1
vote
3answers
455 views

What does orbital mean in orbital frontal cortex?

Orbital frontal cortex is where decisions are made. What does the word orbital there mean? I looked around in wikipedia and never find it.
4
votes
2answers
202 views

Why and how does complexity usually tends to increase through time?

The question of complexity is classic in the very first lectures of evolutionary biology where the teacher usually tries to tell the students that complexity does not necessary increases and that ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Cancer history on environment-cancer relationship

I am interested to know how environment-cancer relationship knowledge has developed. I know that all began when Muller first proved that mutation could be induced via ionizing radiation, X rays in the ...
0
votes
1answer
133 views

Does avocado and orange have a common ancestor?

While I'm eating my orange, I felt as if I was eating avocado. It might be genetic manipulations perhaps but it made me think if they have a common evolutionary ancestor. Is there?
2
votes
1answer
219 views

Why don't we have more cone cells (bigger fovea)?

Background Apart from being able to sense color, cone cells are able to perceive finer detail and more rapid changes in images, because their response times to stimuli are faster than those of rods. ...
4
votes
2answers
159 views

Is solving cancer required in order to avoid aging?

When the telomerase enzyme is not active the telomere shortens every time the cell duplicates leading to a reproductive limit (Hayflicks limit). On one hand this is a believed reason for aging. On the ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Is there a limit to acceptable brightness for plants?

Can overly bright artificial light harm plants? Is it possible to achieve a level of brightness so high that it does more harm than good to plants? If sunlight can be filtered of infrared light ...
5
votes
3answers
263 views

What are some examples of genes that code for multiple proteins?

The title pretty much says it all. It is widely taught that a gene in a eukaryotic system could produce more than one protein due to post-transcriptional modification, but I do not believe I have come ...
1
vote
2answers
234 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
1
vote
4answers
339 views

Punnett Square Help

In fruit flies, red eyes are dominant over white eyes. Show a cross between two white-eye fruit flies. My question is... How do I know if the white-eye fruit flies are homozygous or heterozygous?
2
votes
1answer
597 views

Excretion of various wastes and water requirement

A common fact is that Ammonia, Urea and Uric acid are the most common excreted metabolites and their removal needs varying amount of water, highest for ammonia (hence suited only for aquatic animals) ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Sodium levels and blood pressure

Why does low Na+ levels cause hypotension (low blood pressure). Alternatively, why does excessive intake of Na+ cause hypertension or high blood pressure? From what I understand, there are ...
5
votes
3answers
203 views

How easy is it to carry out de novo sequence assembly?

Today a colleague of mine asked the following question: " Assuming I need to build from 0, a chromosome of a fish, with short reads but no other reference whatsoever [de novo assembly]: ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Organisms with the most extreme sensory capabilities? (sight, smell, sound) [closed]

Background It is quite mind boggling to imagine what it would be like to be missing sight, sound, touch, smell, taste etc. Question Which organism holds the record for most extreme sensory ...
4
votes
1answer
179 views

Why isn't Rh disease present in other mammals?

I have read about Rhesus D Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, sometimes called "Rh disease". It's rare, but it can happen when an Rh+ baby is conceived by an Rh- mother. This raises many questions. I ...
0
votes
2answers
139 views

Chills down the spine with certain music?

I am sure many of us know the feeling of that tingling chill down our spines when listening to certain music. I experienced this most when my younger brother played an emotional piano piece for a ...
4
votes
2answers
280 views

How does the colinearity of the HOX genes determine the body plan of an organism?

I was recently reading about colinearity in the HOX genes that give an organism its high-level body plan (where the order of the HOX genes on the chromosome follow the head-to-tail order of body ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

Can juice have a higher sugar content after packaging? [closed]

It seems like the orange juice thats been sitting in the fridge for awhile always tastes sweeter than the juice just brought from the grocery store. Can juice ripen in the container ? By that I ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

RT-qPCR of selected differential expressed genes: which dilutions in calibration curve?

I've seen in MIQE guidelines that calibration curves a needed when performing RT-qPCR. I'll use genomic DNA to perform these calibration curves. My question is that I don't know the range of ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

How many plants are needed to survive in an airtight chamber?

How large a garden do you need if you are to survive on them producing enough oxygen in a closed chamber? And which are the most effective plants?
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Removing Sugars Bound to a Protein

I recently purchased some Maltose Binding Protein and as the name suggests this protein binds to maltose. The problem I have is the protein arrive with maltose bound. I know this through native mass ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Are there any differences between qRT-PCR and GEO (microarray data from NCBI) regarding dealing with internal control genes?

As we know, when we do qRT-PCR, the two most commonly used methods are absolute quantification and relative quantification, both the methods are involved in dealing with normalization of house-keeping ...
15
votes
1answer
167 views

Haidinger's brush: Is this a by-product of the eye's physics, or are there any evolutionary grounds for it?

The human eye is, very subtly, sensitive to the polarization of light. This is an effect known as Haidinger's brush (see Wikipedia article of this name). What, if anything, is known or at least ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

Why do animals only eat some parts of their food?

For example monkeys/apes only eat part of a fruit and then throw the rest. Cats (big and small species) only eat some parts of their prey and then they abandon it. Humans on the contrary leave as few ...
2
votes
1answer
288 views

Is tongue rolling genetic?

