1
vote
0answers
15 views

What keeps resting potential of neurons constant at -70mV?

I know the sodium-potassium pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions and pumps in 2 K+ ions per reaction so the negative charge in the axon increases. However, once the voltage (difference of charge inside and ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

force required to do damage to child's leg/feet in collision [on hold]

I'm currently working on a toy robot for a student project. Part of this robot is the fact that it will be moving around quite fast. As such hitting the child can and most likely will happen. As such ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing the desired MHC haplotypes

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167569997800205 If anybody has access to this paper, can you please explain me the process to find TAA based on transfection of expression library ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Defining dominance and selection in these formulae

This paper uses two equations to explain the different conditions under which sexually antagonistic genetic variance is maintained in a population, while allowing for unequal dominance, for ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Encephalitozoon cuniculi

Can anyone advise me a literature supporting the claim that Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an aerobic organism? I have seen papers saying otherwise, but also I was told that this is not quite true.
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Data Bias in protein-protein interactions data

Databases like STRING have so many predicted as well as experimental interactions data for many organisms.However there is a bias in the data which they have?. a)The first is gene co-occurrence ...
-2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is hTAP?? Please help

Could not find a single article regarding this. What is hTAP? Tap is Transfer associated protein, that I know, but what is hTAP??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
3
votes
1answer
19 views

Meta-analysis of fruits in blocking Cytochrome family

My professor says that some drugs cannot be used with grapefruit. I am trying to search a list of cytochromes and their effect to block members in the cytochrome family. Some in Cyt P450. What is ...
1
vote
2answers
20 views

Why are there seven entries for Pimpinella dioica in the Catalogue of Life?

And six for Haliclona digitata, and five for Ichneumon varius. A couple of the duplicate entries are synonyms for other species, which is understandable, but most are the "accepted name". Shouldn't ...
5
votes
1answer
15 views

Does gray/white hair turn gray/white from a normal hair? or does a gray/white hair actually grow gray/white originally?

I am really curious if hair actually tuns white/gray from default color, or does it have a defect as it is made and grows out of your head a different color?
0
votes
1answer
35 views

How can I download a gene sequence from GenBank (NCBI)? [on hold]

Could you tell me the steps to find and download a gene sequence from GeneBank? I would appreciate your help.
0
votes
0answers
6 views

SRC & RSV virus origins

When a virus infects a cell it undergoes recombination with cell genome. I understand how recombination happens. So in the process, is a gene from virus delivered into human genome or human genome ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Is intron removal coordinated?

Are the introns present in a nascent rna molecule removed simultaneously or are they removed in some sort of sequential fashion or is removal completely random?
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Linkage disequilibrium D sign

Linkage disequilibrium D equals D=x11−p1⋅q1 where: Haplotype > Frequency A1B1 > x11 A1B2 > x12 A2B1 > x21 A2B2 > x22 and Allele Frequency A1 > ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Are there any drawbacks to having a fixed-Köhler microscope?

I am considering to buy the Zeiss Primo star microscope. There are two variants: one with so called "Full Köhler" illumination and one with "Fixed-Köhler" illumination. Are there any drawbacks to ...
2
votes
2answers
46 views

Why aren't introns found on the ends of pre-RNA?

We recently learned in genetics class that exons always cap the ends of nascent RNA. I have been trying to figure out the reason why introns can't instead be found on the ends instead of exons. The ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

How closely related are two parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis?

How closely related (from the evolutional point of view) are parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis? Giardia genome is about 12 Mb and its major cellular proceses are rather simple. ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

How to calculate when the velocity declines in an Enzyme Kinetics Problem

If you have an E,S pair that has KM and Vmax values of 2 mM and 1 mM/sec/μM enzyme and you start the reaction with 10 mM [S] and 1 μM [E], approximately how long will the E,S system stay in the ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What is the difference between clinical and non-clinical depression, and is there a term for different severity of the bipolar disorder?

I was looking for a term which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity. I know from experience from someone I know well, what a very severe case of the bipolar disorder looks like, when an ...
-2
votes
1answer
50 views

What is the difference between regular blood, a woman's and a virgin's menstrual blood?

There are many stories that blood contains the life-force energy and specifically menstrual (period) blood has always been a feature of many rituals and some ancient Sumerian tablets mentioned that ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Exclusive microtubule -end labeling

Like the title explains I am looking for a way to exclusively label microtubule minus end in vivo. Looking through the literature I could not find any techniques yet. Do you have an idea?
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Knowledge about Organelles

As we know, there are various organelles present inside a cell. Let's consider mitochondria for example. My questions are -> Do we understand the composition, structural and functional features of ...
3
votes
2answers
48 views

Is it possible to calculate the energy required to speak a word?

I was discussing with a colleague whether speaking would require more energy than communicating via instant message (GTalk, etc..). If this is possible, then I'm particularly interested in whether ...
5
votes
1answer
60 views

What is the “Spandrels” debate about?

