2
votes
1answer
68 views

Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How does the body know to stop effector cell proliferation?

After a pathogen has been successfully neutralized, effector cells such as the plasma cells and the cytotoxic T cells which are specific for that pathogen decrease in numbers. What is the signal in ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Can galls be formed from mutualistic relationships?

According to Wikipedia, galls (cecidia) are formed by parasitic insects and mites like gall wasps (Neuroterus albipes). At some metamorphic stage, these organisms alter cell division processes in ...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

How does the introduction of clones would affect population genetics? [on hold]

Since the ability to clone animals gives another way to preserve species, this could help for the breeding process. It has been noted that with the ability to clone animals, endangered species can ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Does a woman contain all the genes needed to make a man?

I know the answer of inverse is at here, but how about this question? I also read this question, can I imply to human that a woman also contain all the genes needed to make a man? Edit: ok , I ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Which mammals cannot synthesize taurine?

It is fairly common knowledge that domesticated cats cannot synthesize the compound taurine. Other mammals seem to be able to synthesize taurine from cysteine [source]. Are there other mammals that ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

DNA. mRNA, tRNA [on hold]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Are there well studied examples of ERAD-mediated membrane insertion, especially from viruses?

Membrane insertion of transmembrane proteins typically requires highly hydrophobic alpha helixes at the N-terminus, N-terminal signal peptides, tail anchors, or a combination of the three. Byun, H., ...
4
votes
1answer
125 views

Selection Pressure on Orca Whale Coloration

What is the proposed selection pressure that leads to the distinctive coloration of Orca whales? I can find nothing in the literature.
-4
votes
0answers
40 views

What is PCR kinetics? [on hold]

What is PCR kinetics and the application of PCR kinetics? What are the types of graphs are required and how can we interpret the graphs?
0
votes
2answers
59 views

What is the frequency distribution of each base in a DNA sequence? [on hold]

Can we say that the frequency distribution of each base in a DNA sequence is equiprobable? After the negative answer; i rephrase: Is there a use case in which the frequency distribution of the ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

cellular chemical changes during mitosis [on hold]

How exactly, in terms of molecular behaviour/structure, do condensins, and cohesin s [in cell mitosis] achieve their functions within the cell?
3
votes
1answer
104 views

What's the (or some of the) minimum(s) amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide needed by plants?

We currently have a problem of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. But assuming we find a way to carbon sink it, what is the minimum CO2 we need to leave in the atmosphere to provide a source for ...
-2
votes
0answers
30 views

Why did earlier humans not survive, yet apes are still among us? [duplicate]

Why did the earlier species of humans, such as the Ardipithecus and the Homo erectus, not survive, but the ape and chimp species, with whom we share 98% of our DNA, are still surviving and among us. ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How to Stabilize Histamine Surges in Exercise of MD/DMII?

I am studying how to stabilize histamine surges/effects without antihistamines in exercise of Metabolic Syndrome (MD) and Diabetes Mellitus II (DMII). Generic/simplified case: Symptoms in exercise: ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

What did cyanobacteria gain from photosynthesis?

As far as I understand, cyanobacteria began performing photosynthesis long before plant cells as we know them arrived on the scene. But cyanobacteria do not seem to use polysaccharides in the same way ...
4
votes
1answer
262 views

How significant is the genetic component of homosexual behaviour?

From some basic googling, I found that nobody has ever proven that people are born gay and that environment plays a great part in homosexuality. I wish to know if there is a genetic component to ...
4
votes
3answers
83 views

Do transcripts always start and end with exons?

I realized that in all cases of "RefSeq Genes" annotations of hg19 I looked at spliced transcripts start (and end) with an exon. From the annotation there is no evidence of any sequence upstream or ...
-2
votes
0answers
30 views

Wasp ID(in Ohio)? [closed]

It wasn't much longer than a worker honeybee (possibly the size of a drone or a virgin queen). It had a thin waist and reddish wings. The pattern was very much like that of a yellow jacket (I could ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Difference between the P4 and P5 subtypes of P-type ATPases in plants

In plants there are various kinds of P-type ATPases. What is difference between P4-ATPase and P5-ATPase?
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Is it possible to feel pain in some part of a body, but the pain “feeling” is introduced somewhere else?

Is it possible to feel pain in some part of a body, but that the cause of the pain is situated elsewhere in the body? For example, somebody feels pain in his toe, but it turns out that this pain is ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Abdominal muscles during inspiration/inhalation

During inspiration I am aware that the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract, thus increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity. However, I read on my textbook that during ...
0
votes
2answers
51 views

CRISPR/Cas for editing the human genome [on hold]

I know, that the CRISP/Cas approach for "cutting" the human genome is not completely suitable if we can't say not suitable at all. Because we have many repeats and this approach can bring to our ...
19
votes
5answers
2k views

How can homosexuality evolve despite natural selection?

I would imagine that the answer to this question would be population control, especially since even if one sibling is homosexual this does not necessarily mean that the other siblings will be too.
5
votes
5answers
2k views

Do male animals visually perceive females as more/less attractive?

