0
votes
0answers
19 views

Homologues chromosomes [closed]

At the end of meiosis 1, can the chromosomes within a cell formed behave as homologues? If yes, then what can be consequences; if no, why?
0
votes
1answer
7k views

What is it called when one human eye is seeing brighter color than the other?

What is the name of a phenomenon where one of the human eyes is seeing brighter/more saturated color than the other? I can observe the same object from the same position while alternating which eye is ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Pollinator mating system in orchids

I came across three terms in an article on pseudocopulation. However I don't quite understand what it means. They are: 1) solitary and haplodiploid 2) social and haplodiploid 3) diploid These ...
5
votes
1answer
25 views

Is oxidative phosphorylation less efficient in gram positive bacteria?

Gram negative bacteria perform oxidative phosphorylation in their periplasmic regions, between the inner and outer membrane where a proton gradient is maintained and used by the ATP synthase to make ...
4
votes
1answer
210 views

What is this beetle?

During a pit stop on the road from North Carolina to New York (somewhere in Delaware) I found the following (dead) insect in the car park: As you can see from the quarter next to it (25 mm ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

What is a protective epitope?

What is a protective epitope? An epitope is basically a part of antigen. So does it mean that when the epitope combines with an antibody, it helps in the functioning of the antibody instead of going ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

What is the name of this big plant with a purple trunk and green to purple berries? [duplicate]

I have photographed the following plant in our garden in Pittsburgh, PA. Do you know the name of the plant?
4
votes
2answers
44 views

What is the mechanism of oxygen uptake in E. coli?

How does E. coli uptake oxygen? Most of the literature I found is concerned with response to oxygen level supplied in the medium, as opposed to how much is actually transported inside. Can they shut ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Is severe but short-term pain worse than moderate but prolonged pain for the body?

I'm wondering about the effects of different durations and intensities of pain on the body. So the two can be compared, let's say that the cause of pain is the same in both cases, but in one the ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What are the minimal chemical requirements for a food which we all can eat? [closed]

I've been puzzled by the following though experiment for the past few days: I want to make my own food from scratch, but I do not know where to start from. I want to be 100% sure that what I eat will ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

What does the term 'epitope mapping' mean? [closed]

Epitope mapping means identifying the binding site of antibodies on the target antigen. This means that the site to be identified is part of the antigen and not antibody, am I right?
2
votes
0answers
24 views

How can oxygen production during photosynthesis be measured?

I'm curious how people measure quantitatively photosynthetic rate in labs. I've seen many qualitative examples with direct observations of bubbles forming in water due to photosynthetic output of ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Why do humans have only one liver? [closed]

Humans have two lungs, two kidneys... But only one liver. If the liver is vital to our survival, why do humans only have one?
4
votes
0answers
65 views

Effective population size and overlapping generations

From this book: If generations overlap, then the effective population size $N_e$ does not equal the population size $N$. I know mathematical formulations in order to find the effective population ...
4
votes
0answers
36 views

Linkage disequilibrium with $n_l$ loci $n_a$ alleles

Linkage disequilibrium $\left(D\right)$ for two bi-allelic loci is defined as: $$D=X_{11}X_{22} - X_{12}X_{21}$$ , where $X_{11}$, $X_{12}$, $X_{21}$, X$_{22}$ are the frequencies of the haplotypes ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

X-inactivation in ovaries

Background In all eutherian (mammals excluding the marsupials), the female (who is $XX$ for the pair of sexual chromosomes) inactivates one of her $X$. This is called dosage compensation. This ...
7
votes
1answer
95 views

What are the costs associated with carrying lots of genetic material

What are the costs (if any) associated with carrying lots of genetic material? energy for copying? raw material for copying? space in the cell? Maintenance cost (matter and energy)? time to copy is ...
2
votes
2answers
30 views

Where I can find information about the study of animal vision?

I read a lot of articles on the internet about how dog see the the world. But I can't find the source of these study. I want to know how did scientist setup the experiment to find out animal vision. I ...
2
votes
0answers
16 views

What can myelination tell you about the evolution of sensory receptors?

I am reading Avi Chaudhuri's Fundamentals of Sensory Perception and wondering if the information given about the somatosensory system could tell us anything about the way it evolved. It seems (at ...
6
votes
2answers
86 views

Why does replication require primers while transcription does not?

In transcription, there is no need for any primer. I guess the basic mechanism of DNA polymerase & RNA polymerase is the same. So why does replication have the need for a primer?
3
votes
0answers
45 views

Hoechst red and blue spectra - what does the red emission tell us?

I understand that the blue spectrum is emitted when Hoechst 33342 binds to nuclear DNA. But what exactly is the red spectrum telling us? I read that the red spectrum can be indicative of apoptosis, ...
5
votes
1answer
180 views

Evolution of umbilical cord and reason of its elongation

To answer a question myself, recently I've read that Years and years ago, a long umbilical cord enabled a woman to grasp her baby after birth and run away from predators" Update: $Question:$ ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Is it possible to convert nerve signals or electrical activity into a readable format? [closed]

Can we have the technology to recreate the informations (like images, sounds etc.)[as in the form of signals in our mind] from human mind to human understandable format? In short, can we read human ...
7
votes
1answer
309 views

What happens to bones that do not heal?

I would like to know the steps the body takes to heal a broken bone and what happens if it cannot heal properly. I am not looking for advice or explanations on resting and not doing activity, I am ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Do snail shells increase the number of rounds with age?

