6
votes
2answers
99 views

What level of cellular radiation is harmful for humans?

What level of radiation at the frequencies used by the cellular network(1-2 Ghz) is harmful for human health?
8
votes
3answers
9k views

How fast do cancer cells divide, compared to normal cells?

This question suggests that we have, on average, 50-70 billion cell divisions per day. I just read that cancer cells divide more often and are therefore more prone to radiation. I am wondering, for ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

Stretching and compressing bones

The Young's modulus of elasticity when a bone is stretched is : 16×109 and when it is compressed, it is 9×109 N/m2. That means, change in length will be more if you compress a bone as compared to ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are butterflies drinking blood?

According to this video, butterflies sometimes drink blood. Do they have the organs necessary to digest blood? I thought they eat only salts and nectar, which are easy to digest compared to proteins. ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Are both (partial) copies of DNA transcribed in S and G2 phases of cell cycle?

For a little less than half the cell cycle, a significant number of genes are represented twice (just before dividing). Does the cell differentiate between these DNA in any way or are transcription ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

Can reptiles digest grains?

As a caretaker of a turtle, I sometimes struggle understanding the logic behind the inclusion of corn, soybean, and wheat meals in reptile food, such ingredients seem truly aberrant from what a ...
1
vote
1answer
161 views

Yeast absorption of different spectra of light

I'd like to monitor the growth of a yeast population by shining light through it and monitoring the change in light that gets through as it grows. I'm not sure if I should use IR, or any particular ...
7
votes
3answers
175 views

Mechanism by which $lacI^{d}$ is a dominant mutation, impairing the function of normal copies of the Lac Repressor

Jacob-Monod model for the lac Operon was based on experiments using two strands of bacteria which constitutively expressed $\beta$-gal: $I^{c}$(mutation in the gene lacI , which encodes the repressor) ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

C. elegans are either male or hermaphrodites, but why aren't there any females?

From my understanding C. elegans are mainly hermaphrodites but are occasionally males to increase genetic variation. Why is it that random females aren't born instead to achieve he same goal (genetic ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

Can anti-aging cream work?

I have a friend who told me that anti-aging cream cannot work to reduce wrinkles as it only penetrates x amount of skin layers and can never make a long term effect. Me not knowing much about how ...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

What are genome wide functional linkages?

There are two types of interaction classifications used to describe Protein-protein interactions, namely physical and functional. Whilst physical interactions are obvious in nature and methodological ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Immediate Early Genes during sleep

In Neuroscience 3rd ed by Bear et al. on page 607, immediate early genes are described as related to changing synaptic strength, yet have decreased expression during sleep. The explanation given is ...
8
votes
1answer
241 views

What sample sizes are ideal for carrying out Bayesian Skyline Plots?

I am interested in creating Bayesian Skyline Plots to look at demographic changes in certain population groups. However, these populations have very little within population variation. Around 5 ...
13
votes
2answers
433 views

Why, specifically, does each generation, on average, improve upon the design of the species rather than degrade it?

In every non-life example I can envision, a copy of a copy is always a degraded or less pure version of the original unless some outside influence acts to correct the copy back toward the ideal ...
13
votes
2answers
828 views

Do transcription factors bind to both strands of DNA?

Do transcription factors (or generally proteins) bind to only single strand of DNA or both strands? Since it can have non covalent bonds to both strands in theory. I would like to know the mechanism. ...
2
votes
0answers
119 views

Is there a database of known riboswitches?

I'm looking for sequences and annotations of known riboswitches, but so far I haven't found a resource that actually fulfills my requirements. The best database I found so far is Rfam, which has ...
7
votes
2answers
327 views

Do butterflies see behind?

Butterflies, like many other insects, understand that I am getting near from behind. How do they feel this - through vision, hearing, or some other sense?
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Can someone link me to resources on the efficiency of sticky end ligation?

I really would like to know if sticky end ligation could potentially be performed with very high efficiency, and which factors influence that. However, I can't find any papers on the subject, even ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

How does a sperm cell die?

What causes an animal sperm cell to die? Does it die somehow from being outside its original environment? I've studied the Wikipedia page on sperm and I see a lot of information on what makes up a ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Proteins in Milk, Oat , Eggs and Soy

I have read that there are proteins in oat which are similar to those in soy, milk and eggs. I know nothing about biochemistry, and I'm struggling to decipher the info i find.. the closest Ive got to ...
5
votes
1answer
159 views

Is hands-only CPR as effective as traditional CPR?

Is hands-only CPR as effective as traditional CPR ? Wouldn't 30 chest compressions + 2 rescue breaths be more effective if the person doesn't have a pulse AND not breathing? From my understanding ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

By what mechanism does Risperidone swell breast tissue?

There has been much talk of the anti-psychotic drug Rispeirdone causing un-natural breast tissue growth as well as galactorhea (milk production). Especially in young men and boys. What is the ...
0
votes
0answers
87 views

Why does a human's field of view narrow when moving faster?

A relative of mine is a driving instructor and he regularly likes to bring up that the field of view narrows noticeably when driving at higher speeds. Is this true, why is this so and does this apply ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Reconstruction of wildlife distribution based on poorly-sampled data [closed]

cross-posted to Signal Processing, Cross Validated, and World Building Stack Exchange Hi, I thought I'd also put this here in case there are any field biologists with ideas on the matter. Problem: ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is the opposite of plantar flexion called “dorsiflexion”?

