5
votes
1answer
3k views

Why does milk contained in cartons of milk expand?

In the morning, I went to the fridge to drink some chocolate milk. At night, when I took out the same carton of milk, the packaging seems expanded, like some kind of air is inside. Explain please !
1
vote
1answer
38 views

How to compare two RNA transcripts?

In this paper, the cuffcompare RNA package is reported: Because of the stochastic nature of sequencing, assembly of the same transcript in two different samples may result in transfrags of ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Is each generation getting older? [duplicate]

So we know that our sperm and egg cells get set aside relatively early so that they aren't going through unnecessary cell divisions and causing DNA damage or telomere shortening, but since each new ...
5
votes
0answers
55 views

Butterfly identification: Dorset England, July.

Can you please identify this butterfly. It was seen in Dorset England 9th July. I think it is a female Silver Studded Blue.
3
votes
1answer
33 views

What is the simplest autotrophic cell?

Very simple cells, such as Nanoarchaeum equitans, require a host to provide certain essential ingredients for life. Complex life-forms (like humans) require a whole ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Can cooking oil kill fleas?

I cannot find a reliable way to kill fleas after removing them from my cats with a flea comb. Soap and water does not do the job and they climb back out of the drain. Will cooking oil suffocate ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Primer Design with Primer-BLAST over specific site

I am trying to design primers using Primer-BLAST such that the forward primer spans a specific base pair site. I am looking at KRAS for which I believe the RefSeq ID is NG_007524.1 and the forward ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

What determines whether an action potential is inhibitory or excitatory?

What determines whether an action potential is inhibitory or excitatory? Is it determined by the receptors, the neurotransmitters, or some other mechanism?
-2
votes
0answers
32 views

If the immune system was temporarily shut down ( as happens in some known treatments) would this limit cancer cells? [closed]

If the immune system was temporarily shut down WOULD THIS LIMIT what tumor cells can do and how they can 'mask' their behavior or hide? One type of KRAS mutation can 'use' T cells from the immune ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

Asymmetry between kinases and phosphatase numbers in biological systems [closed]

In any biological system, are there more kinases then there are phosphatases? I know this is sort of a vague question but do you know any systems with such an asymmetry? I wish I could be more ...
2
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the standard protocol for creating permanent stocks from freeze-dried bacteria?

I've received freeze-dried bacteria that I intend to use for a study I'm doing on slime mold; however, I've never dealt with freeze-dried, only frozen, bacterial cells. After reconstituting these ...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

Could a coalition of cheetahs take down a lion [closed]

I know that the coalition would have to be large. Like 5 or 6 cheetahs minimum. I could see how a large coalition of cheetahs could take down a lion. They walk quietly towards the lion while it is ...
28
votes
2answers
4k views

How do we know the human species arose in Africa?

I have heard (from multiple sources) that the current scientific opinion is that the human species arose in Africa. What are the reasons for this opinion? If possible, simple and non-technical ...
0
votes
1answer
5 views

Blomberg's K and branch length

Do different values of the smoothing parameter lambda for estimating the divergence times (in situ Sanderson 2002) will affect trait conservatism (e.g., Blomberg's K)?
3
votes
0answers
35 views

Is there a mechanism by which mammals lose interest in a partner after mating?

I'm reading the book called "Cupid's poison arrow", which revolves around a rather simple assumption: most mammals, including humans have a genetic program that is responsible for ever increasing ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Is eating food rich in glucose good for high mind intensive activities while being not bad for health? [closed]

As far as I know glucose is a fundamental nutrient for having good mental performance, as example this web page: http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/Glucose-mental-performance/ But at the same time ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Definitions of common and rare disease

Is there an epidimiological way to define rare and common diseases ?
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

glibc double free or corruption error when running Oases transcriptome assembler. [closed]

Trying to merge assemblies for a set of noncoding RNA but I am getting . I compiled Oases and Velvet such that "MAXKMERLENGTH=101" (kmer steps from 61 to 101 with 4-step increments) and ...
4
votes
2answers
37 views

How to Extract RNA and perform RT-qPCR from very few cells ( ~5,000)?

I am currently conducting an experiment which involves FACS-sorting a specific population of cells using an antibody of interest. In order to validate the type of cells I have collected using this ...
5
votes
1answer
64 views

Why do low temperatures kill

Why can't we (human, or even unicellular organisms) withstand low (body) temperatures (5 - 25°C). I have a limited background in chemistry and biology, so this might be obvious, but not to me. I know ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Pitch shift in hearing after wisdom teeth removal

Yesterday I had my wisdom teeth removed. This morning, when I heard our phone ringing, it sounded a little lower-pitched than usual (I have perfect pitch). Sure enough, when I opened FL Studio ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

How do people digest fat after gall bladder removal surgery?

How do people digest fat after gallbladder removal surgery? How can they tolerate a high fat diet?
5
votes
1answer
81 views

Is it theoretically possible to restore the Tiger population to 100,000?

The current global Tiger population is roughly 5100 according to Wikipedia. With habitat destruction and poaching continuing and no effective improvement in conservation, most likely the Tiger ...
8
votes
1answer
518 views

Why do people feel pleasure when using roller coasters / centrifuges?

The feeling when using an amusement park unit is usually a pleasure. Why is it not a pain instead? Are there advantages, from an evolutionary point of view, in loving this potentially dangerous ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Textbook for quantitative biochemistry with thermodynamics, as an alternative to Voet, Voet & Pratt (Fundamentals of Biochemistry)?