If we somehow remove pheromones, do animals experience a phenomenon similar to human "visual beauty" when looking at members of the opposite sex? For example, given a set of 20 female ducks observed ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

OHM's Law is right or wrong [closed]

if the series of resistance is in a circuit and the values of resistance is different and the potential difference is different between two points of each resistance is different and in this the ...
3
votes
1answer
280 views

Examples of Vestigial Genes

I consider the existence of a broken GULO gene in humans to be the clearest evidence for human evolution - just what else is it doing there otherwise? Are there any other examples of vestigial genes ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Transport of auxin

I read that auxin is transported via active transport unidirectionally, and that this is given a special name—polar transport. However, I’ve seen so many experiments regarding phototropism involving ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

database for bacteria habitat

I was wondering if there is a database where you can find the habitats of different bacteria. Because I'm using BLAST to identifiy sequences, however I need to check if my result are appropriate ...
4
votes
1answer
939 views

How are arms different than legs?

Ok, this is a bit of a tangent question, but it came up yesterday and I didn't know the answer: How are arms and legs defined physiologically? For example, we say humans have two arms and two legs, ...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

How do prions transmit their conformation to other proteins?

I was reading about prions and many sources say something to this effect: "Prions may propagate by transmitting their misfolded protein state: When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

A state model of sodium channels

I am studying by myself Human Physiology. I have encountered the following question: In the following given model of sodium channel with 3 states open closed blocked (which I assume means ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Taxonomic clasification of BLAST output

I am working with Next Generation Sequencing. I BLASTed the bovine de novo assembled contigs to the NCBI nucleotide database. I got a matching with a lot of species i.e. different kind of bacteria, ...
-1
votes
2answers
86 views

What makes something food?

From my (limited) understanding, animals get energy from food by breaking chemical bonds between molecules. There's a lot of water here [citation needed], so it seems like natural selection would ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Wasps a few days after bees? [closed]

It was several weeks ago that I noticed this but I saw wasps(I think they were yellow jackets or hornets since I saw them flying alone and with reddish wings very spread out(more than that of a fly or ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Typical cellular respiration lab with a respirometer — why is potassium hydroxide (KOH) necessary?

For context, if you are unsure what this question is in reference to, feel free to take a look at this video by Bozeman science and go forward to about the 2:00 mark. In a typical cellular respiration ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters?

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters (vector map below)? Is there any advantage of having only one terminator? There are going to be two mRNAs transcribed from this ...
-1
votes
0answers
40 views

Is there a package or a software to calculate an holey fitness landscape?

The holey landscape is interesting to enable the population to move from an adaptive peak to another without crossing a valley of low fitness. A fitness landscape is computable in R with a GAM model ...
-1
votes
1answer
42 views

Does drinking alcohol having UTI may help to kill the bacteria?

It's well known that ethyl alcohol kills bacteria. And amount of alcohol in urine may be detected by EtG tests (as long as 3-4 days after intake). Does drinking alcohol in reasonable amount by ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Do bears generally have sesamoid bones in their fore and hind feet?

I can't seem to find any information specifically (that shows photographic evidence) of whether bears (of any kind) have sesamoid bones in their feet. And whenever I read information that says that ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What proteins are required to synthesize gyromitrin?

This is something I was interested in, from reading about false morels that produce gyromitrin which is hydrolyzed to form monomethylhydrazine. I was wondering about the biological process that ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Why use RRBS (reduced representation bisulfite sequencing) instead of general BiSeq?

My understanding is that RRBS is used for certain cases. For example, WGBS (whole genome bisulfite sequencing) is limited by repeated sequences. However, many papers seem to use both techniques. ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

What is a regulable promoter? And how does one regulate it?

I'm reading a patent where they (in S. cerevisae YNP5 strain): downregulate the ERG9 gene by replacing the native ERG9 promoter with the regulable MET3 promoter What's a regulable promoter and ...
-1
votes
0answers
39 views

Why females evolved to be physically weaker than males? [duplicate]

Why have male-female diverged in relationship to strength? What is the evolutionary advantage for this?
3
votes
2answers
73 views

Is “A” inhibiting “B” and vice-versa, a positive feedback loop?

If product A inhibits the expression of product B, and product B inhibits the expression of product A, is this a positive feedback loop? My thinking was to consider the scenario that A starts off ...
3
votes
1answer
407 views

Storing Taqman plates with polymerase in fridge before running

I'm going to be running some Taqman assays on cDNA generated from RNA collected from various samples, and will end up running a bunch of plates (right now the setup is 1/2 a plate per sample, ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How is excess semen removed if ejaculation does not occur?

There are some attempts to answer the question that I found via cursory Google search, but none of them were appropriately sourced. This site claims that they are "recycled like blood cells", but ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Impact of Alan Turing's approach to morphogenesis

Shortly before his untimely passing, the computing pioneer Alan Turing published his most cited paper The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis (1952). The central question for Turing was: how does a ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Why are men stronger than women?

What are the evolutionary explanations for why women are physically weaker than men (on average), and is this difference adaptive? See figure one here. I suppose that something puts pressure on men ...

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