2
votes
2answers
154 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
1
vote
2answers
149 views

Is carbohydrate an important part of phospholipid?

My professor tells us that carbohydrate is an important part of phospholipid, but phospholipid is composed of Choline, Phosphate, Glycerol and two Fattyacid, and I don't think even one of them is ...
1
vote
2answers
82 views

Are triglycerides fat?

I have a quick question: Are triglycerides essentially what we call "fats"? I've tried reading up on it but there seems to be some conflicting information. Thank you.
2
votes
1answer
848 views

Is Sugar a stimulatant or a weak sedative?

Quite often, I have heard the remark that children become hyperactive when high amounts of sugar are consumed. But common websites suggest that sugar is a sedative, and the hyperactivity in children ...
22
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is menstruation in wild animals not a disadvantage to organismal survival?

When I watch wilderness specials for more than a few minutes, I notice a familiar pattern: predators are depicted as being alerted by the scent of blood. Wounded animals seem to make the best prey and ...
1
vote
1answer
219 views

About excessive cellular growth

When there is 'excessive' cell growth 'ordered' by the human body in some specific part of the body that is not part of the usual repairing mechanisms, does this cause extra telomere 'shortening' or ...
1
vote
2answers
801 views

Why would yeast grow but not produce alcohol?

I'm studying for my intro to microbiology test and I have a question asking why a culture of yeast responsible for producing alcohol would be growing, but not producing alcohol? The multiple choice ...
0
votes
2answers
183 views

How come degraded eyesight still holds with a mirror? [closed]

When you use a mirror to look at something, you can position it at an angle arbitrary to your face and still look at an object far away. My question is, for degraded eyesight, how come the picture is ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

What percentage of DNA do people share?

If you picked two people in the world at random, sequenced each of their entire genome, and compared their DNA, what would the expected percentage match be?
7
votes
1answer
218 views

How does myopia develop, exactly?

Recently I was reading about myopia and I understood a few basic facts about it: Its initial cause is a constant spasm in the ciliary muscle. To do less work, the eyeball elongates a tiny bit. ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Does a pregnant female body treat the fetus based on gender?

I have seen on a youtube video that the female body produces antigenes and antibodies when she is pregnant with a boy. But this behaviour is not produced when she is pregnant with a girl. These means ...
2
votes
2answers
121 views

Regarding cancer cells and telomeres

If cancer cells have telomeres are they different than the telomeres in non-cancerous cells? Would cancer cell telomeres be somehow 'set-up' to function almost indefinitely; in other words are 'they' ...
0
votes
1answer
168 views

Safety of cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium dental implants

How safe are cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium alloys used in dental implants (porcelain fused metal)? IARC groups nickel and cobalt metals in group 2B and chromium in group 3 (hexavalent chromium ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

How were the synaptic areas identified in the somatic sensation pathways?

I'm studying the somatic sensation pathways in neuro-anatomy and I was wondering what was the experimental procedure for identifying the number and location of the synapses in these pathways? ...
2
votes
1answer
330 views

Bowtie: cannot read fasta file?

I am trying to use bowtie2 to analyze my data in FASTA format, but it seems that this version can't read properly my data. My command line is as follows: ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

How are arms different than legs?

Ok, this is a bit of a tangent question, but it came up yesterday and I didn't know the answer: How are arms and legs defined physiologically? For example, we say humans have two arms and two legs, ...
4
votes
0answers
115 views

At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

How well understood are the long-term effects of nuclear radiation?

Sometimes, when people are concerned about radiation, it is not because it is precisely quantified how dangerous it is, but because we don't know how dangerous it is. How well understood are the ...
8
votes
2answers
128 views

Some sort of Lymantriidae caterpillar?

I found this larva in Sweden in July. It was about 15 mm long. It reminded me of Orgyia antiqua that I've seen before, but smaller and with a somewhat different colouration.
2
votes
1answer
383 views

Why are hard boiled eggs so homogeneous?

A eukaryotic animal cell is a complicated piece of biological machinery. Some major structures inside of the cell (see the image below) include: the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi vesicles, and various ...
3
votes
1answer
640 views

Do humans have the hyaloid canal, after all?

Most Google Images results for "eye anatomy" are pictures of eyes that don't have the hyaloid canal while some do (proof). Do humans have it, after all, or not? :)
6
votes
1answer
828 views

Warm water bath [closed]

Why is it advised to take bath in warm water when we are sick?I know that as homeotherms we need to generate metabolic heat to adapt to the environment temperature.But what is the mechanism by which ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

genomatix software linux install [closed]

I have installed the genomatix software which is a jar file the name is InstallChipInspector21.jar.But now I really don;t know how do I start it ,can any one suggest me a method??
1
vote
0answers
46 views

What is the meaning of this poor sequencing result?

What is the meaning of this poor sequencing result? What is the problem? Can anyone guide me, please. Thank you.
3
votes
1answer
235 views

What is the difference between a DPY-10, DPY-11, and DPY-13?

My TA mentioned these three mutations of C. elegans since we started working with the worms but seems to skip over what the differences are...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

What is a catalytic domain of an enzyme?