In a former question, as a side question, I asked a clarification about the "Spandrels" paper. Being not a biologist, it was the first time I encoutered it. Subsequently I tried to collect some ...
-2
votes
1answer
27 views

Affinity isolated peptide

What is affinity isolated peptides??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if someone can describe it in simple language it ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...
4
votes
2answers
63 views

What is MHC haplotype?

What is MHC haplotype? I did check out the wiki article, but did not understand. (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Does unequal dominance mean the X-chromosome should be a coldspot for antagonistic variation?

Sexually antagonistic genetic variation, in a simple model, will persist if the benefit to one sex is (near) equal to the cost in the other, otherwise the polymorphism will be selected out of the ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Oxygen requirements of eukaryotes

Is any of you aware of any resources where I can find information about the oxygen requirement for growth of eukaryotes? As an example, say I'd like to know whether Candida dubliniensis, ...
-2
votes
0answers
16 views

Doubt regarding COBEpro [on hold]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19074155 This link contains the summery of how to predict continuous B-cell epitope. Can someone please explain this to me?? I did read it, but failed to make out ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Educational Materials (Graded) for Human Biology and Chemistry [on hold]

I was wondering if anyone could recommend educational materials and resources (such as text books) that covers human biology and chemistry together, preferably with beginning, intermediated and ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
4
votes
2answers
313 views

What's the longest transcript known?

What's the longest functional transcript known? I'm wondering about RNA length post splicing, so not including introns.
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Drugs metabolism and detection

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder, for example diazepine, would traces of the metabolized drug show in their sweat or saliva? Would it be chemically detectable?Any links to ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Could this Francobelgian comic book woman really have these 4 diseases at the same time?

I'm doing an archive binge of a paper comic "The Kiekeboes". One of the characters is an elderly woman currently at the doctor, and she says the has the following illnesses: Erythema Exsudativum ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Plotting metabolic networks?

I need to draw a map of the core metabolism of E.coli. Associated with each reaction in the map I have a number that indicates the flux through this reaction. I want the map to reflect these fluxes ...
2
votes
2answers
18 views

Question about flavodiiron protein

I came across an article about flavodiiron proteins that are responsible for reducing ${\rm O}_2$ to ${\rm H}_2{\rm O}$ thereby protecting the anaerobic prokaryotes and some eukaryotes from oxidative ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

Manufacturing of Bio Molecules [on hold]

Can we Manufacture bio molecules say e.g. the simplest Sugar, C12,H22,O11 the way we do with any other mechanical component. So, we know all about the Structure and arrangement of Atoms in Sugar - so ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

How many water molecules will be generated when single nucleotides are used to make this RNA: 5’-UUAACCGUCAG-3’?

Based on what we learned on condensation reactions, how many water molecules will be generated when single nucleotides are used to make this RNA: 5’-UUAACCGUCAG-3’ I had an online biology quiz with ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

Question about microaerophilic parasite tolerance for oxygen

Does anyone know what is the maximal concentration of oxygen that can be tolerated by the parasite Giardia intestinalis?
2
votes
1answer
23 views

Kinesiology Tape Benefits

Recently, kinesiology tape has become popular, especially in CrossFit. I have also noted its' use in the NFL, and I want to say Tennis as well. What beneficial effects does this tape offer our bodies ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Why do baby mammals tend to play?

Why do babies of any mammal tend to play ? From humans to small dog pups, cubs of a lion, baby bears, etc. *I am not sure if the tag I chose is correct or not. Please correct me if I'm wrong.
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Should I be worried if I sweat too much? [closed]

I have been facing this since I was young, when I played the piano, my palms would become sweaty. Lately I've been noticing my hands have been sweatier than ever, and even the soles of my feet. This ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Which process is needed to complete male reproductive development?

In order to properly complete male reproductive development: ...
-7
votes
1answer
55 views

Evolution 15 + 15 [closed]

If I flap my hands for say, about 1hr everyday, and I teach my future children to repeat this and so on, theoretically (at least), how many generations would it take for my grand [sons ...] to be ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Brain and its activity [closed]

How could we increase our brain activity.. memory ..reasoning ..imagination.i have some time got very unique ideas but some time im failed in reasoning.,although this both tasks are performed by same ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Did spiders respond to light for building webs before artificial light was invented?

I have noticed that during summer, beautiful spider colonies grow wherever a strong light is: I'm wonder whether spiders evolved to seek naturally lighted areas where they build nests (before ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Vitamins located closely under the peel?

I came across an old saying (I would even call it a myth) that vitamins are concentrated under (or close under) the peel of apples or potatoes and other fruit. This implies that they are more ...
6
votes
1answer
37 views

Cross-integration of puma subspecies populations

A major concern of conservationists in south Florida is the population of native Pumas, the Florida Panther. Until recently, it was thought that the Pumas were a genetically distinct subspecies, ...
6
votes
2answers
69 views

RNA-Seq library construction challenges: the biases of RNA fragmentation vs cDNA fragmentation

I recently watched a presentation on RNA-seq that covered some of the choices one can make along the way, and I didn't fully understand one of the choices in particular. Near the beginning of the ...

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