3
votes
2answers
160 views

How does smoking, an environmental factor, cause cancer, fundamentally a genetic disease?

If cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease, how might an environmental factor such as smoking cause cancer?
6
votes
3answers
205 views

What does it mean for a distribution to be “consistent with a two rate-limiting stochastic steps”?

I'm reading a study (full text here) that examine the dynamic of nuclear translocation of a transcription factor in budding yeast, in response of calcium stress. They found that it occurs in bursts, ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Does endo- and (or) exocytosis require energy? Do they belong to active / passive transport?

I expect vesicle formation and fusion to require energy input; however, I'm not sure about which of endocytosis and exocytosis require energy and how they use the energy input. Do they belong to ...
6
votes
2answers
180 views

Transitivity of Species Definitions

There are many definitions of "species" which usually take the form Two individuals are of the same species if ... An implied (rarely made explicit) property of any sensible species definition ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Radial Basis Function Network (RBF Network)

In the Wikipedia article on radial basis function network, I didn't understand what was meant by "center vector for neuron i", in other words "center of the RBF units called also prototype".
8
votes
2answers
411 views

What does fitness really mean?

Fitness is certainly the most important concept in the theory of evolution. My question does not have to do with practical measures of fitness but with the theoretical definition of it. I am a bit ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Dimethyltryptamine binding site on Sigma 1 type opioid receptor?

I asked this question Dimethyltryptamine and Sigma 1-type opioid receptor interaction but it seems that I didn't express myself well. I was looking for the place on Sigma 1 type opioid receptor where ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the relationship between sexual and and natural selection?

In http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12701.html, they say: Thus, it seems that the diverse coloration in this species is promoted by both natural and sexual selection. ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

issues with MultiPipMaker

I would like to use MultiPipMaker for testing a genome alignment between two sequences, each sequence is in .fasta format, but the problem is that when I submit the couples of file that I need, the ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

What is the origin of viruses? How could they get both living and non-living characteristics? [duplicate]

I read that viruses are called intermediate between living and non-living particles. Well, if so, then where did they originate from? From living or non-living? If they originated from either living ...
1
vote
2answers
162 views

How was the heritability of IQ tested?

I have read that IQ is highly heritable. How could this be tested? For honest testing, it seems to me that only children who were abandoned should have been tested, to exclude education effect. Was ...
2
votes
2answers
253 views

How much natural genetic variation is there between bacteria of the same species?

There are lots of questions about how and why there is genetic variation between organisms of the same species, but I haven't been able to find a numerical value for the expected amount of genetic ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

What is the physiological difference between snorting/swallowing cocaine

I know that mucosa inside the nose absorbs cocaine molecules when snorting cocaine, but what difference is there compared to swallowing? Also more cocaine administration equals more cocaine molecules ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Is it true that there is a spider that eats parasites from caterpillars

I think I once saw a video of a caterpillar that could get infected by a parasite, and could die of that, unless a specific kind of spider would eat the parasite, and so once the caterpillar is ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Which is harder to contract - HIV or AIDS?

I am working on mathematically modeling HIV and Tuberculosis Co-infection dynamics, and am working with 12 differential equations describing the behavior of all of the compartments and parameters. ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Non-fatal / low-harm measurement of Drosophila traits

I am trying to generate some candidate traits to measure in a fitness assay of wildtype outbred (lab population) flies. The key trait I will measure is lifespan. I am looking for some additional ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

What Freshwater Fish Are Affected By Magnetic Fields

I am interested in knowing which freshwater fish are affected by magnetic fields. I've heard that Lake Sturgeon are, but would like more references. This is for a project that will have buried 3 ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Dimethyltryptamine and Sigma 1-type opioid receptor interaction

Where exactly do dimethyltryptamine and sigma 1-type opioid receptor interact? I read in this When the Endogenous Hallucinogenic Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Meets the Sigma-1 Receptor but it ...
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Does a piezoelectric organic substance exist?

that contracts rapidly, in 10 seconds or less, by .5mm or more, when bombarded by electrons as from a cathode ray tube? or expands? could either be living tissue or dead organic matter. thanks!
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How do the first and second law of thermodynamics adhere to breakdown of glucose?

I know the first law is energy can only be converted from one form to the other, therefore in the breakdown of glucose 40% potential energy is converted to ATP and 60% is converted to thermal and ...
1
vote
1answer
228 views

What is an on-line measurement? What is an off-line measurement?

See it used here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fed-batch. In the table giving the different strategies to control growth in a fed-batch culture, one finds, for example: "on-line measurement of ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Enzymatic Protein Deglycosylation of TCL

I've done O- and N- linked enzymatic deglycosylation of purified and lyophilized proteins. Following some modifications to the manufacture's protocol, I had great results. I now want a student to ...
-5
votes
1answer
216 views

How is it proved, that antediluvian people didn't live for hundreds of years? [closed]

Bible says that antediluvian people lived for 800-900 of years. Nowadays apologists say that it is possible and that we just can't know the truth. I know that one of the basic science principles is ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Are there any antigen electronic sensors? [closed]

Is it possible somehow to attach antibody to silicon or to other electronic component chemical, and have electronic detector of correspondent antigen? Does such devices exist?
2
votes
3answers
601 views

Are all body atoms really recycled several times during a life?

