0
votes
2answers
46 views

Is this a valid definition of independent assortment?

"Allelic combinations separate randomly. I.e. a parent might be Aa and Bb for two traits but that doesn't necessarily mean the gametes will strictly be AB or ab but any of a number of combinations. ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

What is the progressive evolutionary advantage that leads to flying?

As far as I understand, all life started as non-flying and flying came about by natural selection. What is the evolutionary advantageous "path" to flying? Or is there something else to explain this?
1
vote
2answers
820 views

What are non-heritable changes to genomes?

I am told that mutations are heritable changes to the genome. So this begs the question - what are non-heritable changes to genome?
2
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the difference between a phosphotransferase, a phosphatase, a phosphorylase and a kinase?

I've looked in several sources, but I'm still confused. This is what I have so far: A phosphotransferase catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group. A kinase is a type of phosphotransferase that ...
3
votes
1answer
814 views

Why is Cysteine and Tyrosine used to calculate a sequence isoelectric point?

Why are the amino acids - cysteine and tyrosine used in isoelectric point calculations for a protein sequence, yet neither of them are positively charged molecules? and are not used in net charge ...
0
votes
1answer
218 views

What are the structual differences between DNA and RNA? [closed]

How is the structure of DNA different from that of RNA?
3
votes
0answers
82 views

Does eating antacid (such as Magnesia) before meal have any impact on digestion? [closed]

During an anatomy lecture I heard of the importance of the acidity of gastric acid (e.g., killing microorganisms, dissolving food, being a factor for triggering further processes). If a healthy person ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

what is the role of ctab in plant dna extraction [duplicate]

i get good results for dna extraction by using ctab method but i doesn't have that proper information for role/function of ctab and other chemical. Anyone know, please briefly explain ......
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Could transfusion of a different blood type cure blood-based cancers?

Different antigen detection triggers an immune system response that could perhaps stimulate mitochondria and such in killing cancer cells - something like chemo without the hair-loss?
23
votes
1answer
8k views

Why is the Krebs cycle considered a part of aerobic metabolism if molecular oxygen is not involved in any of the reactions in the cycle

Why is the Krebs cycle considered a part of aerobic metabolism if molecular oxygen is not involved in any of the reactions in the cycle? I originally thought that Krebs cycle was aerobic metabolism ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Does too much Genetical Modification leads to formation of new species?

I think Genetical Modification can be termed as 'Artificial Mutation'. Is it possible that genes can be modified so much that it leads to the introduction of new Species i.e Can integration of large ...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the H+ gradient in mitochondria?

I would like to understand what the term H+ Gradient means. I googled this question and found terms such as chemiosmosis and ion gradient being tossed around. I am very new to biology and I do not ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Gene Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis

I have another question regarding cystic fibrosis. I understand that gene therapy is currently being talked about in the cure for cystic fibrosis. I know that Eric Alton at imperial college London is ...
5
votes
2answers
527 views

Functions of the CFTR gene?

I am a senior in high school and I am studying cystic fibrosis. I don't quite get the function of the CFTR gene as this is my first time dealing with this type of heavy scientific info. I had ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

How do C. elegans manage nutrition?

If there is ample amount of food, do C. elegans worms know when to stop eating or do they store extra energy? Could they put this extra energy to use by moving faster or putting more eggs?
4
votes
2answers
602 views

The gender of offspring of Twins?

Given identical twin males, Michael and Douglas, Douglas and his wife have four children, all of whom are girls. Michael and his wife have only one child, a boy, and are expecting another. What are ...
2
votes
2answers
719 views

Why would an Eadie-Hofstee Plot be non-linear? [closed]

Besides cooperativity between multiple active sites on an enzyme, what are the other reasons for the Eadie-Hofstee plot to be non-linear?
4
votes
1answer
93 views

Poisonous plants, animals, mushrooms: is this always a kind of defense?

I wonder whether developing deadly toxins in the organism's body is always or usually a defensive strategy rather than a by-product.
5
votes
1answer
876 views

Are fish and reptilian scales homologous?

Wikipedia: Fish scales are dermally derived, specifically in the mesoderm. This fact distinguishes them from reptile scales paleontologically. So aren't reptilia scales also dermally derived?
2
votes
1answer
450 views

For how long can a raven stay airborne (a week or more)?

I'm wondering for how long a raven can stay continuously airborne, if strained to do so? If it makes a difference, I'm mostly interested in the Common raven, Corvus corax. Are there for instance any ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

If hermaphrodite C. elegans can reproduce with females?

C. elegans can self fertilize, or they can mate with males. But are they able to mate with females? Or is there some kind of morphological barrier that prevents that?
7
votes
1answer
107 views

How exactly can dsRNA be introduced to a cell?

Is it just by viruses or are there other means by which it gets into cells, such as plasmid uptake?
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Hamming distance between two DNA strings

By definition from Wikipedia, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different. In other words, it is the number of ...
1
vote
0answers
251 views

Is it possible to simulate the effects of high altitudes for plants?

Note- I considered asking this on gardening.stackexchange.com but i believe it is better suited for this site since it deals with more complicated material. As I understand it, certain plants ...
1
vote
1answer
412 views

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare? [closed]

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare?
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Does sociality evolved before or after the ability of motility?

