6
votes
1answer
50 views

Are original x-ray diffraction data available

Is it customary for investigators to publish the original x-ray diffraction data used in macromolecular structural determination? If not, why not; and if so, is there an online database where these ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Is 1 g/l living biomass for a Biogas fermenter plausible?

A usual number for a healthy biogas fermenter is $10^9 - 10^{10}/mL$ Bacteria, 10-15% of which would be methanogenic archae. Exceptionally healthy fermenters have more total bacteria and up 25% ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Clownfishes and Sea anemones

Relation between clownfishes and sea anemones is a classic example of mutualism. I wanted to list the species of sea anemones that are involved in this mutualism but I got lost.. Could you help me ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why genes are assumed to follow multivariate normal?

I wonder why gene expression data are very frequently modeled by multivariate normal distributions. What is the reason for those strong assumptions that the genes follow multivariate gaussian? Are ...
1
vote
2answers
39 views

Regulation of the replication of mtDNA at embryonic level

While reading an article on mitochondrial inheritance I came across this link. The results state that mitochondrial DNA replication is regulated in different cells of an embryo at different levels. ...
12
votes
10answers
1k views

A good book for history of biology/biotechnology for lay people

I have many friends who are interested in Biology and want to know more about the subject in general (like a history of biology, from Darwin's theory, to DNA structure discovery, to the human genome ...
3
votes
1answer
113 views

Is there a limit to twinning?

Can developing twins further divide and subdivide and become identical quadruplets or octuplets or...? Can twinning be induced, either in utero or in vitro? Might it be possible to just keep ...
4
votes
2answers
242 views

Ethidium bromide and mutagenesis on cloning

When performing a DNA cloning, sometimes PCR amplicon is run in agarose and it is detected by ethidium bromide marking under UV light. After that, gel is sliced, DNA extracted from gel....... until ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

The arrangement of retinal cells?

The section of retina shows a layered arrangement of the various retinal cells. Starting from the inside (where the light strikes first) is the nerve fibre layer, ganglionic layer, amacrine cell ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Can we remove impacted teeth by key hole surgery?

Can we remove impacted teeth by key hole surgery, rather than an open technique, like lithotripsy?
2
votes
1answer
108 views

When does identical twinning happen?

What is the window during which division into twins is possible (for instance can it still happen after implantation in the uterus)? Is one twin the "original" and the other its clone?
13
votes
1answer
217 views

How straightforward is in vitro compartmentalization?

in vitro compartmentalization (IVC) is one of those technologies that everyone knows about, talks about, but never actual does due to the rather technical difficulties in setting the system up. I was ...
6
votes
1answer
147 views

Can jellyfish improve Black Sea environment?

According to this study, cited by many popular science magazines, jellyfish and other, smaller animals can contribute to the vertical ocean stir as much as currents do. Black Sea chemistry and ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

When do chimeras happen?

If one developing twin absorbs another, when does that happen? Is it possible for an appendage or organ to develop and be the only remaining vestige of an absorbed twin, such as a hand or a mouth, or ...
5
votes
2answers
87 views

Is the empty GI tract a hollow tube with air inside, or is it generally collapsed until food is eaten?

I have heard that "air in the GI tract" results in flatulence and burping etc, however I initially assumed that the "empty" GI tract was a hollow tube filled with air anyway. So on an empty stomach ...
4
votes
1answer
273 views

DIfference between diversification and differentiation

In Adaptive dynamic : what is the difference between Ecological Differentiation and Ecological Divergence ?
3
votes
1answer
106 views

How Much Longer For The Gene For Blue Eyes?

In the year 1900 roughly 50% of the people in the United States were homozygous for the gene for blue eyes. By 1950 the number had dropped down to 30%. Just now, (2013) barely 12% of the people living ...
7
votes
1answer
180 views

Can cancer cells in the same person, organ, and origin have different DNA?

Is it possible for cells from the same tumor to have different genetic material, and if so, to what degree is it possible (how fast do they mutate) ?
0
votes
1answer
102 views

Current human behavior as a genetic heritage

People: I have doubts about genetic heritage, but let me explain the context which has shown up this doubt for you: I was debating about sexism and the following question were put on the discussion: ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Structure of adenoids

I am not sure this question belongs in biology, but I can't find a more suitable stack exchange site, feel free to delete it if this doesn't fit here. Also, this question is going to be slightly ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Is this maritime plant a species of zostera?

This photograph was taken on the intertidal mudflats at Lindisfarne, Northumberland, UK today. It was about 40m from the shoreline at low tide. Is the green plant a species of zostera? Can anyone help ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Determining limiting nutrients from a graph

The question was Which of the following statements is supported by these data? A. Phosphorus was the first limiting nutrient followed by nitrogen. B. Nitrogen was the first limiting nutrient ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

How does a prophage leave the host cell's genome?

I understand that, unlike a prophage, a provirus never leaves the genome, but I don't understand how the prophage "leaves".
1
vote
0answers
36 views

How far does the diaphragm stretch when it contracts?

I have been wondering about this for this entire day today and I can't seem to find an answer. How far, exactly, does the diaphragm stretch for tidal breathing and what is its maximum stretch length?
2
votes
1answer
832 views

Where to put the gene after eukaryotic promoter for best expression levels?

