-2
votes
1answer
87 views

Cellular components of blood cells [closed]

There are different types of blood cells in the human body i.e. red blood cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, T-cells, B-cells. What are the cellular components of these cells? ...
5
votes
2answers
184 views

Non Coding DNA and its effect on evolution

I had a discussion with a friend of mine; from his understanding, bacteria and other small organisms have higher amounts of "coding" DNA and, as such, are able to evolve much faster than organisms ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the difference between sequence, reads, and contigs of genetic material?

Can someone explain the differences between sequence, reads, and contigs of genetic material such as DNA, if possible with an example? I am new to bioinformatics, and I have not found any conclusive ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Pavlovian Conditioning And Synesthesia

I have been reading about Pavlovian brain conditioning and it seems that documented cases are mostly limited to motor reflexes (like conditioning an eyelid to close when hearing a tone) or taste ...
8
votes
2answers
473 views

Is it possible to add a new sequence to a blast database without recreating it from scratch?

I have a new sequence and I want to add it to a pre-constructed BLAST database containing other sequences. The makeblastdb help does not give any hint on this regard.
0
votes
1answer
90 views

What is the point at which abiogenesis is complete and evolution begins? [closed]

Is the minimum criterion for life a single cell? It seems that self-replicating RNA is not enough, but I don't know. What would be the most basic cell that could fit this criterion and what cells ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

Medium for Pseudomonas?

What is a good minimal medium for Pseudomonas bacteria? Do I need different media for different Pseudomonas species?
4
votes
0answers
56 views

Does anxiety about weight or eating cause people to become overweight?

A while ago I saw this TED talk about the futility of dieting. The speaker suggests that a body maintains a homeostatic weight point and returns to that weight after dieting has stopped: Turns out ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

Do High Iron Stores (but within the healthy range) Make Sun Exposure Damage Worse?

Ultraviolet damage from sun exposure is related to the creation of free radicals. Iron is often involved in exacerbating damage by free radicals. Having lower iron stores is associated with reduced ...
7
votes
1answer
111 views

Neuronal coordinates of C.elegans

Is there a list of neural coordinates for C.elegans? I need it to build a 3D model. Update: What is available at the moment is: full connectome for example, at openconnectome; neuron description ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

Evolutionary advantages of wet nose of cats and dogs?

Everyone knows that some animals, at least cats and dogs, keep their noses wet and cool. But why did they evolve it? What evolutionary advantages does it provide? Smell-sensing cells need cooling for ...
2
votes
0answers
87 views

Can DNA test of my grandparent's brother reveal my heritage from that branch of the family?

I'm thinking about doing that DNA test on all my grandparents to know where their genes come from. They are getting very old and I don't want to let the opportunity pass to gather more knowledge about ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Getting read size less then specified in parameter file Flux Simulation

I have tried to use flux simulation tool to generate simulated RNA-seq data. I gave the following parameter file to flux-simulation shell script ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

What class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor is sodium valproate (VPA)?

VPA is a known HDAC inhibitor. But I cannot find what class it is. What class is it? And is there any method of finding an answer better than floundering with Google?
7
votes
2answers
183 views

Why did the Brain develop in the front in most organisms?

I was wondering: why most, well, pretty much all organism with a brain have it right in front of their bodies or at the top.
15
votes
2answers
5k views

Will humans and animals be harmed by frequencies outside their hearing range?

The human ear (for example) is sensitive to frequencies from 20Hz to 20kHz. Any sound beyond that limit would not be heard by us naturally. Will it harm us (effect our ability to hear) when we hear ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

What are the mechanistics of stinging nettles?

There is a lot of research on why nettle extracts causes skin irritation and a stinging sensation. However, I cannot find information on how the extract is injected in human skin. Similarly, I haven't ...
14
votes
3answers
12k views

Why is hydrofluoric acid so dangerous if it is a weak acid?

I've read that hydrofluoric acid (HF) is extremely dangerous to touch, but what exactly makes it so toxic? It's weak acid ($K_a = 7.2 \times 10^{–4}$) and dissociates approximately 1/1000 as much as ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Any evolutionary explanation for human blood groups?

What is the explanation of people having blood types from an evolutionary perspective?
8
votes
1answer
116 views

Do ant colonies prioritize survival of particular members above others?

In some (perhaps small) human communities people may starve because they have no income. This could be interpreted as a consequence of them not participating in the community, hence they don't get any ...
3
votes
1answer
106 views

Why do cows (and other hooved animals) need a hierarchy?

Clearly numerous animals have a hierarchy - hereditary one. For example, I understand zebras have a pecking order, and must map this hierarchy from highest to first in line and lowest to last in line ...
7
votes
1answer
147 views

Counterintuitive action of Vitamin D?

Vitamin D acts in a way which to me is counterintuitive. It functionally supplemets Parathormone. It in the intestinal tract steps up calcium absorption by altering nuclear gene expression and also ...
5
votes
1answer
73 views

Calling for Free Online Data for Paediatric ECG?

I need free online data about heart murmurs to study these: heart murmur frequency , S2 heart sound frequency and its split, murmur timing, and duration, murmur intensity, S3 sound presence and ...
2
votes
3answers
227 views

To get Standard ECG from PhysioNet?

I am trying to get standard ECG by using PhysioNet's ATM with parameters but I get It should be something like How can you get complete standard 12-lead ECG out of Physionet database?
3
votes
1answer
498 views

How did the endoplasmic reticulum come to be?

Organelles are sub-cellular compartments in cells. However prokaryotes don't use organelles to organise their intracellular space. Evolutionarily, there is evidence that mitochondria and ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why has our nose evolved with the nostrils facing down?

