2
votes
2answers
181 views

How to retrieve full gene names list and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any)?

How to retrieve full gene names and Entrez gene IDs and other annotation information from HUGO gene name list (in R or any other software or language)? Is it possible vice versa: having full gene ...
5
votes
2answers
396 views

What does units/mg mean for Streptavidin

I got streptavidin for surface reaction. The label says "biotin binding: 16 units/mg". What does units/mg mean? Does it mean "1 mg biotin can bind to 16 units ...
4
votes
1answer
724 views

What kinds of cells does human saliva contain?

I have heard that our saliva contains cells. What cell types can be found in human saliva?
1
vote
1answer
87 views

How does Haloxyfop control young grassy weeds in fields of broadleaved crops?

Haloxyfop (haloxyfop-P-methyl) is a selective herbicide used to control grassy weeds in young stages. The mode of action (iirc) is basically inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). Why does ...
11
votes
2answers
152 views

Are codons that map to the same amino acids interchangeable?

(disclaimer - I'm just getting interested in genetics so sorry if this is an obvious/silly question.) From wikipedia, in the section on the RNA codon table, I see a mapping between codons and amino ...
3
votes
0answers
45 views

What is the most complex biological organism (or precursors) that we have been able to synthesize from raw materials?

In the Miller–Urey experiment they produced several amino acids. I'm not sure if there were other similar experiments that got further. ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Dehydration from caffeine, alcohol and other

Tea, Coffee, Beer, Coke etc… I wonder if the benefit from amount of fluid we get from them is bigger or smaller then the handicap of dehydration. In other words it is worth to drink them if we want ...
-5
votes
1answer
399 views

Can genetic engineering be performed without a laboratory setting? [closed]

I'm becoming more interested in genetic engineering as I learn more about it, and it's becoming more and more apparent that there's very few resources on genetic engineering at home. A similar ...
1
vote
0answers
129 views

Transfect Mammalian Cells with Single Stranded DNA?

Agrobacteria can deliver parts of their DNA to plant cells as T-DNA, transfer DNA. This DNA is delivered as a single strand and can be integrated into the plant genome or can be converted to a double ...
0
votes
2answers
82 views

mRNA Transcription from Nuclear DNA

How does a cell "know" the coding strand vs. the non-coding strand of DNA during transcription of mRNA?
5
votes
3answers
255 views

How does menstruation proceed during one period?

I'm simplifying things here: A. Does a woman bleed constantly, like a drop every 10 minutes? Two hours without pad or tampon and your underwear is dirty? or B. Does a woman bleed suddenly a ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

Dehydration by a tea, coffee, beer etc

For the long time I am trying to find out if the following is truth: They say that some beverages dehydrates. I heard that about tea (sometimes green, sometimes black, sometimes both), coffee, beer ...
11
votes
3answers
145 views

Non-harmful bacterial invasion of cells

There are bacteria that can enter body cells as parasites. Could it be that some of these are benign, such that the guest will not kill the host cell it lives in (especially in human)?
6
votes
1answer
342 views

How much total RNA can be extracted from Drosophila brain

I am wondering how much total RNA could be extracted from a single D. melanogaster brain. I could not find this information from the literature. The closest hit was this paper, that claims that ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

More general usage of the term 'congener'

In taxonomy the term 'congener' refers to two species within the same genus. In more colloquial usage, it can refer to any two objects within the same category. Is there a way to refer to related ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Can an upper forearm amputee correctly control the Median and Ulnar nerves

I'm an engineer who is looking to build a robotic hand for people without their upper forearm(from center of forearm in direction of hand), controlled by the Thalmic Myo(an EMG sensor). I am first ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there an organism which has a common English name which overlaps with another organism's scientific name (or vice versa?)