As far as I know there is an optimum distance between a promoter and the gene for the best expression levels. What is that distance for common promoters like CMV, SV40? If you have a first hand ...
6
votes
2answers
115 views

How much DNA of mitochondrial origin is incorporated in main cell's DNA?

And especially three points : in which chromosomes is it located (especially for the human case) ? how do we know about it ? does the proportion and composition vary a lot from one eukaryot to ...
2
votes
1answer
187 views

Is light required for seed germination?

Is light required for germination of every seed? If not, why don't some plants require it? Is there any difference in the quality and duration of light required ? It would be interesting if someone ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
3
votes
2answers
140 views

Which restriction enzyme would i use?

Plasmid pBr322 includes two genes that confer antibiotic resistance: a gene for ampicillin and a gene for tetracycline. The cutting site for the restriction enzyme BamH1 is in the middle pf the ...
3
votes
1answer
171 views

How much influence does toxoplasmosis have on personality and intelligence?

Latent toxoplasmosis effects up to 1/3 of the human population, and up to 40% of the population in Australia. I have heard that latent toxoplasmosis has many significant undesirable effects on ...
1
vote
0answers
131 views

Transcription takes place from the 5’ to the 3’ end of the m-RNA. Why?

Only one side of the DNA ladder is copied (the sense side). The sense side starts with a 3’ end. This means the corresponding mRNA will have to assemble starting from the 5’ end. This is my initial ...
5
votes
2answers
68 views

Standard Classification of Disease

I am working on a project for health center. It involves the creation of a database of all diseases. Currently I want to classify disease on the base of their category based on international standard. ...
1
vote
1answer
342 views

How do proteins get into the blood stream?

So I'm asking this in reference to the injection of insulin, which is commonly done subcutaneously (in the hypodermis, a fatty part of skin). Now I know proteins usually get into the blood when ...
12
votes
2answers
404 views

What are the evolutionary niches differentiating an apple from a pear?

So, as far as I understand (basic) evolutionary theories, diversity is generated by "niching." That is, if there is an environmental factor that hasn't been fully used by any species to "profit" off, ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

When was it determined that Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease?

I just found out today that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. When was this discovered?
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Can pets catch the cold?

Last night I was drying my cat with a towel after shenanigans in the rain and she sneezed! Questions Can cats/dogs/hamsters or other pets catch the cold? How quickly do they recover?
0
votes
1answer
538 views

Why temporal lobe is called temporal?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporal_lobe Does this have something to do with tempo (time?) Temporal lobe is behind (posterior) to frontal lobe, inferior to parietal lobe and is in front of ...
4
votes
2answers
347 views

Why are antibodies so expensive?

The amplification on vector transgenic microorganisms and the subsequent purification does not seem that complicated. Also, what are the processes that biotechnological industries follow, in detail, ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Temporal effects on pathways? [closed]

I was wondering whether or not there exist certain pathways that are triggered by a temporal signal. We're almost at the winter solstice now. Does animal or plant function involve signals that are ...
2
votes
2answers
110 views

Phospholipid Bilayer structural reversal

What would happen if the phospholipids in the phospholipid bi-layer were reversed, the fatty acid tails now facing outwards and the phosphate heads facing inwards? I'm assuming this will not affect ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

observed luminescence in a piece of plaice

A plaice fish bought for human feed has been cleaned and cooked. Some parts of the raw body have been left out of the fridge at about 22°C for about 15 hours. During the following night a ...
4
votes
2answers
353 views

Melatonin production - requires nighttime, or just full darkness?

Is melatonin properly produced in daytime sleep in full darkness? Or does it require only nighttime sleep? Additionally, what other biological implications are there, if any, to daytime sleeping? ...
5
votes
1answer
88 views

What makes alcohol harmful to mammals?

During the alcohol metabolic pathway, harmful by-products are made like acetaldehyde, hydroxyethyl, superox­ide anions, and hydroxyl radicals. How do these toxic compounds harm our tissues? Many of ...
4
votes
1answer
72 views

Missing cells from immunopanning

Why do I not have any cells left in my positive panning plate after transferring from the negative panning plate during immunopanning? I am trying to purify retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rats ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

reason for “not for diagnostic use” advice in protocols

I read "not for diagnostic use" in every protocol i saw. why is it so? which differences have the kits and material that are used for diagnostic purposes?
8
votes
0answers
536 views

Rosetta ab initio prediction and protein-protein interaction fitness help [closed]

I have designed several proteins which I predict have interactions with another protein using the sequence based Conjoint Triad Method. I would like to know which ones structurally are predicted to ...
1
vote
2answers
139 views

How likely is it that Earth has millions of different species?

I know that the probability of life existing on a habitable planet is pretty slim. But, how likely is it that it hapenned millions of times in the same planet? Or was it only a few species that ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

Database of Medical Assertions

Can anyone point me toward a computationally-accessible database of medical assertions? I'm looking for something where each row in the database contains a single unit of knowledge. It could either be ...
3
votes
2answers
212 views

Why do our eyes “wrap” hue from UV to IR?

On the high-wavelength side of things, we see almost-infrared as reddish, with a slight tinge of magenta. On the low side, we see violet fading into the same magenta color. Why is that? You can see ...
7
votes
1answer
117 views

How much does a biological experiment to validate a gene function cost?

I am computer scientist working on machine learning methods applied to predicting missing Gene Ontology annotations. In many papers, I wrote that my computational methods are very useful to suggest ...

15 30 50 per page