2
votes
1answer
61 views

Quantitative Comparisons of Phylogenetic trees

I am working on a broad phylogenomic analysis of proteins involved in one particular cellular process. I have constructed a phylogenetic tree for each protein. I am now working on comparing those ...
4
votes
1answer
255 views

Blosum matrix with probabilities instead of the positive and negative scores

I am trying to find a version of the BLOSUM matrix that has the frequencies instead of the scaled log-odds. i.e. instead of the common version that tells us that the score LEU/ASP is -4, I would like ...
0
votes
1answer
372 views

Are harmful gases abiotic or biotic factors in our environment?

As we all know, harmful gases play a negative role in our society and our environment. Are these gases playing as abiotic or biotic factors in our lives?
1
vote
1answer
129 views

Simultaneously using both hands - How does that work?

Is some part in one hemisphere the decision maker and "calling the shots" - controlling the opposite side's hand "directly" and controlling its own side's hand through the corpus callosum. Or: is ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Identifying a spider from my childhood memory

Once, as a child, I found a spider in my parents' garden. I remember catching it in a jar because I thought it looked unusual, but I never figured out what kind of spider it was and unfortunately ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Ancestral Allele explanation

I'm having some trouble understanding the concept of ancestral allele. What exactly does it mean? What does it have to do with Identity by descent/state? What does it have to do(if anything) with ...
2
votes
0answers
75 views

Questions regarding Scapulohumeral Rhythm

I'm actually an artist, but I wanted to ask this because it will help a lot in my figure drawings. My artistic anatomy teacher taught me about the Scapulohumeral Rhythm. He said that in during the ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

Should the sum of RPKMs be constant over experiments

I have cufflinks data from 18 different RNA-seq experiments. I've noticed that if the sum all the RPKM values for a particular experiment, are vastly different between experiments. How could this be? ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Muscle force/energy relationship

I found the Hill muscle model, which helps relate the force a muscle can generate to its change in length over time (its "contraction velocity"). Is there a similar model to get an idea of the energy ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

What I can do in order to improve the folding of the protein?

I am struggling with the expression of the certain protein. It seems that it is not properly folded and thus, it is not active. I tried to express it at the lower temperature and for the longer time, ...
0
votes
1answer
201 views

Pedigree analysis : autosomal or mitochondrial

I have tried a to decide if this is a autosomal dominant, recessive or a mitochondrial disorder. Is it possible to know for sure, or do you have to use probability? (English is not my native ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Can lymph be in peripheral blood?

I read an argument that 1-3% of lymph is in peripheral blood. However, I am not sure if this lymph is about lymphocytes in peripheral blood; not lymph itself. Lymph gets exchanged between capillaries ...
2
votes
2answers
133 views

Understanding the Amino Acids

I'm having little trouble studying general relativity or quantum field theory, but remembering all the amino acids and being able to think about them is something that's completely, utterly and ...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

dbSNP database table desciptions

I am trying to build a local implementation of dbSNP. I would like to know the descriptions of tables listed on ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/database/organism_data/human_9606 and on ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

What is the scientific name of such a fungus?

Several days ago, in a bush I found the fungus as attached which is about 25cm in height and does not look like an edible mushroom: Any one has an idea of its scientific name and other details?
4
votes
1answer
140 views

What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
1
vote
1answer
430 views

Mechanism of antiperistalsis

What is the mechanism of antiperistalsis that occurs during vomiting? Why the peristaltic waves normally don't propagate in anal to oral direction? Please give logical explanation with authentic ...
3
votes
2answers
757 views

Where do trees get their shape?

Does anyone know any good resources dealing with shapes of trees? For example, pine trees are cone shaped for optimal absorption of sunlight, but lone pine trees growing in isolation (and other ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

Mode of inheritance - DYT1 Dystonia

Homozygous DYT1 mutation carriers have not been reported in humans. Does this mean that the mode of inheritance for dystonia (DYT1) is autosomal dominant? This to me implies that if one has both ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Primers on Dystonia

Where can I get a good biochemical overview of dystonia? I will be working in a research lab that focuses on dystonia and I would like to not be clueless.
2
votes
0answers
29 views

How do climate and location affect the Pine Processionary moth?

I have statistics on the occurence of the Pine Processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa); we have the regions that are located in Algeria, infested area in percent, the defiliation degree (small, ...
4
votes
2answers
455 views

What makes DNA helical?

Why isn't DNA like RNA; why isn't RNA like DNA, that is, helical? Why are RNA chains straight?
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Why Isolated, recombinant plasmid DNA without any restriction is often detected in agarose gel electrophoresis as three DNA bands?

I don't understand why three bands are found without any restriction digest. Please answer me as soon as possible. Thank you
2
votes
1answer
114 views

What species of butterfly is this?

This big fellow came to visit my kitchen (in Hong Kong) a bit earlier. It is brown with some longitudinal white stripes, banana/boomerang-shaped patterns towards the middle, and an eye-like marking on ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

difference between ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprived medium

Ischemia is roughly defined as insufficient blood flow to a specific region of the body and in the literature it is generally considered as causing oxygen and glucose deprivation in the tissue and ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

How are minerals formed by biological processes?

News to me is that about 4500 of the 4900 minerals on Earth have been created by life. What are some examples of such processes? Are some minerals formed inside the human body?
1
vote
1answer
962 views

What are garlic's effects on DHT?

