2
votes
1answer
30 views

agglutination test using blood of the donor and the recipient

we were told that agglutination occurs when the matching antibody react with its antigen on the RBC surface (as antibody B with antigen B).... Also when blood transfusion, Donors plasma with ...
-2
votes
1answer
31 views

Why do tomatoes look so much like pomegranates? [closed]

The pomegranate fruit has been cultivated since ancient times, particularly in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. It has a hard outer rind, and inside are several chambers, each of which contains ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

What would happen if brain neurons did not reduce their sensitivity to neurotransmitters after prolonged exposure?

From my understanding, neurons decrease their sensitivity to neurotransmitters by reducing the amount of receptors on the cell membrane in response to sustained neurotransmitter activity. One ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Impact of hot and spicy food during cold / congested nose

I've observed this many times. Sometimes when im having a cold or congested nose , and i eat spicy food , it feels that the congestion reduces. what is the reason for this besides the fact that the ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How are membrane and extracellular proteins delivered to the target membrane?

In bacteria, either folded or unfolded proteins can be trafficked to the membrane or the extracellular space provided that they have the appropriate signal sequences. Once the chaperones or Signal ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

X-linked inheritance [closed]

The normal mother is homozygous for a deletion in the PDHA1 gene. Her son is hemizygous for the same variant. What is the chance that this son has a disease due to PDHA1 deficiency caused by the ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Probability of of one pathway occurring among two [closed]

Considering the Kegg modules: M00001 M00002 Both of the modules have the same end product, pyruvate. What is the probability of each one occurring? Which pathway has a higher probability of ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How to mimic / approach some animals/insects' anabolism?

This article states that some shelled animals - spiders, scorpions, crabs, worms and other creatures - have metal atoms in their claws, jaws and fangs. I believe through anabolism, since they eat ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Is Circle of Willis unique to humans? [on hold]

I understand that Circle of Willis is a circulatory anastomotic system that provided blood to the brain. I want to understand if this system is unique to humans or does it exist in other species or ...
-1
votes
0answers
36 views

Can tree frogs modulate their infrared output?

In Jurassic World one of the scientists said that tree frogs can modulate their infrared output. Are there any real-life frogs that can do this? Is this based on any actual animals, or is it ...
8
votes
1answer
61 views

Can we change our dopamine baseline levels?

Can we change our dopamine baseline levels? High dopamine levels improve alertness, problem solving, but may also cause anxiety and aggression. I've read that smiling and laughing, eating certain ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Is AB+ any good for blood transfusions? [closed]

AB+ is a universal recipient and therefore in theory a very bad donor blood type. Are there more subtle reasons that make AB+ useful?
-1
votes
0answers
40 views

Can you become trapped inside a giant clam? [closed]

First off, do they close their shells quickly or slowly? Also, with what pressure do they keep their shells closed? Would you become a pearl if you stayed in there?
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Human Bones classification and anatomy quiz

I'm a junior Biology Student and I came across with this Human Anatomy Question: In respect to the bone characteristics, mark the correct answer: A) Even bones: Palatine, Inferior jaw, Parietal. B) ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Question about Hematology [closed]

I am a graduate student in pharmacy and I am going to take the competition of boarding school(internship) in pharmacy. I studied the hematology several years and I always tried to find a way to ...
5
votes
3answers
70 views

Why is there a seeming dichotomy between mobility and photosynthesis?

At least among more complex organisms, I cannot think of any examples of highly mobile species (like animals) that also incorporate photosynthesis. Perhaps there are examples that I'm unaware of, but ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Operators and Enhancers/Silencers

Wikipedia has two images, of a eukaryotic gene and of a prokaryotic gene. Both show the difference that the prokaryotic gene also has an operator while the eukaryotic gene does not. Both also have ...
10
votes
2answers
892 views

Why and how does uniprot list ~150,000 proteins in the human genome?

Using organism:"Homo sapiens (Human) [9606]" as a query in uniprot returns ~146,000 proteins. I was under the impression that there were only 20-25,000 proteins in ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

IC50 calculation [closed]

I am a computer science student and I'm in an internship at a genomics and biotechnologies research institute. My current task is to calculate the IC50 and the EC50 given a set of data as a table. ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

How to compare two RNA transcripts?

In this paper, the cuffcompare RNA package is reported: Because of the stochastic nature of sequencing, assembly of the same transcript in two different samples may result in transfrags of ...
4
votes
2answers
70 views

Why do we produce so many sperm?

So apparently we produce roughly 300 million sperm daily. Is there a reason why this is necessary? Wouldn't a much smaller (but still large) number be sufficient? Like, one million?
5
votes
4answers
66 views

Is Insulin-Glucose dynamic Lotka-Volterra?

From Wikipedia: The Lotka–Volterra equations, also known as the predator–prey equations, are a pair of first-order, non-linear, differential equations frequently used to describe the dynamics of ...
1
vote
2answers
24 views

Secretion in Gram negative bacteria

Among the 6 secretion systems in bacteria, can these 6 ways be sorted out in the order of how harmful it is to the human host? Like say type 3 is highly virulent so that comes first, but I don't know ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Definition of “essentially diploid”

While researching the F12 cell culture medium (Ham, 1965), I came across the term "essentially diploid Chinese hamster ovary cells". The terms "subdiploid" and "near diploid" were also used to refer ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

What determines whether an action potential is inhibitory or excitatory?

What determines whether an action potential is inhibitory or excitatory? Is it determined by the receptors, the neurotransmitters, or some other mechanism?
3
votes
1answer
69 views

Do our belly buttons consist of scar tissue?