Many organisms have their common names identical to their scientific names. For example, there exist apes of the genus Gorilla known commonly as gorillas, and plants of the genus Delphinium known as ...
5
votes
1answer
54 views

Plural of “dibamus”

Migrated from English site. Dibamus is a genus of legless lizards in the family Dibamidae, of the infraorder Dibamia. Genera are usually given in singular, so what is the correct plural of ...
2
votes
2answers
87 views

Conversion and storage of glucose to glycogen

Why is excess glucose, synthesized to glycogen, stored only in limited amounts, as compared with lipids/triglycerides that are stored in our body? Why is mature glycogen arranged (polymerized) in 12 ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

How was the origin of CTVT parasitic cancer determined?

The wikipedia article on CTVT says that the tumor cell has 57-64 chromosome while a normal dog has 78 chromosomes. Similarly while all chromosomes in dogs except the X and Y chromosomes are ...
1
vote
2answers
408 views

What are the differences between a benign tumor and swelling?

What are the differences between a benign tumor and an injury related swelling? And can swellings due to injury turn into a benign tumor?
10
votes
3answers
707 views

Have there been studies done to test Immortality of cancer cells in culture?

This website on cultured cancer cells () says cancer cells may be immortal. I am wondering if there has been any research done to find if cancer cells are really immortal. How old is the still ...
4
votes
1answer
770 views

Are nutrients absorbed in human esophagus?

Following this question regarding absorption in human oral cavity (sadly not yet fully answered), I'm curious if any nutrient absorption occurs during the descent of food through the esophagus. And ...
5
votes
1answer
124 views

Can Helicobacter pylori be eradicated naturally?

This question is not to discuss whether substances that have anti-H. pylori activity work or not, or to discuss the pros and cons of such but from a medical perspective. Assuming that one is able to ...
3
votes
1answer
796 views

After how many generations descendant is not more related to ancestor, than to a random individual in an ancestral population?

Descendant of n generation has on average 1/2n DNA of ancestor. (For example children have 1/2 DNA of parents and 1/4 DNA of Grandparents, After 10 Generation 1/1024 DNA and after 100 Generations ...
4
votes
1answer
154 views

Why do the proportion of predators increase at mass extinction events?

Why does predation surge with mass extinction? It is caused by extreme selective pressures over resource competition that forces certain species to adapt to predatory niches?
2
votes
1answer
242 views

How long can a human neuron live outside the body in a controlled environment?

Have there been any experiments that have kept neurons alive (stationary), without preserving methods such as freezing? If yes, then how long were the cells kept alive for?
5
votes
2answers
9k views

Mechanism of Decorticate & Decerebrate Posturing? Also why is only Decorticate Rigidity a misnomer?

I read these two from various books, and got confused. The confusion is - Reticulospinal tracts control gamma motor neurons. Gamma motor neurons control tone of muscle. In decerebrate rigidity, the ...
3
votes
3answers
462 views

Kinetic Vs Potential Energy in Biochemical Contexts

This question is causing great confusion in my head. Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic energy? A) the muscle contractions of a person mowing grass B) water ...
6
votes
5answers
836 views

Relationship Between Evolution and the Increase of Entropy of Earth

I was confronted by this question: Biological evolution of life on Earth, from simple prokaryote-like cells to large, multicellar eukaryotic organisms, A) has occurred in accordance with the laws ...
3
votes
1answer
174 views

Which of the two mitochondorial membranes relate to bacteria according to the endosymbiotic theory?

I seached for endosymbiotic theory in Wiki and I found this about endosymbiotic theory: Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory which explains the origin of eukaryotic ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Making the sense of enzyme Km comparisons

I have encountered comparisons of the Michaelis-menton constant (Km) a few times. Generally speaking if Km of an enzyme is higher, then it's affinity to its substrate is lower. How does this make ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Why can I breathe true only One nostril [duplicate]

just so you know, this is not why I breathe OUT only from one nostril. I am literally breathing with only 1 nostril, I can't breathe in any oxygen true my left one. If I like plug the right nostril, I ...
5
votes
1answer
63 views

Repair wrong DNA pair after ending replication?