According to book Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions o Evolution. (Lane, N.;2010), Motility has indeed transformed life on earth in ways that are not immediately apparent, from the ...
4
votes
1answer
130 views

Redundancy of the genetic code

One particular codon codes only for one amino acid, but an amino acid can be coded for by several different codons. Now according to the genetic code, the codon UUU ...
4
votes
1answer
151 views

Identify the pink mold infecting refrigerated lemons [closed]

I made lemon juice 6 month ago. I just washed the lemon using brush and then cut them into pieces. Then I put one layer of lemon in the bottle followed by one layer of sugar Again one layer of lemon ...
0
votes
1answer
205 views

Earliest and latest onset of Huntington's Disease(Chorea)?

Huntington's disease can hit at any age, although it tends to hit middleaged people most often. What is the youngest and oldest person that has exhibited Huntington's? Clarification: By oldest I mean ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

What is happening physically when I get sleepy and when I wake up?

After a week of too little sleep, I slept about 12 hours last night to "catch up". It made me wonder: what is happening physically that signals that I'm done sleeping, or conversely, that I need to ...
2
votes
1answer
254 views

DNA methylation on the forward vs reverse strand?

I'm wondering if there are meant to be differences in DNA methylation between the forward and the reverse strand of the gene? I'm wondering because in primer design for bisulfite pyrosequencing one ...
1
vote
3answers
62 views

Why do physicians try to match HLA complexes for organ transplant?

My understanding of acute transplant rejection is that donor dendritic cells present donor antigens on MHC1 to host naive CD8+ T-cells resulting in an immune response against the graft. If you match ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Sequencing a specific region of a genome

First off, I'm new to bioinformatics and I am learning about DNA sequencing. Let's say that I knew that a specific region of a genome which contained information about a disease (whether it a person ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

What are the reactions in the body that triggers dizziness after cigar(nicotine) smoking in non-smokers?

Suppose there is a person that has never used nicotine in any form in his/her life. Why does the person get dizzy after a few "shots" from a cigar(nicotine)? What's the difference between using other ...
16
votes
1answer
507 views

How fast can a human run?

I'm a runner (cross country) and I'm always amazed at how fast Olympic sprinters are. There's a lot of hype about those in the 100-meter dash being the fastest in the world, and we're constantly ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

What controls gut motility?

I have two different papers. One claims that gut motility is reduced by stimulation of the Opioid κ and δ receptors. The receptors are activated by Morphine and certain derivatives, specifically ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Gastroenteritis virus causing mutation of the Enterochromaffin cells

I am working on the solution to a worldwide problem: IBS or chronic diarrhea following a viral gastroenteritis infection. I think I have an answer. The only missing piece to the puzzle I found in a ...
0
votes
2answers
179 views

What is the name of the condition where no pacemaker cells are active in the heart for a short-time?

Assume that the heart is beating, but no pacemaker cells are working for at least 15 seconds. This would be a very long compensatory pause if extrasystole started it. There may be some low frequent ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How to find miRNA binding sites on a specific gene?

I am trying to find miRNAs that bind to the 3'UTR of a specific gene. What is the best way of doing that (that is, with a good scoring analysis that is most commonly used by researchers in this area)? ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Does repolarization of muscle fibers mean that the muscle bundle is relaxed?

If I flex my bicep and continue to contract it does it mean that the muscle cells are in depolarizing state and not repolarizing?
3
votes
2answers
256 views

Please help me to identify this red worm

I found bunch of red worms coming out of sink. It is rather unusual to find an overwhelmingly large number of worms. It doesn't seem like earthworm or horsehair worm. I don't know much about the ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Are added yogurt cultures harmful to the gut?

I have read somewhere that the live culture added to yogurt acting as "healthy" gut bacteria are actually synthetic and harmful. Any truth to this? If so, what are some alternatives to getting good ...
4
votes
2answers
673 views

How did aquatic dinosaurs go extinct?

Dominant theory is that 'normal' dinosaurs went extinct from ether super volcano or meteor impact or combination of both. However there were aquatic dinosaurs that are not present at this day. Was it ...
3
votes
1answer
164 views

How is Microenvironment strictly defined?

I started to think this definition of Wikipedia: Microenvironment (biology), a small or relatively small usually distinctly specialized and effectively isolated biophysical environment (as of ...
8
votes
1answer
207 views

Can a human cell live indefinetely in a controlled environment?

How long can a human cell live in a controlled environment, given all necessary nutrients, temperatures, mechanisms for waste removal, and other requirements are provided for? Put differently: Can a ...
5
votes
2answers
55 views

Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine.
9
votes
2answers
3k views

Fate of erythrocytes after splenectomy

The spleen is considered a graveyard for red blood cells. So in case of Splenectomy (complete surgical removal of the spleen), what would be the fate of red blood cells? Would this cause Polycythemia? ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

To what extent is Ebola airborne? (aerosols)

Recently, CIDRAP at the University of Minnesota announced that Ebola may be more transmissible through aerosols than previously thought. I lack the familiarity with the field to critically evaluate ...
4
votes
2answers
643 views

Does trypsin strip flask coating?

Mammalian cell/tissue cultures sometimes require flasks coated with proteins. My uneducated guess is that these proteins mimic the ECM, perhaps the basal lamina, so finicky contact-dependent cells can ...
5
votes
1answer
111 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...

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