I heard a point, that all (human) body atoms are recycled withing short period like few years. Recycled means "old" atoms are replaced by "new" ones during metabolism, leaving only structure ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

Should the length of the electrodes in the electrophoresis chamber be proportional to chamber's size?

I am trying to build a small horizontal electrophoresis chamber from scratch. I want to use it for comet assay and I will be using only 1 slide, so it's going to be about 3cm wide, 10cm long and 4cm ...
2
votes
0answers
110 views

What causes a selective shift of colour perception after removing wavelength filtered glasses?

Background To improve sleep by reducing blue-light melatonin disruption, I wear night-glasses that filter short wavelengths (e.g. something like these). With these glasses on, both the top and bottom ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

Where can I find a full genealogy of human cell types?

It is said on Wikipedia, that the precursor of blastocyst is a morula, and that the precursor of morula is a zygote. This gives us the part of genealogy tree of cell types. Unfortunately, no full ...
6
votes
1answer
69 views

How well supported is the hypothesis that aging is mainly caused by the number of mutations in tissues?

I heard the hypothesis, that the (main) reason of aging is the increasing number of mutations in body tissues. The higher the number of mutations is, the older tissue is. Is this true? And how well ...
3
votes
2answers
5k views

Does bright environment strain eyes more than dim?

I'm trying to figure out how to modify my working conditions so that I can program longer without harming my eyes. Because doing so experimentally hasn't given conclusive results so far, I decided to ...
11
votes
3answers
3k views

Why do humans find baby animals cute?

Why do humans find baby animals like cats, dogs, ... so cute? As these are potential competitors (when grown up!) or even natural enemies (like e.g. tigers, leopards, ..), the protection instinct ...
1
vote
2answers
169 views

What does ophthalmologist see in your eye?

I always wondered what ophthalmologists see inside someone's eye and what they're looking for. The whole thing is a mystery to me. Are there any photos of what the eye of a patient looks like from the ...
4
votes
2answers
149 views

New GO terms after TopGO enrichment? [closed]

I ran an enrichment analysis with custom annotations using TopGO and surprisingly I obtained new GO terms inside the significant GO terms. Is that possible? The only reason I can imagine this is ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Terminology question about the correct term for areas of biological research

I am writing a paper about DNA sequence prediction. DNA sequence prediction is done across various areas of biology, including, for example, RSS sequence prediction (in immunology) and prediction of ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Does the eye image interval refresh? [closed]

It's known the human eye takes 24 images per second. But does this refresh? For example after sleeping. Or will it always be the same interval? I talk about when the eye takes the images. So it are ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the definition of “dry weight” and “dry cell weight”?

As I understand it, the dry weight of something is its weight minus the weight of its water content. Is this the definition? What about dry cell weight?
3
votes
0answers
38 views

Adenosine metabolism

Are adenosine or its catabolites increased in inflamed airways? How can I assess this? I am trying to use inhibitors for adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, but ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

Attachment of muscles during molting in insects

Normally, insects' muscles are attached to their exoskeleton but what happens to this attachment when they are moulting? Sorry if this is an extremely silly question but I have wondered about it for ...
4
votes
1answer
199 views

How does a fungus protect itself from digestion by other fungi?

If a fungus releases its digestive enzymes outside its body, how does it protect itself from digestion? How do fungi growing nearby protect themselves? I have tried searching this on google but ...
6
votes
2answers
220 views

Probability of Extinction under Genetic Drift

Here is the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift: $$\frac{(2N)!}{k!(2N-k)!}p^kq^{2N-k} \Leftrightarrow \binom{2N}{k}p^kq^{2N-k}$$ where $\binom{2N}{k}$ is the binomial coefficient. This formula ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

How do you estimate global species richness?

I know how estimates of species richness in a small area are made. But how do you estimate the total number of species on a global scale? One example of such a method can be found in Mora et al. ...
5
votes
2answers
478 views

Can this image be the result of a Western Blot?

I am currently researching image manipulation in the life sciences and stumbled upon a Western Blot looking very similar to the image below. For creating the image I have cut out the blot using the ...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

Competition for mates in sea horses

This source here ...research has shown that it is STILL the males that compete for females. says that male sea horses compete for mates but this source here Females exhibit a ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Removal of the Initial Methionine in Venus for FRET

I'm working on building some FRET reporters. In addition to a cleavage site (of varying composition from 15-18AA), a 1 AA linker, I'm using Venus and Cerulean. Initially I was worried that 18AA ...
4
votes
1answer
285 views

Are there any types of cancer that cause neurons to divide?

After birth neurons generally do not divide. But is there any specific type of rare cancer or tumour where neurons divide? And if there is such a cancer, then how is it possible for a neuron to regain ...
2
votes
1answer
676 views

What is Luc Montagnier's research on electromagnetic signals from DNA about?

After reading a Youtube comment, I started reading on Luc Montagnier's research on electromagnetic signals from DNA. I haven't been able to find a source that would clearly explain what it's about. I ...
5
votes
0answers
232 views

Genetic expression in interspecific hybrids

Referring to interspecific hybrids, I have the following two questions:- Quoting from wikipedia:- The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility ...
4
votes
0answers
67 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

Protocol for measuring stamina of arthritic mice

I am going to make some mice ill with arthritis. The medicine which I am testing as control is known to cause extreme fatigue. I think I've improved it. I'd like to humanly measure their stamina in ...

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