2
votes
1answer
50 views

Difference between the P4 and P5 subtypes of P-type ATPases in plants

In plants there are various kinds of P-type ATPases. What is difference between P4-ATPase and P5-ATPase?
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Is it possible to feel pain in some part of a body, but the pain “feeling” is introduced somewhere else?

Is it possible to feel pain in some part of a body, but that the cause of the pain is situated elsewhere in the body? For example, somebody feels pain in his toe, but it turns out that this pain is ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Abdominal muscles during inspiration/inhalation

During inspiration I am aware that the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract, thus increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity. However, I read on my textbook that during ...
0
votes
2answers
47 views

CRISPR/Cas for editing the human genome

I know, that the CRISP/Cas approach for "cutting" the human genome is not completely suitable if we can't say not suitable at all. Because we have many repeats and this approach can bring to our ...
19
votes
5answers
2k views

How can homosexuality evolve despite natural selection?

I would imagine that the answer to this question would be population control, especially since even if one sibling is homosexual this does not necessarily mean that the other siblings will be too.
5
votes
5answers
2k views

Do male animals visually perceive females as more/less attractive?

If we somehow remove pheromones, do animals experience a phenomenon similar to human "visual beauty" when looking at members of the opposite sex? For example, given a set of 20 female ducks observed ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

OHM's Law is right or wrong [on hold]

if the series of resistance is in a circuit and the values of resistance is different and the potential difference is different between two points of each resistance is different and in this the ...
3
votes
1answer
274 views

Examples of Vestigial Genes

I consider the existence of a broken GULO gene in humans to be the clearest evidence for human evolution - just what else is it doing there otherwise? Are there any other examples of vestigial genes ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Transport of auxin

I read that auxin is transported via active transport unidirectionally, and that this is given a special name—polar transport. However, I’ve seen so many experiments regarding phototropism involving ...
-2
votes
0answers
44 views

Why don't extremophiles rule the world?

Why don't simpler (less evolved) organisms, which need more water (bryophytes), go extinct, supplanted in the competitions by more resistant plants? And why extremophiles can't be found in ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

database for bacteria habitat

I was wondering if there is a database where you can find the habitats of different bacteria. Because I'm using BLAST to identifiy sequences, however I need to check if my result are appropriate ...
4
votes
1answer
931 views

How are arms different than legs?

Ok, this is a bit of a tangent question, but it came up yesterday and I didn't know the answer: How are arms and legs defined physiologically? For example, we say humans have two arms and two legs, ...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

How do prions transmit their conformation to other proteins?

I was reading about prions and many sources say something to this effect: "Prions may propagate by transmitting their misfolded protein state: When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

A state model of sodium channels

I am studying by myself Human Physiology. I have encountered the following question: In the following given model of sodium channel with 3 states open closed blocked (which I assume means ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Taxonomic clasification of BLAST output

I am working with Next Generation Sequencing. I BLASTed the bovine de novo assembled contigs to the NCBI nucleotide database. I got a matching with a lot of species i.e. different kind of bacteria, ...
-1
votes
2answers
83 views

What makes something food?

From my (limited) understanding, animals get energy from food by breaking chemical bonds between molecules. There's a lot of water here [citation needed], so it seems like natural selection would ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Wasps a few days after bees? [on hold]

It was several weeks ago that I noticed this but I saw wasps(I think they were yellow jackets or hornets since I saw them flying alone and with reddish wings very spread out(more than that of a fly or ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Typical cellular respiration lab with a respirometer — why is potassium hydroxide (KOH) necessary?

For context, if you are unsure what this question is in reference to, feel free to take a look at this video by Bozeman science and go forward to about the 2:00 mark. In a typical cellular respiration ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters?

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters (vector map below)? Is there any advantage of having only one terminator? There are going to be two mRNAs transcribed from this ...
-1
votes
0answers
37 views

Is there a package or a software to calculate an holey fitness landscape?

The holey landscape is interesting to enable the population to move from an adaptive peak to another without crossing a valley of low fitness. A fitness landscape is computable in R with a GAM model ...
-1
votes
1answer
35 views

Does drinking alcohol having UTI may help to kill the bacteria?

It's well known that ethyl alcohol kills bacteria. And amount of alcohol in urine may be detected by EtG tests (as long as 3-4 days after intake). Does drinking alcohol in reasonable amount by ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Do bears generally have sesamoid bones in their fore and hind feet?

I can't seem to find any information specifically (that shows photographic evidence) of whether bears (of any kind) have sesamoid bones in their feet. And whenever I read information that says that ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

What proteins are required to synthesize gyromitrin?

This is something I was interested in, from reading about false morels that produce gyromitrin which is hydrolyzed to form monomethylhydrazine. I was wondering about the biological process that ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Why use RRBS (reduced representation bisulfite sequencing) instead of general BiSeq?

My understanding is that RRBS is used for certain cases. For example, WGBS (whole genome bisulfite sequencing) is limited by repeated sequences. However, many papers seem to use both techniques. ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

What is a regulable promoter? And how does one regulate it?