I'm looking for a great textbook on biochemistry that covers core topics: relevant aspects of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, metabolism (e.g. krebs cycle, respiration, etc.). Ideally it would also ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Textbook/lab manual for mammalian cell culture

For general techniques involving molecular biology, I know of Sambrook and Maniatis Molecular Cloning which covers many of the standard cloning techniques. However, mammalian cell culture has many ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Would a VR headset exacerbate myopia or could it be used to retrain the eyes?

I've learned that there are two primary hypotheses to explain myopia: not enough use of distance vision or not enough sunlight If the distance between an eye and what it's focusing on is the primary ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Why are humans mostly right-handed? [duplicate]

Most sources I've seen say that about 90% of humans are right handed, and 10% are left handed. Why is this? My only guess would be that it has something to do with different parts of the brain ...
7
votes
2answers
159 views

Are unilaterally deaf people able to determine where sound comes from?

My question is on people deafened in one ear, but normal hearing in the other. Time and level differences between the two ears are only part of how the human body can localize the source of the ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Flower identification: Moscow, Russia

I found this plant near MSU, Moscow, Russia. Could someone help me to identify it?
4
votes
1answer
809 views

Is there a relationship between Melatonin, Norepinephrine and depression in humans?

I'm reading a booklet on melatonin published in 1996, titled "Melatonin and the Biological Clock". This particular paragraph caught my attention and I would like to better understand what it means: ...
3
votes
0answers
10 views

Looking for a dichotomous key to identify primates

I'm looking for a dichotomous key to identify primates by physical and possibly geographical traits. Any format is fine (print, web, mobile app, etc.). Other than classroom activities and genetic ...
8
votes
6answers
412 views

Introductory literature for synthetic / systems biology?

I'm a computer engineer (MsC Computer Engineering) who's looking to switch into the field of synthetic / systems biology. I've got a comprehensive layman's understanding of evolution, genetics, ...
-2
votes
0answers
37 views

If a diaster wiped out the earth how come we can use dna of humans and animals to repopulate? [closed]

Like if we think ahead of a disaster that would wipe out life on earth we would collect dna of all species e.g humans,animals,etc so how exactly does collecting dna help repopulate life after a ...
9
votes
5answers
4k views

Difference between genetic engineering and synthetic biology

I've recently seen the term synthetic biology being used to describe research involving genetic modification of organisms. What is the difference between synthetic biology and genetic engineering? Is ...
1
vote
2answers
26 views

Does ATP hydrolysis reaction have a high or low activation energy?

I was recently studying about ATP and how it functions as an energy carrier to all biological processes; however, I came across a confusing and paradoxical statement from two sources: (at 7:36) and ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Which step in endocytosis requires ATP?

Everybody seems to agree that endocytosis is an energy-using process, and as such requires ATP hydrolysis. However, which particular step requires it? More precisely, which 'molecular machine' ...
1
vote
3answers
36 views

Can a same gene stretch from one chromosome to another separate chromosome?

Can a gene continue on from one chromosome to another separate chromosome? For example, can part of an eye colour gene be on one chromosome and the rest of it be on the next chromosome?
3
votes
0answers
23 views

Wolbachia - cytoplasmic incompatibility

I read that cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia occurs when wolbachia-infected male insects mate with wolbachia-free female insects and produce non-viable offspring. By contrast, ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

How many species did Carl Linnaeus classify?

How many species did Carl Linnaeus (senior) classify?
0
votes
0answers
16 views

What chordata evolve first limb

I try to search when and what specie develop first bone limb. I also want to know when second pair develop. And first pair was front or back one? And why it stop only at 2 pairs. Are there any fish ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

If the average resting potential of a neuron is -70 mV, why is there such a high ratio of potassium ions inside relative to out?

My bio teacher was discussing the ratios of different ions inside versus outside the cell. $$\text{OUT:IN}$$ $$\text{K}^+ (1:20)$$ $$\text{Cl}^- (11.5:1)$$ $$\text{Ca}^{2+} (10000:1)$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Why can't plasma proteins migrate from capillaries?

Why can't plasma proteins shift from capillaries to connective tissue but WBCs can be very rich in connective tissue even though obviously the WBCs had to go through capillaries. Another example: in ...
11
votes
1answer
580 views

Is the discovery of dominant and recessive genes the only reason Mendel matters?

We've known that offspring inherit various traits from their parents since (at least) Aristotle. In The Elements of Plant Hybridization, Gregor Mendel treats that fact as common knowledge. Clearly, we ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Does antibody staining / immunolabeling block or inhibit protein function?

In dissociated live cells, does staining them with an antibody block the protein's function? I am sorting cells based on their expression of a few marker genes, and culturing them post-sort for ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

How do other primates treat their fingernails?

Do all primates have to trim their fingernails in some way, or do some primates' fingernails wear off through natural use? Also, is constant nail growth common to all primates?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why are our muscles limited to 7 Hertz?

I have heard from a (usually very knowledgeable) friend before, that a human can only tap his fingers 7 times per second. I generalized this to "our muscles are limited to 7 hertz" When my wife ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why can't we use vaccines from any given deactivated virus to protect against it's active form? [closed]

Why can't we use vaccines from any given deactivated virus to protect against it's active form? Simple enough question, feel free to link articles! Thanks
3
votes
1answer
43 views

why do marine organisms orient with their bellies facing downwards?

why do marine organisms orient with their bellies facing downwards (like most creatures) given that they have relatively fewer constraints on their orientations than land or air organisms?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Are there calcium channel blocking neurotoxins?

I am learning about calcium ion channel blockers (CCBs) and am confused whether there are neurotoxins that are CCBs. If they exist, what is an example of a CCB neurotoxin? What animals use CCB ...

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