1
vote
1answer
28 views

What factors, other than its homochirality, make our “brand” of biology unique? [closed]

If humans were to discover organisms on another planet, it is supposed that (unless both we and they were seeded by the same source) we would have nothing to fear from alien pathogens, as they would ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

How to gauge the clinical significance of specific cell type presence?

How does one decide whether the presence of certain cell types is clinically important or negligible? Would the presence of certain cells in conjunction with other symptoms be enough, or should it be ...
-1
votes
0answers
31 views

What is the difference between caspase and DNase? [closed]

Could somebody tell me what the difference between caspase and DNase is?
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Is the “concept of time” coded into the genome? [closed]

What I'm interested about is whether environmental changes' effects are coded into the genome, like metamorphosis, deciduous plants. Can it be explained by morphogens, or it's something completely ...
3
votes
1answer
26 views

Is there a genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

What does a genomic code for nucleosome positioning in eukaryotes actually mean? By the code is it right to think that specific DNA sequences favour nucleosomes and others don't? I see that there for ...
7
votes
2answers
39 views

Naming convention of miRNAs

I'm trying to understand naming convention of miRNAs. I've found the wikipedia article about it nomenclature Based on it, I try to figure out what is hsa-let-7a. As far as I understood, hsa refers to ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

When contracting a muscle will the muscle spindle stretch or contract?

When you contract your muscle, will your muscle spindle stretch or contract? And why? I was always under the impression that it was contracting your muscle spindle, but now I am not sure.
5
votes
2answers
75 views

Do changes in an organism's cell modify the genetic information it uses for reproduction?

What I'm actually interested about is whether a modification in one cell during the life of an asexually reproducing organism affects its genetic information? Which cell's genetic information is used ...
3
votes
0answers
21 views

Can't resolve protein with native PAGE

This is a native gel. Let's call the left 2 lanes protein A and the right 2 lanes protein B. B is the same as A except it has a FLAG tag. They are both homotetramers of about 65 kDa. After ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How are Stem Cells Produced for Stem Cell Based Therapies?

I was doing an initial search on google but couldn't come up with anything I'm looking for. I know were stem cells come from and a bit about their levels of differentiation. For example, embryonic ...
3
votes
1answer
20 views

Oligonucleotide purification with desalting

I have ordered 36bp oligonucleotides that anneal to each other and create sticky ends to be cloned in a vector afterwards. I have tried cloning many times with different methods and I failed. Now I ...
-1
votes
0answers
37 views

Is technological intelligence a trait not important for survival given that it evolved only once (humans)? [closed]

And by technological intelligence I mean the ability to write down information and pass it along to children that would be able to use it in whichever way. This is probably what distinguishes us from ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Amino acid compatibility

The (human) genetic code encodes 20 amino acids. They form a protein using peptide bonds. Each amino acid has a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH2) that can potentially form a peptide bond. ...
9
votes
3answers
561 views

Why are fruits so large compared to their seeds?

Why do many plants produce such large fruits(apples and strawberries,for example) if those contain only relatively small seeds?
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Finding confidence level of miRNA disease associations

I'm an undergraduate computer engineering student, and I have a project about bioinformatics. In this manner, I need to find prediction( or association I'm not sure the correct terminology) confidence ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

DNA-DNA cross-linking with formaldehyde?

The 3C (chromosome conformation capture) technology for studying chromatin 3D organization starts by a cross-linking step using formaldehyde to find segments of DNA interacting. In my understanding ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Why can't some organisms match miRNA perfectly to the target mRNA like in plants? [closed]

What causes other organisms to be impaired in making perfect matches like plants do and is there a way to increase matching?
0
votes
1answer
17 views

What is an apomorphy? What is a plesiomorphy? Can someone confirm these definitions?

I want to know the correct definitions for the terms apomorphy and plesiomorphy. Unfortunately, there seems to be a variety of ways to define these terms depending on the language one uses. Thus, it ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Founders of Cnidarian colony

I know that colonial Cnidaria enlarge their colony by the means of asexual reproduction and sexual and asexual reproduction can originate individuals that will be part of other colonies. ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

Rna interference in tobacco plants [closed]

Can you explain the process of rna interference in tobacco plants? How the entire process of silencing actually works?
6
votes
2answers
106 views

Is there a biological neuron that spikes in response to hyperpolarizing currents?

As some background I've been building Electrophysiological models of neurons, and in the process stumbled upon a model, that in all respects is biologically plausible, but has a bizarre property I ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Similarity between a heart attack and a spasm

When someone is having a heart attack, could it be considered , in some situations, a spasm? Below, I have written how I believe the process may work. The heart is basically a muscle working ...
2
votes
1answer
14 views

Does mung bean nuclease cleave a phosphate group when it's chewing off 5' or 3' ssDNA ends?

I'm looking to create blunt ends from sticky ends with mung bean nuclease for subsequent ligation. Does anyone know full mechanism by which mung bean nuclease will do this? In particular after the ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Why do mitochondria fuse together?