I'm reading a patent where they (in S. cerevisae YNP5 strain): downregulate the ERG9 gene by replacing the native ERG9 promoter with the regulable MET3 promoter What's a regulable promoter and ...
-1
votes
0answers
38 views

Why females evolved to be physically weaker than males? [duplicate]

Why have male-female diverged in relationship to strength? What is the evolutionary advantage for this?
3
votes
2answers
68 views

Is “A” inhibiting “B” and vice-versa, a positive feedback loop?

If product A inhibits the expression of product B, and product B inhibits the expression of product A, is this a positive feedback loop? My thinking was to consider the scenario that A starts off ...
3
votes
1answer
397 views

Storing Taqman plates with polymerase in fridge before running

I'm going to be running some Taqman assays on cDNA generated from RNA collected from various samples, and will end up running a bunch of plates (right now the setup is 1/2 a plate per sample, ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How is excess semen removed if ejaculation does not occur?

There are some attempts to answer the question that I found via cursory Google search, but none of them were appropriately sourced. This site claims that they are "recycled like blood cells", but ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Impact of Alan Turing's approach to morphogenesis

Shortly before his untimely passing, the computing pioneer Alan Turing published his most cited paper The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis (1952). The central question for Turing was: how does a ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Why are men stronger than women?

What are the evolutionary explanations for why women are physically weaker than men (on average), and is this difference adaptive? See figure one here. I suppose that something puts pressure on men ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Which proteins cross the blood brain barrier?

Are there any known globular proteins which naturally cross the blood brain barrier as part of their function, i.e., without modification? I'm thinking not just human proteins, but also viral ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

How is bilateral asymmetry determined in embryonic development?

What are the mechanisms that ensure consistent left-right asymmetric placement of various internal organs (heart, liver, etc) or consistent left-right asymmetric development of paired organs (brain, ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Column chromatography protocol for Alternanthera sessilis to fraction phytochemicals [migrated]

I'm in need to find a column chromatography protocol to fraction phytochemical compounds particularly polyphenols in Alternanthera sessilis Red. I can't seem to find one. Plus this is slightly out of ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Is It Feasible to Make Biogas to Run a Fuel Cell as a Science Museum Exhibit? [on hold]

I am a volunteer at a local science museum. I want to build a new exhibit wherein biogas is produced and used to operate a fuel cell. Is this a feasible demonstration? If so, can someone please ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Finding confidence level of miRNA disease associations

I'm an undergraduate computer engineering student, and I have a project about bioinformatics. In this manner, I need to find prediction( or association I'm not sure the correct terminology) confidence ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Why cold water results in cough [on hold]

I have a pretty simple question which always kept me intriguing since childhood and I couldn't find its precise answer yet. Why do we cough by cold water. Recently I had flu and found very strange ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Why I cannot find dendritic cells in blood smear?

According to many sources including wikipedia, there are haematopoietic stem cell derived dendritic cells in the blood. figure 1 - haematopoietic cell lines - ref Despite of this, when I examine ...
1
vote
2answers
48 views

Why is DNA Shuffling more efficient than Point Mutation?

In a related post on Biology-SE the following insightful comment was made: The advantage of DNA shuffling over introducing single mutations is that you have to screen fewer mutants and the ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

What is the highest number of genes expressed under one T7 promoter?

What is the highest number of genes expressed under one T7 promoter? Also, what is the longest polycistronic mRNA? I am interested in the context of heterologously expressing biosynthetic gene ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

What is the reason for 'microcytic' anaemia?

I know the causes for microcytic anaemia are Fe deficiency, prolonged inflammation, Thalessemia, Sideroblastic etc. All these logically point to a decrease in Haemoglobin synthesis - either Haeme or ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Effective population size of a metapopulation structured on a grid

Scenario Consider a rectangular metapopulation consisting of $x \cdot y$ demes, where $x$ is the number of deme horizontally and $y$ is the number of demes vertically. The population size per deme is ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Effective population size of a continuously spread population

Is there any model to calculate (theoretical predictions) the effective population size of a continuously spread population? Imagine for example a population spread over an infinite 2D landscape. ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

What happens to the human brain when unconscious?

What part of the brain gets affected and does it harm the brain? Thank you I just needed some extra info for a video I'm making.
3
votes
1answer
839 views

What are hot spots on human body?

Recently I have just discovered that a certain amount of the mobile phone frequency can be absorbed by human tissues. For example, this is the SAR info of iPhone 4s: Head: 1.180 W/kg 1 g Body: ...
5
votes
2answers
153 views

Components of the concept of Developmental Noise?

Developmental noise is a concept that correspond to the amount of possible phenotypic variance of a given genotype in a given environment. Intrinsic noise (aka Cellular noise) is a component of ...
4
votes
2answers
211 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Bacterial Flagella P and L ring act as 'bushing'?

It is often stated that in bacterial flagella the P and L rings act as bushing (like in a motor). I have looked up bushing but can't seem to find a description that would fit in the case of bacterial ...
6
votes
2answers
242 views

Why do we have two of some organs, but not all?

We have two eyes, but we don't have two hearts. Why do humans have two of some organs, but not all?
4
votes
1answer
183 views

What do “e” “-” “C” and “E” mean in this output?

I have given an input of this protein sequence: MEPVDPRLEPWKHPGSQPKTACTTCYCKKCCFHCQVCFTTKALGISYGRKKRRQRRRPPQGSQTHQVSLSKQPTSQPRGDPTGPKE from this website along ...

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