7
votes
2answers
157 views

Why are there no artificial wombs yet?

If the conditions within the womb are mimicked, and proper amniotic fluid with constantly recycling nutrients is maintained, is it not possible to obtain an artificial womb? Is there anything missing? ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

What is an auditory upward sweep?

I was reading an article in nature communications, when I came across this sentence: "The ‘match’ rule was indicated by either a blue circle or a auditory upward sweep".So I tried googling what was an ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

How is the type of genetic manipulation determined in CRISPR-Cas9?

I've been reading up a bit on the CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene manipulation. From what I read, it introduces double-strand breaks at specific points determined by the choice of sgRNA. But how do you ...
17
votes
1answer
783 views

Can siRNA induce DNA methylation in mammalian cells?

Some years ago Hiroaki Kawasaki and Kazunari Taira published an article called "Induction of DNA methylation and gene silencing by short interfering RNAs in human cells" in Nature: In plants, ...
5
votes
1answer
63 views

Total dark deprivation at day-neutral plants

First of all, I am not a biologist. Almost for a week, a question has come to my mind: "Is it harmful ceaselessly exposing a plant to light?" (I mean with natural & artificial light with ...
4
votes
2answers
258 views

In cancer, why do cells duplicate themselves?

In regards to cancer why do cells replicate themselves? If it's a mutation, what kind of mutation would this be classified as?
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Why oxLDL accumulate to form foam cells?

In atherosclerosis, why macrophage store all the cholesterol from oxLDL inside, and turns to foam cell, and not just degrade it and going back to blood? (there are some amount that leave the plaque, ...
0
votes
2answers
81 views

mRNA Transcription from Nuclear DNA

How does a cell "know" the coding strand vs. the non-coding strand of DNA during transcription of mRNA?
2
votes
1answer
449 views

Does methanol fixation deform cultured cells?

I use methanol fixation (@ -20⁰C for 10 minutes) when performing immunofluorescence assays on cultured cells. Generally speaking, this results in very good antibody staining. However, the cells tend ...
3
votes
1answer
429 views

Perception of distant lights without glasses

I am fairly short-sighted and wear glasses pretty much all the time. Naively, I would expect that when I take my glasses off, the image I see should look very much the same as as a photograph that's ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Is there a graph or ontology that maps diseases to its possible causes or causing diseases?

I am looking for a mapping, list, ontology or graph that shows the connection between a diseases and its (currently known) causes and/or risk factors. For example a well known risk factor for acute ...
1
vote
0answers
1k views

Is a hard slap to the head a medical emergency? [closed]

I was just slapped in the head twice by my older brother (we had a fight). He hit me pretty hard with an open palm on the side of my skull, but I didn't feel dizzy or become unconscious. The stinging ...
4
votes
1answer
331 views

How does aging affect fingerprint?

Do fingerprints change as we grow from child to adult? Most notably, what is the effect of the increase in surface area of palms and fingers on the finger print? Does the finger print simply increases ...
4
votes
1answer
147 views

What happens to the umblical cord inside the mother?

After giving birth to a child, the umblical cord is cut (and stored if they want). The end connected to the child's navel will fell off eventually but what happens to the end inside the mother? Will ...
1
vote
2answers
486 views

How does one calculate how to dilute a solution to working strength? [closed]

If I'm loading a 3.5ul PCR onto an agarose gel, how do I calculate how much of the 6x loading dye to add?
4
votes
1answer
164 views

why reptiles still stimulate even after the death?

I saw a video in which a decapitated snake head still tried to bite. I also saw a video in which a man was hit by the moving tail of a dead crocodile. So why do reptiles move even after the death? ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

What is the expected number of children that need to be born for every possible point mutation to occur once? [closed]

I'm reading The Perfect Health Diet, and in it the author says that the probability of a point mutation is (175/3*10^9) per new child. He then goes on to write: In the Paleolithic, with 100000 ...
9
votes
1answer
99 views

What species is this? Seashell from Indonesia

Anyone know exactly what species this is? I gather it may be an auger (family) or cerith (family) of some sort. This particular one is native to Indonesia's black beaches. Again: genus and ...
5
votes
1answer
14k views

Chromosome and chromatid numbers during cell cycle phases

A diploid cell in G1 has 6 chromosomes. How many chromosomes and how many chromatids are present in each of the following stages? Here is what I am guessing G1: 6 chromosomes ; 6 chromatids G2: 6 ...
3
votes
0answers
211 views

How close to Earth's core can organisms live?

We don't to know much about organisms living deep below the Earth's crust. Recently a team led by S. Giovanni discovered some microbes 300 m below the ocean floor. The microbes were found to be a ...
3
votes
1answer
176 views

How does Hemocytoblast constantly get formed into so many blood cells and yet remains there in the bone marrow throughout the lifetime?

I mean, Hemocytoblast is a stem cell which is constantly being differentiated into daughter cells and leads to formation of all the blood cells (having short and limited life spans), so how come those ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

What microscope/magnification would I need to observe P. Acnes bacteria?

I am currently attempting to grow a culture of P. Acnes bacteria. Right now, my only hope in identifying colonies of the bacteria in the culture is to use a black light to find colonies that glow ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

How does so many replicas of different kinds of blood corpuscles form from different cells in the bone marrow? [closed]

I am interested in the process by which so many identical blood corpuscles form from an entirely different cell (within the bone marrow) altogether. How does these cells form?
4
votes
1answer
235 views

How can we measure cardiac output?