Why is the action of flexing the foot so that the toes move anteriorly/superiorly (i.e. in the direction opposite that which they move during plantar flexion) described as "dorsiflexion"? In the same ...
2
votes
1answer
421 views

Are cell lines potentially dangerous?

More specifically, if a human subject was exposed to, say, a human cancerous cell line (via intravenous injection or through an open wound, for example), is it possible that they would develop any ...
3
votes
1answer
312 views

What happens to the precursor protein's signal sequence after it is cleaved?

Where does this signal sequence "go" after it has been cleaved by signal peptidase and what is its next function?
5
votes
1answer
145 views

Telomerase as cancer target

There are a lot of publications, starting from 2000, about using telomerase for targeting cancer cells (it is upregulated in more than 80-90% of tumor cells). Specifically using its promoter (hTERT). ...
1
vote
1answer
218 views

Hydrogen peroxide decomposition and catalase uses [closed]

All google searches have simply returned more info on catalase. I'm looking for a catalyst that isn't found inside living organisms which can break down H2O2. Looking for any resources to look at, or ...
18
votes
3answers
15k views

Do cows produce milk excessively?

Do cows produce more milk than it is required for their calves? It seems like cows are able to provide milk all the time (all year around). Is it so? Or do they, like other mammals, produce milk only ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

What is the role of RAGEs?

According to articles I read, AGEs (advanced glycation end products) activate RAGEs (receptors for AGEs). This activation increases the ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels in the cells. 2003 - ...
3
votes
1answer
124 views

How would you affect bulk DNA gene therapy for a human?

Let's imagine that we understood DNA programming and our genome very well and realized that there were some significant flaws (we die, we need sleep, etc.) And let's imagine that we understand how to ...
3
votes
1answer
128 views

What type of flask should I use to culture NTERA2 embryonic cancer stem cells?

I'm just starting my MSc research and I am in the process of making a list of equipments/consumables to order. Is there a specific flask in which I can culture NTERA2 (NTERA2/D1) cell line?
2
votes
0answers
31 views

Is (are) there any crucial gene(s) for the formation of flower in flowering plants? [closed]

I am interested in qualitative (flowers of some plants have petal or sepal, but some plants have not) and quantitative (number of flowers of plants) differences between flowers of different plants. ...
7
votes
1answer
944 views

Why are there no known photosynthetic archaea?

I'm taking a microbial physiology course and we noted that, while some archaea are phototrophic, there are no known photosynethetic archaea. Are there any physiological characteristics that make ...
3
votes
2answers
158 views

Choosing appropriate statistical test for ordinal data

Ordinal response variables show up often in biology, but I'm not sure how they are best analysed. Some examples are qualitative assessments (little, many, a lot) or risk assessments (low risk, medium ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

Is there a correlation between total neurons and intelligence?

Thanks for looking. First off, I am not a biologist, just a curious layman, so I apologize in advance if this isn't a "good" question. Please don't downvote me into oblivion. I read today that the ...
7
votes
1answer
87 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
6
votes
1answer
673 views

Why do most organisms have negative supercoiled DNA?

It has been observed that in nature most organisms have negative supercoiled DNA and that few organisms have positive supercoiled DNA. Some of the organisms that have the positive supercoiled DNA live ...
0
votes
2answers
140 views

books for beginners in research in mathematical biology [closed]

I am a M.SC(mathematics) student. I have no subject like mathematically modelling.But i'm interesting in research in mathematical biology.Initially which book i should study. Please guide ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Has any research lab done serious work to engineer new bacteria which assemble graphene wafers?

I was thinking about crazy uses for engineered bacteria. Nano-assembly of Graphene seems like a potentially excellent target for the technology. Have any research/full-blown labs worked on this? Any ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

How did bullying arise evolutionarily?

By bullying, I mean individuals harassing others with name-calling or violence but not for the purpose of gaining resources such as with extortion or theft. The only explanation I've thought of is ...
4
votes
2answers
87 views

Questions on DNA damage

I'm not strong in biology, so bear with me on this: I've been reading that as we age, our DNA is damaged by internal (e.g. errors during replication) and external (e.g. sun damage or radiation) ...
5
votes
2answers
514 views

What happens during kefir fermentation process?

I’ve found many sources about the positive effects of kefir for the digestive system. However I haven’t found any information about the fermenting process. What is the exact biology (chemistry?) ...
4
votes
1answer
140 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
3
votes
1answer
234 views

How much pollen is needed to pollinate a flower?

Assuming 100% of the pollen gets delivered to exactly the locations it needs to pollinate a female flower, how much pollen is needed to pollinate a flower? If it's more than one unit of pollen, what, ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

How to correlate the pattern by which CAP activator from E.coli binds to DNA and its mechanism of action?

The catabolite activator protein (CAP) activates the expression of more than 100 genes involved in secondary sugar metabolism in E.coli. Apparently, it always binds in sites that are away from -10 and ...
3
votes
2answers
233 views

Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Is there a DNA analogue to ribozymes? [duplicate]

If not, is it impossible for DNA to have enzymatic activity?
5
votes
1answer
104 views

Doubt on genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

I was reading "A genomic code for nucleosome positioning" (by Eran Segal et al). And I am having 2 doubts. The figure(b) in this image from the paper shows the graph of fraction (3-bp moving ...

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