Is this another name for the active site of an enzyme? What does the structure of the catalytic domain of an enzyme look like?
6
votes
1answer
104 views

Receptors for red and far-red light in plants: Shade avoidance

Franklin (2009) describes how plants use the ratio of the red wavelength (660-670nm) over the far-red wavelength (725-735nm) (R:FR) in order to avoid shading. My question is: which receptor is ...
4
votes
1answer
453 views

What do you call a virus when it's cured?

When a cure has been found for a virus, can it be called such anymore? Virus implies it's something you've contracted that you just have to live with until (hopefully) your body can overwhelm and ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

Mechanisms of bone growth

The length of a bone is caused by growth of hyaline cartilage which is then replaced by bone tissue. How do cells know whether they should grow the hyaline cartilage? What are the key molecules that ...
5
votes
1answer
181 views

Mechanism of Muscle Growth

According to this video (sorry for the poor reference but it represents my level of understanding in physiology), muscle grow as a consequence of repairing micro-lesions. How are these micro-lesions ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Modeling intracellular interactions between sender and receiver bacteria

I am involved in a modelling task of a biological process described as follows: -- "Objective: to model behavior of a sender receiver type system The process goes as follows Pre-signal [PS] is in ...
2
votes
1answer
230 views

Are there anatomical differences between male and female mammal brains before action of hormones?

is there any evidences of these differences during development stages prior to hormone driven sexual differentiation? mice studies ?
9
votes
3answers
1k views

What is this microscopic image from Peter Gabriel's New Blood album cover?

This image appears on the cover of Peter Gabriel's album New Blood. It appears to be a photograph of some microscopic biological cell. But it doesn't look like a blood cell to me. What kind of ...
6
votes
2answers
609 views

Why do different pain killers have different effects on people?

I've noticed some pain killers working great for me, while others have no effect. Works for me Aspirin APC † Naproxen Doesn't work for me Paracetamol Diclofenac Tramadol I doubt there ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

Among xerophyte plants, which one grow faster and consume water the least? [closed]

In an effort to select for the most suitable plants to possibly colonise desert and stop its expansion, what would be the xerophyte plants that grow the faster and expand on surface, while using the ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Does Spinning dancer has anything to do with your eyesight

I came across the spinning dancer as part of the brain test to determine left brain vs right brain dominance. I saw the dancer is turning clockwise. The other people around me saw it turning ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

How to calculate relatedness in haplodiploid organisms (mainly full sisters and full brothers)?

I have tried to calculate the relatedness for haplodiploid organisms, but cannot understand the calculations behind full sister and full brother. (taken from Wikipedia: haplodiploidy I have managed ...
2
votes
0answers
80 views

How likely is it that through dog breeding, tail-wagging has been disassociated with happiness?

I am not a biologist, so sorry to anybody for misinformation in this post. If I understand correctly, dogs evolved the ability to show emotions through various sounds and tail-wagging in order to ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Creating Sperm via cell culture adaptation

I am wondering if it is theoretically possible to create "artificial sperm" via cell culture adaptation. That is at very high level, can you replace the genes of one sperm cell with those of another ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Hormones and body mass

I was wondering how some animals (bulls, elephants etc.) become so large by only eating grass or plant based material and why some humans can build large amounts of muscle and mass without a proper ...
2
votes
1answer
796 views

What are the ways to test for protein in the canine urine?

I know that one way is to use the reagent sticks and the refractometer, but this is inaccurate. Is protein distinguishable when using a microscope? Is it time sensitive(i.e. have to test it right ...
1
vote
1answer
189 views

Can Mono-Cell or other organism self-replicate?

I have a question regarding how organism replicate them self to create an other organism, We know that in animal reign, we need a male and female that will generate a new being. what I want to know ...
3
votes
2answers
47 views

recolonize earth desert with plants : which plants first?

if willing to recolonize earth desert , let's say sahara or any dehydrated and sterile land, without intensive human intervention, what would be the first plants / algae / fungi /bacteria to grow ? ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Thermochemistry of gabapentin

So I am taking a new class at my institution called Theoretic Nuclear Thermochemical Pharmacology, (I know big name, it's an elective from a real pioneering fronteirsman in our department :P) and I am ...
5
votes
1answer
35 views

Need to make a library of mammalian coding sequences

I want to clone ~100 different coding sequences from human or mouse into an expression vector to analyze phenotypes in tissue culture. I can do all of the steps, but I'm not sure what I should use as ...
3
votes
1answer
443 views

Why is Psoriasis treated with Cortisone, when stress (which releases Cortisol) is known to aggravate the condition?

It is well known that stress isn't good for psoriasis , yet why do we treat the illness with Cortisone, a compound very similar to cortisol (and "has a similar name, genesis, and function", according ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the biological reason for a burst appendix being potentially lethal?

Given that the appendix does not seem to be used by the human body, what is the biological reason that it is potentially lethal when this organ bursts? Also, what would cause the 'burst'?
3
votes
3answers
419 views

What is this tissue?

Does anybody recognize this picture and can tell me what organ it came from?
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Is body energy production and consumption cyclical?

If we look into how energy is produced by the humans, it always involves some kind of periodicity: fuel combustion rotates engines, water rotates turbines, nuclear chain reactions heat up water, which ...
3
votes
2answers
126 views

What does it mean to have different “metabolism”?

We hear talk of different body types, and that it is more difficult for certain people to lose weight than others. On the other hand, when my physician recommends that I lose weight, they say that it ...

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