I read an interesting post on Facebook the other day saying that we all have a visible scar since birth - our belly button. This got me thinking (and research for me only found results regarding belly ...
2
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the standard protocol for creating permanent stocks from freeze-dried bacteria?

I've received freeze-dried bacteria that I intend to use for a study I'm doing on slime mold; however, I've never dealt with freeze-dried, only frozen, bacterial cells. After reconstituting these ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Can cooking oil kill fleas?

I cannot find a reliable way to kill fleas after removing them from my cats with a flea comb. Soap and water does not do the job and they climb back out of the drain. Will cooking oil suffocate ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

Asymmetry between kinases and phosphatase numbers in biological systems [closed]

In any biological system, are there more kinases then there are phosphatases? I know this is sort of a vague question but do you know any systems with such an asymmetry? I wish I could be more ...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

Could a coalition of cheetahs take down a lion [closed]

I know that the coalition would have to be large. Like 5 or 6 cheetahs minimum. I could see how a large coalition of cheetahs could take down a lion. They walk quietly towards the lion while it is ...
3
votes
0answers
35 views

Is there a mechanism by which mammals lose interest in a partner after mating?

I'm reading the book called "Cupid's poison arrow", which revolves around a rather simple assumption: most mammals, including humans have a genetic program that is responsible for ever increasing ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Is eating food rich in glucose good for high mind intensive activities while being not bad for health? [closed]

As far as I know glucose is a fundamental nutrient for having good mental performance, as example this web page: http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/Glucose-mental-performance/ But at the same time ...
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

glibc double free or corruption error when running Oases transcriptome assembler. [closed]

Trying to merge assemblies for a set of noncoding RNA but I am getting . I compiled Oases and Velvet such that "MAXKMERLENGTH=101" (kmer steps from 61 to 101 with 4-step increments) and ...
0
votes
1answer
5 views

Blomberg's K and branch length

Do different values of the smoothing parameter lambda for estimating the divergence times (in situ Sanderson 2002) will affect trait conservatism (e.g., Blomberg's K)?
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Pitch shift in hearing after wisdom teeth removal

Yesterday I had my wisdom teeth removed. This morning, when I heard our phone ringing, it sounded a little lower-pitched than usual (I have perfect pitch). Sure enough, when I opened FL Studio ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

What is the simplest autotrophic cell?

Very simple cells, such as Nanoarchaeum equitans, require a host to provide certain essential ingredients for life. Complex life-forms (like humans) require a whole ...
5
votes
0answers
55 views

Butterfly identification: Dorset England, July.

Can you please identify this butterfly. It was seen in Dorset England 9th July. I think it is a female Silver Studded Blue.
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Definitions of common and rare disease

Is there an epidimiological way to define rare and common diseases ?
3
votes
1answer
28 views

How do people digest fat after gall bladder removal surgery?

How do people digest fat after gallbladder removal surgery? How can they tolerate a high fat diet?
5
votes
1answer
64 views

Why do low temperatures kill

Why can't we (human, or even unicellular organisms) withstand low (body) temperatures (5 - 25°C). I have a limited background in chemistry and biology, so this might be obvious, but not to me. I know ...
5
votes
2answers
74 views

Is this Heracleum sosnowskyi?

There's a relatively big scare in local news about the Heracleum sosnowskyi plant, considering how dangerous it can be. I was strolling through the park when I noticed these plants - the ones I ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Textbook/lab manual for mammalian cell culture

For general techniques involving molecular biology, I know of Sambrook and Maniatis Molecular Cloning which covers many of the standard cloning techniques. However, mammalian cell culture has many ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Why are humans mostly right-handed? [duplicate]

Most sources I've seen say that about 90% of humans are right handed, and 10% are left handed. Why is this? My only guess would be that it has something to do with different parts of the brain ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Primer Design with Primer-BLAST over specific site

I am trying to design primers using Primer-BLAST such that the forward primer spans a specific base pair site. I am looking at KRAS for which I believe the RefSeq ID is NG_007524.1 and the forward ...
3
votes
0answers
10 views

Looking for a dichotomous key to identify primates

I'm looking for a dichotomous key to identify primates by physical and possibly geographical traits. Any format is fine (print, web, mobile app, etc.). Other than classroom activities and genetic ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Would a VR headset exacerbate myopia or could it be used to retrain the eyes?

I've learned that there are two primary hypotheses to explain myopia: not enough use of distance vision or not enough sunlight If the distance between an eye and what it's focusing on is the primary ...
-2
votes
0answers
37 views

If a diaster wiped out the earth how come we can use dna of humans and animals to repopulate? [closed]

Like if we think ahead of a disaster that would wipe out life on earth we would collect dna of all species e.g humans,animals,etc so how exactly does collecting dna help repopulate life after a ...
28
votes
2answers
4k views

How do we know the human species arose in Africa?

I have heard (from multiple sources) that the current scientific opinion is that the human species arose in Africa. What are the reasons for this opinion? If possible, simple and non-technical ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Which step in endocytosis requires ATP?

Everybody seems to agree that endocytosis is an energy-using process, and as such requires ATP hydrolysis. However, which particular step requires it? More precisely, which 'molecular machine' ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Textbook for quantitative biochemistry with thermodynamics, as an alternative to Voet, Voet & Pratt (Fundamentals of Biochemistry)?

I'm looking for a great textbook on biochemistry that covers core topics: relevant aspects of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, metabolism (e.g. krebs cycle, respiration, etc.). Ideally it would also ...

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