Is the ability to roll your tongue or not truly inherited or genetic? What I have gathered from school has been contradicting with evidence I found elsewhere.
4
votes
2answers
2k views

The number of nipples (breasts) a species has?

Only mammals have mammaries and mammary glands. What evolutionary factors determines the number of mammaries (nipples/teats/breasts) a species has? Is it always an even number?
1
vote
1answer
3k views

Cats, Dogs and Bears - how are they related?

What is the ancestral relationship between cats, dogs and bears? I presume they are more closely related to one another than other paraphyletic clades of mammal. Which came first? What did their ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Why do yeast ferment Equal sweetener

I had my students conduct a fermentation experiment manipulating sugar amounts (number of sugar packets in solution) and measuring CO₂ production via capture in a balloon and measuring circumference ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

How do birds learn their tunes in isolation from their own species?

I wonder what a bird would sing if it didn't have its parents around (or any other birds for that matter) to learn its chirping sounds from. I'm interested in how a bird would sing... in complete ...
4
votes
1answer
55 views

Finding RNA Loops

I was rooting through the literature, but there is too much work on the topic of detecting loops in RNA and the RNA helices that go with them. Can anyone point to a good review on this topic or even ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Cell life: division for immortality or reproduction with aging

Are the two cells that are derived from one cell, ‘twin sisters’ or a ‘mother and a daughter’? In other words, can a cell really be divided to live an "immortal" life or is cell reproduction the ...
5
votes
1answer
95 views

Can you “spam” bird sounds so that birds no longer interpret them right?

Is it possible to make birds confused by repeating recorded chirping or singing? Or do they always perceive them as usual, even if the situation is clearly not as described by those sounds? For ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Clarification of the procedures to amplify cDNA needed

The typical procedure to obtain cDNA from genomic extracted DNA is the following: RNA is extracted from desired tissue, RNA/DNA hybrid is obtained by virtue of reverse transcriptase RNA dependent DNA ...
12
votes
1answer
3k views

Do we actually get more sick (flu/cold) during winter?

The word flu derives from the Italian phrase "influenza de freddo" meaning "influence of the cold". Indeed it is that time of the year when my colleagues seem to have the flu/cold more often than ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example. I am totally confusing myself with SNPs, alleles, variants and how the major and minor allele are defined. A clear example with ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Chemoautotrophy in large organisms?

The major nutritional mechanisms include chemoautotrophy, heterotrophy (including parasitism and saprotrophy) and photoautotrophy. All of these modes of nutrition developed first in prokaryotic ...
3
votes
0answers
367 views

How far can ants travel from their nest? [closed]

I live in a top floor apartment and we are being invaded by black garden ants. I can only follow their trail outside so far and have no idea where their nest is. How far do ants travel from their ...
4
votes
2answers
221 views

Do animals suffer from “Human” mental disorders?

It is tragic, but apparently Killer whales and Dolphins can commit suicide too (e.g. here)... This suggests they can become depressed. I wondered whether they were "clinically" depressed like many ...
4
votes
1answer
249 views

Body size, what are the evolutionary trade-offs?

Background Considering just the "Kingdom Animalia" branch of organisms. It is clear that bigger does not necessarily mean better - there is large variation in body size... From the 94 µm long ...
4
votes
3answers
203 views

Why do we need deep sequencing?

Why do we need deep sequencing? Why cannot the sequencing technologies read all the nucleotides correctly at the first read? Sorry since this question is too trivial, I don't have a biological ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

The reason why researchers usually use cell lines from “blast cells”?

What's the reason why researchers usually use cell lines from "blast cells" (so, immature, like lymphoblastoid cells) for measuring gene expression data? Is that they are growing up, which would make ...
1
vote
2answers
343 views

Blast a sequence against multiple databases

I would like to BLASTP a list of protein sequences in fasta format against multiple protein databases. Since I'm only interested in the first hit of each database, it is possible that BLAST result ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

How to get conservation of vaccine candidates between hundreds of bacterial strains?

We have identified vaccine candidates via an ex-vivo RNA-seq approach. Next step would be to perform conservation of these candidates (about 20) between multiple bacterial strains (about 200). I would ...
3
votes
2answers
245 views

Modern immunology textbooks

I am looking for recommendations to good textbooks introducing modern immunology. Review articles, preferably modern (post 2000) would also be useful. Please, include a brief comment with each book ...
1
vote
1answer
300 views

What are the differences between HPRD and BIOGRID databases?

What are the differences between HPRD and BIOGRID protein-protein interactions databases? What are their purposes? Why do we need two different databases? How is data collected into each one? How ...
1
vote
1answer
124 views

How is deviated nasal septum related to cold

I have a deviated nasal septum and I always suffer from common cold I was just wondering how a deviated nasal septum can be the cause for chronic common cold
3
votes
1answer
347 views

Is there a maximum pain threshold?

Is there a maximum threshold of pain a Human can experience, beyond which point there is no noticeable difference? I ask this question in part to better understand the definition of pain and its ...
5
votes
1answer
99 views

Could murder be modeled as an infectious disease?

Background "When swine flu hit the population it spiked in certain areas and tapered off in neighboring regions, it hits hardest where people have least protection and this pattern is more ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Gradual slowing breath, its effect on health

I've written a computer program which beeps, then beeps after 10 sec, then beeps after 11 sec, then beeps after 12 sec, etc. I tried the following "experiment" on myself: do only one breath between ...

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