For most animals, the whole bottom of their face sticks out and they have a snout with a mouth and nose at the end. But humans have a flat face and just a nose that sticks out. We used to have the ...
0
votes
3answers
83 views

how to find accurately the closest species to my plant species?

I'm working on some bioinformatic analysis of a non-model woody plant within the family with least information. So, I'm looking for a closest species to my plant. Any suggestion would be highly ...
4
votes
0answers
33 views

How to calculate the number of sterile insects that must be released in SIT?

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used to control insect pests through overwhelming the population in sterile males. The increase in sterile males released into an environment causes the increase ...
4
votes
0answers
57 views

Evolution of Wheat

In the evolution of wheat, there are two instances of chromosomal doubling, when Emmer wheat Triticum turgidum was formed from Einkorn wheat, and when Triticum aestivum was formed from Emmer wheat. ...
2
votes
1answer
393 views

Why are hard boiled eggs so homogeneous?

A eukaryotic animal cell is a complicated piece of biological machinery. Some major structures inside of the cell (see the image below) include: the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi vesicles, and various ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Question related to L-arginine biosynthesis

With respect to the L-arginine Biosynthesis pathway, the very first reaction converts L-glutamate to N-acetyl L-glutamate. In the linked reaction scheme, why are only L-glutamate and N-acetyl ...
3
votes
2answers
370 views

Does antibacterial soap work chemically?

Normal soap requires scrubbing, does anti-bacterial soap require scrubbing too? Since it (I assume) works chemically, can I produce the same cleansing effect without lathering with soap and using anti-...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

What does the Gini index mean in a biochemical context?

What is the meaning of the Gini index, as specificed in this link, which describes the Gini index of beta-glucopyranose bound to hexokinase? Is this true that if Gini index has a very low value that ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Questions regarding a particular paper

With respect to the following paper: Automated identification of protein-ligand interaction features using Inductive Logic Programming: a hexose binding case study I have a few questions: in page ...
9
votes
1answer
264 views

What is the convention for log notation in biology?

I'm reading through some oldish (1980s) papers on length-weight relationships in fish and crustaceans. Many report log-log relationships without specifying whether this is natural log, base 10, etc. ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

Multi-nucleated cells: advantages and examples?

This question arises because I saw that monocytes and leukocytes are commonly called 'mononuclear cells' in the scientific literature. The implication of course being that other immune sub-types are ...
5
votes
1answer
89 views

How does CO₂ concentration affect photosynthesis?

I have heard the theory that with the increase of CO2 in the air, the speed of the photosynthesis would increase, thereby limiting the increase of CO2 levels. What is currently the rate limiting ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

determining meaning of basic biological keywords about C. elegans

First of all I have to say that I have no biology background since I'm a undergraduate computer science student. Nowadays, for my research I need to use some of the databases related with ...
4
votes
1answer
280 views

What is this flying insect?

This insect was captured in Australia near Canberra. It has a very hard exoskeleton and is over an inch long. It seems to have 6 wings - 2 large pairs and one very small pair. I did not see a stinger -...
3
votes
0answers
150 views

Pits and Pores in Vascular Tissue

What purpose is served by the pits and pores in xylem and phloem cells? I cant find what purpose that these components serve in the vascular tissues in plants
4
votes
1answer
61 views

How does loss of the electrochemical gradient result in heat production?

As far as I understand, uncoupling of the flow of protons and ATP-synthase provides a bypass for protons between the outer and the inner membrane of mitochondria so that the protons don't have to go ...
9
votes
1answer
388 views

Are flowers / flowering plants vital to all life on Earth?

Not a biology student so forgive me if this is a very basic question. Are flowering plants (angiosperms) vital to all (or most) life on Earth? In other words, if flowering plants disappeared, would ...
1
vote
0answers
236 views

Neuston vs pleuston

I was recently reading about the wonderful chondrophores, and came across the terms "neuston" and "pleuston". According to Wikipedia, "neuston" are "the organisms that float on the top of water ... ...
3
votes
1answer
358 views

How does a microelectrode work?

On Wikipedia, the entire microelectrode page states only the following: A microelectrode is an electrode of very small size, used in electrophysiology for either recording of neural signals or ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Wearing sunglasses during a solar eclipse [closed]

Note: I had asked this on Physics, but it is off-topic there due to being about safety. On the BBC's guide to eclipse-watching, Dr Lucie Green says: Watching an eclipse with normal sunglasses ...
1
vote
2answers
87 views

How do the 'energy making' processes in the body differ for fat calories, protein calories, and carb calories? [closed]

How does the body make energy from each of the macronutrients? Is there a difference in the efficiency of the distinct processes and would the least efficient process be 'better' for weight loss?
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Is it safe to look indirectly at the Sun?

I.e., is exposure of sunlight onto the peripheral vision less damaging than exposure onto the fovea?
3
votes
2answers
96 views

Mass Spectrometry Terminology

I began reading this paper (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/14/56) and had a few questions about mass spectrometry terminology that I couldn't find answers to elsewhere. Consider the following ...
4
votes
1answer
244 views

Oxygenated hemoglobin in MRI

I have read the following sentence: Because this oxygenated hemoglobin is unaffected by magnetic fields, the response RF signal returned to the fMRI scanner is stronger when there is more ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Insect (I hope) identification

Look, let's get something straight. I am not the worlds biggest sissy when it comes to bugs, but I'm not David Attenborough either. Now that that's out of the way, down to business. Living in ...

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