produced?
2
votes
1answer
277 views

Regarding kidney transplant

One of the options is correct Kidney can be taken from a dying person who has the a) cessation of neurological function only b) cessation of cardiac function only c) cessation of ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Book on yeast reproduction, evolution and on the use of yeast as model organism

I am looking for a good book in: Yeast reproduction mating types Recombination mating type determination mechanism Yeast evolution Yeast as model organism and its use in experimental biology It ...
0
votes
2answers
239 views

Why can we breathe only oxygen?

Plants has the capacity to take in both CO2 and oxygen, that's during day CO2 and at night oxygen. Why don't humans have such a capability?
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Evolution, self organization and neuroscience

I have rudimentary knowledge of evolution, and biology in general, so bear with me if this question is a bit naive. Let's say we have a particular trait, like highly sensitive peripheral vision. ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Has H.pylori paracellular activity?

I know that it has transcellular activity i.e. it can pass through neighbouring cells. However, I am not completely sure if it does not have paracellular activity, see this: H. pylori did not ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

2 blue eyed children

My husband had light brown eyes. His father had hazel and his mother, light brown as well. His younger brother however, has blue eyes. Both my children have blue eyes. Is this possible? I thought once ...
2
votes
2answers
106 views

Why do people use anti-inflammatory drugs?

Why people should take anti-inflammatory drugs, when inflammation is a physiological way to defend our organism?
2
votes
2answers
326 views

Why are transcripts translated from 5' to 3' direction?

What is the mechanism? In other words, how does the tRNA know whether the codon is in 5' to 3' direction? I also heard that anything that is translated from 3' to 5' direction is degraded. Is it true? ...
4
votes
2answers
200 views

How can I fetch nucleotide sequences based on ENA accession numbers and positions?

I have a list of ENA accession numbers and a start and end position in each sequence. In the end I want to align all those sequences, but first I have to fetch them and the list is too long to do that ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Dinuclei cellular mechanism

I am no biologist, but I have this question buzzing in my mind. It's a matter of curiosity What happens when two nuclei occupy the same cell? Would we expect the embryo (if it lives) to have complex ...
-1
votes
1answer
996 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

How do you express and detect GLP-1 receptors?

I am currently working with a peptide which is an analogue for glp-1, but during invitro studies am not able to detect for the presence of GLP1- receptors. The cell line used is Min-6. How do I detect ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

How far in evolutionary distance is the P-distance estimator “accurate”?

I'm reading Yang's computational molecular evolution and in the very first chapter it says the P distance is a "simplistic distance measure" between two sequences. It is the number of different sites ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Pseudosexual reproduction

Research projects with artificial life generally use creatures that are haploid. The offspring randomly inherit some genes from one parent, and some genes from the other parent. Q1: Are there any ...
4
votes
2answers
152 views

GO terms for non-model organisms

I have a list of differentially expressed genes from an RNA-Seq experiment in Xenopus laevis that I'm looking to functionally annotate with GO-terms. As X.laevis is not listed in DAVID it seems I have ...

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