3
votes
0answers
81 views

A day in Beijing is like smoking Only one sixth of a cigarette

This is the title of this blog post followed by this other good post. I'm particularly anti-tobacco-smoke, at the point of not always considering other pollution, and this article shows how this kind ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

Multicellular organisms as DNA banks

Animal -> bacterial gene transfer seems easier than bacteria -> animal (rotifers are an interesting exception); there are bacteria live in close contact to us but our germ-line cells are protected. ...
1
vote
2answers
457 views

Real time PCR standard curve

As blunt as possible: when performing real time PCR it is a routine step to run one PCR in order to plot a "standard curve" with several decreasing dilution ratios from your sample. what is the real ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Does apheresis damage any components of blood? If not, why not?

Blood donation involving apheresis is becoming increasingly common. It looks like the process involves centrifuging blood at very high speeds* before removing the desired fraction and returning the ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Buy bacteria for experiment?

Where can I buy paracoccus denitrificans? I need it for an experiment. I cannot find online where I can purchase this.
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Structure of biological membranes?

Integral membrane proteins have functional asymmetry i.e. they have two different domains of proteins performing different functions. these proteins have Tyr and Trp amino acid residues at the ...
3
votes
3answers
141 views

Why do 6-8% of diphtheria patients do not develop natural immunity after being affected?

I am thinking of why some patients do not have natural immunity after exposure to the A-B toxin of diphthria. I think the A-B exotoxin is the key factor causing this disease and should trigger memory ...
1
vote
2answers
417 views

carbohydrates and lipids as a source of energy? why?

Why carbohydrates and lipids basically used as a sources of energy? Why only proteins are used as building blocks of all the creations? Yes there are some parts of cells like cell walls in which ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

What is the role of hippo signalling in oral squamous cells

What role do hippo signalling have on squamous cells in oral health & diseases
3
votes
1answer
228 views

Meiosis vs. Mitosis

Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number from 2n to n to make gametes viable for reproduction in humans. I know that during meiosis, there is independent assortment and ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Sodium-Potassium Pump

From my understanding, in the sodium-potassium pump we have Na+ inside the cell and K+ outside the cell, thus forming a so called "salted banana." After reading my textbook I found many statements ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

How efficient is the sodium-potassium pump ?

I am reading about transportation of ions in a cell. It is necessary to transport sodium back out and potassium back in, against their electrochemical gradient. This task is carried out by ...
2
votes
2answers
196 views

Primer design and BLAST E value stringency

When searching for misprimings I have been told that an e value that is higher than 0.01 is ok and will produce no significant amounts of mispriming. Yet I searched some and it would seem that the e ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

How does vasomotor and bronchomotor reactions equilibrate local blood flow to correspond local ventilation?

I am trying to find some figure(s) to explain this. There is probably better name for "bronchomotor" reaction. They seem to opposite terms and actually affecting same things (alveolar diameter/tone); ...
2
votes
2answers
549 views

How did the first sexual animal come to exist? [closed]

I am more or less familiar with the evolution theory based on mutations. Now, starting with a nonsexual being, how did the first organism that reproduces sexually come to exist.
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Function and process of TCTE-1 receptor

I was wondering if anybody knew of the function and process of the TCTE-1 receptor during the binding of a sperm with an egg. The only think I know of TCTE-1 is that it is a species-specific receptor. ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Chromosome 2 alternate explanation - apes gaining a set of chromosomes?

I'm preparing for a debate (just between friends) on evolution (I'm in support), and one of the points I plan to bring up is the Chromosome 2 evidence. I'm now trying to predict their potential ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Significance of prostaglandins in semen?

I am trying to figure out how prostaglandins in the semen relate to the female reproductive tract. More specifically, How does prostaglandins in semen help the female reproductive tract increase the ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

What are the purposes of granulocytes in acute inflammation?

I heard the phrase Neutrophilic leucocytes are kings in the acute inflammation. Neutrophils are granulocytes, while leucocytes are not granulocytes. I think this statement refers to the fact ...
0
votes
1answer
155 views

What is the function of clot retraction?

I am thinking how clot retraction and fibrinolysis work together. I think that clot retraction is a process that gets clot towards fibrinolysis process. Fibrinolysis process then lyses the clot. ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Transport of mammalian insulin in vivo

What is the mechanism for transport of insulin in mammalian cells?
2
votes
1answer
123 views

how do they identify different protein chains?

Can someone please explain how different protein chains occur exactly? I'm not talking about the side chain, but the protein chain which is typically labelled as A,B,C etc in the PDB. I'm curious as ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Could mating/recombination be responsible for evolution of entirely novel features?

The diploid chromosomal architecture is rather interesting. For example, because of diploidy we Humans have to mate. Of course in that sense, because diploid organisms often have mate, this has led to ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

Can P. falciparum and other malaria parasites be cultured and genetically engineered?

I'm not a parasitologist, and I was wondering about the current state of malaria research. For instance, is it possible to culture P. falciparum? Are there techniques for genetic manipulation, editing ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

How do beneficial features evolve in species without progressing through detrimental stages?