I could find a way which could find it by body oxygen consumption and there is another way to measure it by injecting drugs — measuring cardiac output by the so-called “indicator dilution method,” a ...
3
votes
0answers
86 views

What's Incomplete atrioventricular heart block (AV)? [closed]

This is unclear for me and I can not understand differences between complete and incomplete atrioventricular heart block.also I want an electrocardiograph of incomplete atrioventricular heart block.
3
votes
1answer
369 views

What’s the reason for isovolumic contraction and isovolumic relaxation?

During cardiac cycle, there are two periods in which the heart volume doesn’t change, but there is a change in tension/pressure. It takes about 0.25-0.35 second to achieve this change. I searched in ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

What is biological dark matter?

I recently stumbled upon the Biological Dark Matter wiki page. Its pretty light on details, but it appears to be genetic material found in humans that doesn't fall into currently classifications. ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

I found these skulls in a old bottle in the woods. Can you tell me what they are?

Can you help me identify these skulls I found in an old bottle in the woods?
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Why does a light object appear lighter in your peripheral vision when it's dark?

So, I am not sure I can reproduce it via images, but the steps are: 1) At night, open a window and have a look at the surface of the earth 2) Suppose there's an object that reflects a tiny amount of ...
4
votes
7answers
807 views

Introductory books about evolution

This days I read some debates on evolution. That made me more interested to read something reliable on topic - I mean books. I'm christian - although I think it doesn't matter on that topic - and I ...
5
votes
1answer
112 views

what does Pro→Glu substitution mean?

Considering the paper: A single amino acid in E-cadherin responsible for host specificity towards the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the abstract portion, what does Pro→Glu mean? Does it ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Do all sources supply all sinks on a plant?

Sources include any exporting organs, typically mature leaves, that are capable of producing photosynthete in excess of their own needs. Sinks include any nonphotosynthetic organs of the ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Why does an complete molar pregnancy not result in a clone?

Complete molar pregnancy is one where an ovum devoid of nucleus is fertilized by a sperm after which the haploid set of chromosomes double to form a diploid set. As far as my understanding extends if ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Why sudden stresses cause stuttering and/or other impairs in children?

The question is simple: Why sudden stresses cause stuttering and/or other temporary or permanent impairs in children (and even adults)?
4
votes
2answers
91 views

How does it make thermodynamic sense for photosynthesizers to turn CO₂ into O₂?

My understanding is that animal metabolism consists of exothermic reactions like $$\ce{C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ->6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy}$$ This makes thermodynamic sense to me. Animals need an exothermic ...
6
votes
1answer
78 views

Has the protein composition (with identification) in honey and other honeybee byproducts been studied?

I am interested in studying honey and other honeybee byproducts. I have not been able to find sequence or structure records for any of the contents of honey. In particular, I want to study the ...
4
votes
3answers
369 views

Could a sperm be altered to contain a female's genetics?

while discussing with a friend a while back on the likelihood a Funtari (a woman with both fully developed and functioning sets of genitalia) existing in real life we got into a discussion of weather ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

Is it possible that weak memory is due to interference between signals in the brain?

"Weak memory", as used in this question, refers to the inability to retrieve a memory that a person otherwise knows he has memorized earlier. An example of this is some fact snippet that the ...
1
vote
0answers
568 views

Why do plants produce so much more sugar than they use?

I recently asked the question, "Do plants need O2 to consume energy they've stored via sugar?" to which @canadianer responded, "Yes, plants require oxygen to generate ATP from sugar. However, they ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Do plants need O₂ to consume energy they've stored via sugar?

This question came up as I work my way through the answers to another question I just asked. My understanding is that plant photosynthesis looks something like this (though with lots more going on ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Is it possible for a human to get rabies from a rabies vaccine meant for dogs?

What would happen if a human was injected with a rabies vaccine meant for dogs? I know vaccines can contain weak or dead strains of the virus, but is it possible that the human could become infected ...
6
votes
1answer
215 views

Is brain transplantation possible?

Many organs can be transplanted nowadays, including the liver, lungs and kidneys. Can the brain be transplanted?
2
votes
1answer
267 views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Does coloring affect the perception of depth?

I have a question about the mechanics of human vision which may be as much of a physics question as it is a biology/physiology question. I noticed that if I try to imagine a clear blue daytime sky ...
14
votes
1answer
300 views

What are the requirements for a stable carbon cycle in sealed “bottle gardens”`?

The most famous example of a sealed bottle garden is David Latimer's bottle with a Spiderworth plant, pictured below, which has been sealed for 40 years. My own attempt at a bottle garden is failing ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Could someone entirely absorb smells by smelling?

When smelling, your nose detects the smells by absorbing them. Does this mean that, if you were in an enclosed space, you could smell so much all the smell goes, and there is none of that molecule ...
4
votes
1answer
407 views

How much of what we eat ends up in the toilet?

An awkward question. Bear with me... In terms of mass, what percentage of the food that we eat do we end up excreting? Of course, it depends on a whole host of factors so lets assume a healthy ...
4
votes
1answer
398 views

Redheads and pain receptors

I remember reading this in a biology textbook, and decided to do a little digging. Redheads have a lower sensitivity to some pain and a higher sensitivity to other compared to people of other colored ...

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