If there are wrong DNA pair, for example A=G, is there mechanism that could repair such things - after the replication was finished? Or it happens only during replication?
1
vote
2answers
85 views

What happens when the brain is no longer capable of co-ordinating or regulating the heart and breathing rates? [closed]

Does the heart no longer function? Does it go into ventricular fibrillation? What happens?
4
votes
1answer
252 views

Trying to differentiate between the three muscle tissues with small pictures

For an assignment I have to differentiate the three types of muscle tissues in these three pictures . I'm having difficulty seeing the striations and branches etc. because the pictures are so small. ...
4
votes
1answer
283 views

Why is hyper pigmentation the common aftermath of skin lesions and abrasions?

I'm aware that melanocytes produce melanin, giving color to the skin, but why are these cells recruited or overactive when healing skin abrasions, lesions and sores when T-cells and inflammatory ...
9
votes
1answer
330 views

Can people with paralyzed eye muscles see?

As far as I am aware, the saccades of the eye are central to visual perception. If the eye is held still, the human stops seeing, even if light is reaching the retina and the visual pathway is intact. ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Why does a tumour's genome change depending on the environment?

According to the book "Primer of The Molecular Biology of Cancer" by Vincent, Theodore and Ateven, the tumour cell is changed depending on its environment. performed genome-wide analysis on three ...
5
votes
1answer
168 views

Can methylation of a promoter induce gene expression in some rare cases?

Can methylation of a promoter induce gene expression in some rare cases? I've read somewhere that methylation of an intron can induce gene expression (eg. Igf2). How is that even possible? Thank ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

What are the differences between cancer and tumour?

What are the differences between cancer and tumour? I mean is it in the DNA or shape or something else... And how can a benign tumour turn into a malignant tumour? The body has a lot of tumours all ...
2
votes
1answer
202 views

Largest direct ancestor of humans

Going back the genealogical lineage from present humans to the beginning of life, what was the biggest - in terms of body size or mass - animal in this sequence? More generally, what would a time vs. ...
2
votes
0answers
94 views

Does the metabolic rate determine how fast the telomeres shorten?

In many papers one can read that telomeres may play an important role in longevity. According to Calado et al.1 the telomeres of mice are much longer than the telomeres of humans. However, mice have ...
7
votes
1answer
346 views

Is this a grass cell?

I found this picture online claiming it was a grass cell. Clearly it is a cross section image but I was hoping you could tell me if this is actually grass, or something else if anything.
2
votes
1answer
213 views

Does Pseudomonas aeruginosa have any common name at all?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the fifth most written about¹ binomial name of all species. I'm having trouble coming to terms with the possibility that such a well researched and studied organism has never ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

What would happen to a body in an astronaut suit over time if floating free? [duplicate]

I'm not sure if this is best in Biology or Physics, but on Earth we decay to skeletons and then eventually to dust. What would happen in space in a space suit?
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Relation between a compound's toxicity and it's concentration level

I know that ammonia is toxic for the body since it disturbs enzymes of mitochondria. I want to know that why the ammonotelic animals don't get affected by it? I mean that even if there is plenty of ...
3
votes
3answers
405 views

why do some cells in the body prefer necrosis to apoptosis as a means of cell death?

There are many programmed cell death pathways, but some cells show a greater preference for some over the other. I'm wondering as to why if necrosis is an inflammatory response that causes damage to ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Cockroaches and magnetic fields

Aloha, I live in Hawaii working with sharks and their sensitivity to magnetism but here we also have large cockroaches. Has anyone worked with cockroaches and magnetism? I wonder if placing high ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

How long does it take to form a peptide bond?

What is the time taken to form a peptide bond in vivo or in vitro? It isn't mentioned in my course on protein structures. I was just curious to find out if any time scale is known? Given that ...

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