I'm thinking in particular of wings on birds that would - I'm guessing - have to progress through stages during which they confer no particular advantage. Or is it that all evolved features must have ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Activity of glucokinase

From Solomon et al, 2013 ACC Synthetic biology and from this video : Here, there are 2 competing reactions for glucose - one with glk as enzyme and other with gdh as enzyme. In the graph, y axis ...
4
votes
2answers
161 views

Is solving cancer required in order to avoid aging?

When the telomerase enzyme is not active the telomere shortens every time the cell duplicates leading to a reproductive limit (Hayflicks limit). On one hand this is a believed reason for aging. On the ...
6
votes
4answers
490 views

How many transcription factors are there?

In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to ...
12
votes
1answer
3k views

Do we actually get more sick (flu/cold) during winter?

The word flu derives from the Italian phrase "influenza de freddo" meaning "influence of the cold". Indeed it is that time of the year when my colleagues seem to have the flu/cold more often than ...
6
votes
1answer
73 views

Can two hammerhead ribozymes simultaneously cleave each other?

I am working on a project in which an XOR gate is being built by having two hammerhead ribozymes simultaneously cleave each other when both are expressed, but have these ribozymes cleave a target ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Why are fibroblast used so commonly in cell biology?

Fibroblasts are some of the most commonly used cells in cell biology. What are the properties of those cells which makes them commonly used ?
1
vote
3answers
139 views

If everybody DNA is different then how blood can match even with matching blood group?

We know that everybody's DNA pattern is different in the world. Then how can ´we transfer blood from one person to another person and this person can survive ?
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the standing genetic variation?

I am reading this review. In the first part, the author introduces Standing Genetic Variation, described as: STANDING GENETIC VARIATION Allelic variation that is currently segregating within a ...
0
votes
1answer
473 views

What is the difference between fibrogenesis and fibrosis?

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. I used the word "fibrogenesis" as the outcome of acute inflammation (healing). ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

How do cellphones calculate heart rate?

How do cellphones calculate heart rate ? I understand that the cameras there try to count undulation in blood flow, but is the method of calculation same as that of professional SpO2 monitors ?
3
votes
3answers
157 views

How quickly is antibiotic resistance lost?

I would imagine the bacterial genome is highly conserved and limited in its space, but maybe I am wrong. If you were to take a strain of antibiotic resistant bacteria and kept them isolated, but fed ...
4
votes
1answer
247 views

Sexual Differentiation in Monoecious plants with unisexual flowers

In monoecious plants having unisexual flowers (eg Zea Mays, Ricinus Communis etc), there must be some mechanism as to produce two sexually distinct flowers from the same genotype. Since both the type ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
2
votes
0answers
56 views

How did the roar evolve from snort?

When Lions roar, or Dogs show aggression, they do that snort-roar thing. They're producing sound while inhaling. How did that come to be when all (?) other forms of sound involve exhaling? Humans do ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Difference between inbreeding and interbreeding

Is inbreeding the same as interbreeding? On this site interbreeding is defined as (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/interbreeding): To breed with another kind or species; hybridize. To breed ...
2
votes
2answers
384 views

Do brain cells shrink during REM sleep or a lucid dream?

In this BBC news article a study shows that during sleep brain cells shrink to open up the gaps between neurons and allow fluid to wash the brain clean. But do the cells shrink and undergo the whole ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

Data analysis of transcriptome sequencing data [closed]

I want to learn more about the data analysis and statistics on transcriptome sequencing data. I would like to read some important papers of the field and books and maybe some MOOCS, if they are ...
0
votes
2answers
555 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
5
votes
1answer
99 views

Can you “spam” bird sounds so that birds no longer interpret them right?

Is it possible to make birds confused by repeating recorded chirping or singing? Or do they always perceive them as usual, even if the situation is clearly not as described by those sounds? For ...
11
votes
2answers
6k views

How do I clean phenol contaminated RNA without losing any of the sample?

I recently extracted RNA from developing plant leaves for the first time, as part of a very long and intensive experiment. The samples were extremely precious because of the amount of effort that went ...
3
votes
0answers
165 views

Gibson assembly using NeBuilder

I am supposed to construct a plasmid that contains features from two other plasmids. My strategy is to generate three fragments form the two other plasmids. I was encouraged to try Gibson assembly, ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

How are T cells transported?

T cells are formed in bone marrow and mature in Thymus. How are they transported from bone marrow to thymus ? Through the lymph vessels ?
6
votes
1answer
95 views

Has Colony Collapse Disorder (or its equivalent) been noted in other species?

Colony Collapse Disorder is a well studied phenomenon relating to the decline of bee populations - has this disorder, or its equivalent, been observed in other colony-based species?
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Why bacteria produce light?

After seeing this video I am curious to know why the free living bacteria produce light. What advantage will they have ? Or is it just an "unintentional" result of one of their pathways ?

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