Most antiandrogens inhibit DHT. DHT is connected to testosterone. [1] shows a beneficial effect on prostate cancer which can be caused by DHT. However, according to [2] garlic also increases ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Is the sense for salt depending on the electrolyte level in our body?

I often noticed, after (heavy) physical activity like cycling, running, swimming or working an isotonic drink (to recover the electrolyte level) tastes less "salty" compared to when drinking it before ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Classification of degree of infested areas by pine processionary moth on regions

I'm making a thesis about pine processionary moth distribution on the regions of algeria! i'm making tests about if there are spatial autocorrelation of this insects on the regions. and i'm doing ...
2
votes
1answer
7k views

Are Asian people genetically programmed to be shorter than Europeans?

People in different countries have different average heights. For example, Wikipedia's article on human height states that Australian men have an average height of 177.8 cm, and Australian women 163.8 ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Does the most common definition of “allele” include a change in phenotype?

I'm prepping an activity for my biology students on cystic fibrosis. There are about 2000 different mutations of the CFTR gene that cause CF. Since the final phenotype is pretty much the same, can I ...
2
votes
2answers
325 views

What are these strings used to describe animals?

For example, what's a $dt^{sz}$ hamster? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1144494/). What's a Rgs9-Cre/+;gtROSA/+ mouse? ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

Confusion regarding seedless grape and the normal process of germination

In general, does seedless grape by definition contains seed or is the seed small enough that the process of ingestion creates the illusion that there is no seed? If the latter is true, is the ...
3
votes
0answers
98 views

What is this red liquid produced by a fungal colony?

In a jar, where I had some orchid plants, a fungi start growing few days ago. I removed the plants and let the fungi to expand and grow more. After some days, red drops started to appear on the ...
1
vote
1answer
470 views

Is there any measure by which the Germans today could be called a genetically superior race? [closed]

The Nazi eugenics programs are well known. Despite their controversy, I cannot find any indication on their effectiveness. Were there ever and studies done on the (arguably subjective definition of) ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Equation for accurate prediction of PCR yield

It is a cliche of freshman biology labs to point out that "every cycle of PCR doubles the DNA, so the yield will be $2^{cycles}$ times the template amount". However, if this were true, 1 ng of ...
5
votes
1answer
53 views

Is there a good explanation for this swarming pattern?

A film clip would be helpful here. A few days ago I noticed a swarm of newly hatched flying bugs about 20 feet away from me with the sun behind them so the shape of swarming (such as it was) was easy ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

How specific is the adaptive immune response?

When you read about the adaptive immune response, you are often told that the response is specific to each pathogen - that the response is tailored. My question is - to what extent is this really ...
4
votes
2answers
108 views

Has an artificial symbiotic relationship ever been created?

Have 2 organisms ever been introduced to create a symbiotic relationship that doesn't occur in their natural environment?
8
votes
1answer
289 views

Why do flies fly in circles?

Lying on my bed, doing nothing I recently noticed flies usually fly in small circles, right under my ceiling lamp. Worth noting - the lamp was off as it was middle of a day. And those flies kept ...
4
votes
1answer
104 views

Do mitochondria use ATP in order make another ATP from glucose?

Do mitochondria use ATP in order make another ATP from glucose, or does it use another source of energy to convert glucose to ATP?
0
votes
1answer
76 views

level of organisation of proteins

Is there any disulphide bond in a quaternary structured protein? If yes, please provide examples. In tertiary structured proteins, what is(are) the most important characteristic(s) of tertiary ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

Prokaryotic Ribosomes

During bacterial protein synthesis, when ribosomes attach to the cytoplasmic membrane and form a polysome, to what molecule are the ribosomes attaching? Is the polysome held to the cytoplasmic ...
3
votes
0answers
168 views

Electrodes in the brain and 'repetitive orgasms' [closed]

The advent of chlorpromazine in 1955 put an end to one of the more bizarre chapters in American psychiatry.$^1$ Dr. Robert Heath implanted wires or delivered injections of acetylcholine (a ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Science experiments at home with Minimal Cost

What is a good recipe for making agar at home for a minimal cost? Are there materials that could be found in the kitchen cabinet?
2
votes
2answers
3k views

What is Pan for in pan-caspase?

A simple question (I could not find it on internet): What is Pan for in pan-caspase? Is it any different from the term 'caspase' ?
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Is it theoretically possible to treat filaggrin deficiency with a dietary supplement?

http://f1000.com/prime/reports/m/3/2/ "Filaggrin is a highly abundant protein expressed in the uppermost part of the epidermis that is critical to the formation and hydration of the stratum ...
5
votes
2answers
177 views

Can botulinum toxin be grown or kept from denaturing in an UNWRAPPED 50 pound hay bale?

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin protein created when botulism spores grow. The requirements for growth and/or for keeping the toxin from denaturing would seem to be very difficult to create in bale ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

How do penicillin resistant bacteria grow slower in the presence of penicillin?

We put 2 flasks inoculated with Bacillus cereus in 37⁰C: one with 100μg/ml penicillin + 50μg/ml chloramphenicol and the other without penicillin. We found that the OD is higher in the one without the ...
5
votes
1answer
314 views

Local storage of NCBI database in MongoDB [closed]

My short term goal in a project is to build a local database of the NCBI dbSNP database. The data and schema are available on the FTP site(). I was going to implement the database using MySQL, but I ...

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