Contrary to all of the textbook images of mitochondria that I have seen over the years, I had just learned that the mitochondria within a cell form a dynamic branching network along microtubule ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

What does these $\Delta \Delta G$ numbers signify?

I was reading a paper and came across this table showing $ \Delta \Delta G$ numbers of different nucleotide sequences in DNA/RNA. I know that $\Delta G$ is free energy and $ \Delta \Delta G$ is ...
3
votes
2answers
31 views

Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...
3
votes
2answers
65 views

Why can't the human eye focus blue light?

I recently noticed that it is hard to focus on blue light sources, especially at night. When observing a blue light source, e.g. a neon sign, it looks somewhat blurry. A sign with a different colour ...
3
votes
2answers
221 views

Can someone who cannot talk still whistle?

Can someone who has a damaged larynx, which does not allow them to talk, still create a tune when they whistle? I know that the larynx is what allows a person to manipulate their pitch and volume, ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Blast output - program to count the number of hits [duplicate]

I have to use the old version of Blast (not Blast+) to compare DNA sequences and I have to know the number of all hits. They are not given in the header and I have to know them for many many of blast ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Are there sterilisation methods that do not denature proteins as heat does?

Context: Most countries require milk to be sterilised through radiation or heat to remove possible harmful bacteria. Both of these processes denature the proteins in the milk (ref). Are there methods ...
6
votes
2answers
44 views

Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
3
votes
2answers
41 views

Are restriction enzymes active at −20 °C?

I have digested my DNA with NotI enzyme and put it in the −20 °C freezer without heat inactivating it. Can restriction enzymes work at −20 °C? Should I expect STAR activity?
13
votes
2answers
1k views

How do birds deal with their eyes drying out at high speeds?

My eyes tear up when cycling at 15 mph, which is nothing compared to bird airspeeds. Do birds continuously produce lots of tears and blink a lot, or do the eyes self-moisturize from the inside ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Explaining natural selection in moth [closed]

Industrial melanism is an example of natural selection. Can it be considered as a evolution due to anthropogenic action?
5
votes
2answers
94 views

Are unilaterally deaf people able to determine where sound comes from?

My question is on people deafened in one ear, but normal hearing in the other. Time and level differences between the two ears are only part of how the human body can localize the source of the ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

Edman method to identify peptides with Phenylisothiocyanate (PTH)

We all know that in this method the PTH reacts with the first amino acid (aa) from the N-terminal to the peptide and separates from it giving PTH-aa so that we can know the amino acids sequence in the ...
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Obvious phenotypic inheritance markers in humans

In humans, are there phenotypic markers that prove parenthood? For example, if mother and father have <trait characteristic> (let's say, specific ear lobe ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

What's the difference between male and female?

As long as we only look at humans the differences are clear: males have chromosomes XY, produce sperm and don't get pregnant. Females have chromosomes XX, produce egg cells and bear babies. But when ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Why does gaining a hydrogen in biology considered reducing a molecule? [closed]

I've learnt in chemistry that gaining electrons means reduction, while losing electrons means oxidation. But why is it in Biology textbooks I sometimes come across the term gaining hydrogen??
0
votes
3answers
36 views

Why autosomal trisomy has more adverse effects than sex choromosome monosomy or trisomy?

Autosomal Trisomy syndromes are usually lethal but sex chromosome number related abnormalities do not lead to that much fatality. why?
1
vote
0answers
58 views

How did birds become so intelligent?

I have seen a Discovery Channel video of a bird throwing stones in a pot to raise the water level so it is able to reach and drink it. A similar experiment in this paper from Current Biology shows ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

How animals know which is carnivorous and herbivorous?

Deer ran away from tiger or cheetah, but not from giraffe or zebra. where did deer learn this? How animals know which is carnivorous and herbivorous?
4
votes
1answer
35 views

What are the lower and upper hearing limits of the human ear?

I am looking for the loudness limits, expressed in decibels, for the human ear. Google or Wikipedia giving me only frequency limit human ear can receive, but I cannot find mention about the decibel ...
5
votes
0answers
19 views

Help identifying what this is in Crayfish gills?

this is my first time posting here. I was in my Zoology lab doing a dissection on a Crayfish when I noticed these hairlike structures within the gills. They were very "snappy" and fine, and would ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Are Whales More Intelligent Than Humans?

Are Whales smarter than Humans? Their brain size leads me to think so.
4
votes
1answer
39 views

What are the positive effects of wrongful antibiotic use on a viral infection?

I categorically accept that bacteria differ from viruses; so antibiotics DON'T help in viral infections. I also read this and this; so no need to explain this. I've read about the negative effects (eg ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Barr body Giemsa staining

Why not all the female cheek cells show Barr Bodies when stained with Giemsa stain?? only 30 to 40 % female cells showed Barr Bodies . Why?
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Comparing gene expression levels between control and disease at different time points

I have a data set with expression levels of a list of genes, measured in replicate at two different time points between two groups; a control group and a disease group. I want to identify the changes ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

What is the relationship between radiation and evolution?

There is always a certain amount of background radiation present, for example due to ionizing radiation from the sun and other stars. Also certain materials like granite may emit relatively large ...

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