Do snail shells increase the number of rounds with snail age?
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Can one die from pain?

Is it possible that a human or any other creature can die from pain? I googled and found different answers. Some articles say Yes while others say No.
5
votes
4answers
104 views

Why do fat people tire quickly?

Fat people have a large amount of calories (energy) stored, but I have noticed all time when they do physical activities they get tired fast in comparison to fit people - why does this happen?
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Does adding milk to cereal make it harder for our body to absorb the vitamins and minerals from the cereal?

I add about 3/4 cups of Blue Diamond almond milk (unsweetened) every morning to a single serving of Cheerios. The milk contains filtered water, and I read that drinking water with food at the same ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Does the fossil record disprove Evolution? [closed]

It is said by people opposed to Evolution, that the fossil record contradicts and disproves it. They say all the animals suddenly appeared, exploded everywhere, were fully formed, had no transitions, ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Is there a difference between drinking water straight from the tap compared to leaving it to sit?

An idle question - if a glass if filled from the tap and consumed immediately, it contains some dissolved oxygen from the physical process of moving through the pipes & tap. If left out ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

What is the fastest growing bacterium?

E. coli has a generation time of about 20 min, and a single CFU will generate a colony a few millimeters in diameter after 16 hours of incubation. Is this the upper limit? How much faster can ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Do human neurons in a petri dish do different things from chimpanzee neurons

I want to know if qualitative experiments have been done growing chimpanzee neurons and human neurons in vitro and have any differences emerged, such as the amount of connections per neuron or ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Genetically modified Klebsiella Planticola nearly bulldozers plant life as we know it?

The article "The Bacterium That (Almost) Ate the World" by Elaine Ingham (see also here or here) describes a genetically modified bacterium that would break down cellulose plant matter into alcohol: ...
9
votes
3answers
75 views

What is the smallest scale at which blood vessels, nerves and other structures are deterministic?

Super simple question, but I can't find the answer on the Internet (and I'm in a foreign country so the library is not English.) As the title says, what is the smallest scale at which blood vessels, ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

How do I perform recurring pattern mining or regular expressions of nucleotide sequences?

I am interested in performing nucleotide sequence pattern-mining (regular expressions) which is 12 characters (sequences) in length from a dataset. Is that possible to script using MATLAB?
1
vote
1answer
50 views

What is the functional significance of the difference in cardiolipin/cholesterol ratio in different membranes?

I have read somewhere that the plasma membrane has little cardiolipin but excess cholesterol whereas the inner mitochondrial membrane is rich in cardiolipin and has little cholesterol.I just wanted to ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Deciding between chi square and t test

I am always so confused whether to do a chi square test or a t test in the sums given by my biostats teacher. Does anyone have a simple rule to decide this?
3
votes
1answer
17 views

What class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor is sodium valproate (VPA)?

VPA is a known HDAC inhibitor. But I cannot find what class it is. What class is it? And is there any method of finding an answer better than floundering with Google?
8
votes
1answer
185 views

Can anyone identify this bird?

Can anyone identify this bird: it looks like a zebra finch but they are not native to UK are they? Photo taken from my garden in Shoreham, West Sussex on 16/8/2014.
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Do I need to use the same WT C57BL individual for back-crossing or can I use a new one for each generation?

I've just received heterozygote C57BL mice from COMP and I need to start back-crossing them. I've read many colony management protocols, but couldn't understand if I need to use the same WT mouse for ...
3
votes
2answers
52 views

What is an Ihh-/- mouse?

This one is too basic question: I just came across $Ihh^{-/-}\ $ mouse. Is that means this mouse devoid of that gene Ihh. What is this sign called and are there other such representations?
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Why does the arch of aorta coils?

My study materials use the word vesselcompression chamber of aorta to emphasize aorta's elastic property. The arch of the aorta only coils, not its straight part. I think the reason why the arch ...
5
votes
2answers
102 views

Is there a strong reason to be sceptical about the “cured HIV patient” being reported by mainstream media?

There's a story going round the news about a baby that was, apparently, cured of HIV using a cocktail of drugs at an early age. The story piqued my interest, but details seem scarce. One of the main ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

Do bees make honey from fallen fruit?

I know bees make honey from nectar, and I know they drink the juice of fallen fruit, but do they actually make honey from fruit, or do they only eat from it for themselves?
17
votes
5answers
3k views

Why do the two hemispheres of the brain control the opposite sides of the body?

Why does the left hemisphere control the right and the right hemisphere control the left? I googled it but didn't find a good answer regarding this. Could someone explain? Does this adaptation help ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Do flies actually take off backwards?

I've been told that flies take off backwards, but I haven't really been able to prove it to myself. The closest I've gotten was noticing that they fly into window glass back-first, with their heads ...
6
votes
4answers
110 views

How to measure bacterial content

I´m using water container placed on a radiator to humidify room air. Someone might argue that it is a perfect nest for bacteria. I have to put copper coins into the water to kill the bacteria. I ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

If I graft two trees together while young, will they grow as one plant?

If I were to graft two apple saplings together, by bending the tops toward each other and lashing them together, will the plants grow as one and benefit from one another, or will they be fighting each ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Would it be possible to force the pineal gland to release dimethyltryptamine on command?

To my knowledge, the pineal gland is responsible for the release of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) upon death. Would it be possible to force the pineal gland to release this DMT while still living?

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