2
votes
0answers
20 views

Which step in endocytosis requires ATP?

Everybody seems to agree that endocytosis is an energy-using process, and as such requires ATP hydrolysis. However, which particular step requires it? More precisely, which 'molecular machine' ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Textbook for quantitative biochemistry with thermodynamics, as an alternative to Voet, Voet & Pratt (Fundamentals of Biochemistry)?

I'm looking for a great textbook on biochemistry that covers core topics: relevant aspects of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, metabolism (e.g. krebs cycle, respiration, etc.). Ideally it would also ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Is each generation getting older? [duplicate]

So we know that our sperm and egg cells get set aside relatively early so that they aren't going through unnecessary cell divisions and causing DNA damage or telomere shortening, but since each new ...
3
votes
0answers
23 views

Wolbachia - cytoplasmic incompatibility

I read that cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia occurs when wolbachia-infected male insects mate with wolbachia-free female insects and produce non-viable offspring. By contrast, ...
1
vote
3answers
36 views

Can a same gene stretch from one chromosome to another separate chromosome?

Can a gene continue on from one chromosome to another separate chromosome? For example, can part of an eye colour gene be on one chromosome and the rest of it be on the next chromosome?
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Flower identification: Moscow, Russia

I found this plant near MSU, Moscow, Russia. Could someone help me to identify it?
0
votes
0answers
16 views

What chordata evolve first limb

I try to search when and what specie develop first bone limb. I also want to know when second pair develop. And first pair was front or back one? And why it stop only at 2 pairs. Are there any fish ...
4
votes
2answers
37 views

How to Extract RNA and perform RT-qPCR from very few cells ( ~5,000)?

I am currently conducting an experiment which involves FACS-sorting a specific population of cells using an antibody of interest. In order to validate the type of cells I have collected using this ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why are our muscles limited to 7 Hertz?

I have heard from a (usually very knowledgeable) friend before, that a human can only tap his fingers 7 times per second. I generalized this to "our muscles are limited to 7 hertz" When my wife ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why can't we use vaccines from any given deactivated virus to protect against it's active form? [closed]

Why can't we use vaccines from any given deactivated virus to protect against it's active form? Simple enough question, feel free to link articles! Thanks
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Are there calcium channel blocking neurotoxins?

I am learning about calcium ion channel blockers (CCBs) and am confused whether there are neurotoxins that are CCBs. If they exist, what is an example of a CCB neurotoxin? What animals use CCB ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

why do marine organisms orient with their bellies facing downwards?

why do marine organisms orient with their bellies facing downwards (like most creatures) given that they have relatively fewer constraints on their orientations than land or air organisms?
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

Genome sequencing (DNA) [closed]

Given the current state of technology to create many copies of DNA segments, how many copies must be made (the depth) to get the probability of error to be astronomically small. No worse error rate, ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Is numbness the absence of one or all touch sensations?

I am studying the effects of tetrodotoxin and its symptoms when consumed. Numbness is one of the first sensations reported. But I googled numbness and I couldn't find information about whether this ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Name/Examples of Traits whose benefit is non-obvious and/or which evolve despite apparent mal-adaptivness?

I'm a graduate student in cognitive science doing work on people's explanations and learning, particularly having to do with natural selection. Often, students misunderstand natural selection as a ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What is the advantage of being tired after having a sex? [duplicate]

When we have a sex with partner, we feel so tired that we don't have any power to do anything. Then it would be disadvantage to the animals, of course humans too, for they are exposed to danger. For ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What's the feedback regulation of Thyroid diseases and body temperature?

While going through the feedback regulation, the control of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon is quite discussed in multiple materials including the textbook. I also understand the basic ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

How do other primates treat their fingernails?

Do all primates have to trim their fingernails in some way, or do some primates' fingernails wear off through natural use? Also, is constant nail growth common to all primates?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Neuroscience book recommendations

I'm looking for a textbook in neuroscience for a rigorous introduction to the topic as an autodidact. I have no prior exposure to the field. In particular, I'm interested in the chemical mechanisms ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

phospholipid alterations in breast cancer

I'm interested in designing some experiments to assess how altering fatty acid synthesis affects phospholipid synthesis/lipid profiles. I've come across papers using standard inhibitors of FAS like ...
1
vote
2answers
26 views

Does ATP hydrolysis reaction have a high or low activation energy?

I was recently studying about ATP and how it functions as an energy carrier to all biological processes; however, I came across a confusing and paradoxical statement from two sources: (at 7:36) and ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

If a blocker prevents repolarization, will the neuron be stuck in a depolarized state forever?

Potassium channels help to repolarize the cell after depolarization. But if the potassium channels are blocked, potassium ions cannot flow out of the cell to increase the membrane potential. Thus, one ...
2
votes
2answers
28 views

Do potassium channel blockers affect the resting membrane potential?

I am reading about scorpion venoms and toxins for my bio class and they appear to have a variety of potassium channel blockers. My professor asked "What effect would this have on a neuron?" and ...
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Why is it so hard to find the amount of biotin in food? [closed]

According to the WHO publications biotin is a thing we need. Although its non toxic, so you can't get too much. However, excluding a few (small) lists that deal exclusively with biotin content there ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Why can't plasma proteins migrate from capillaries?

Why can't plasma proteins shift from capillaries to connective tissue but WBCs can be very rich in connective tissue even though obviously the WBCs had to go through capillaries. Another example: in ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

What's the relationship between Drugbank drugs and SMPDB pathways?

In the 'pathway browse' panel SMPDB pathways and their corresponding Drugbank drugs are listed. What are the relationships between the drugs and the pathways? Some listed drugs are not in the ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How spermaceti makes a whale float

In the biochemistry book I'm reading (Box 10-1, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry), an example is given in whales of how spermaceti (a wax located in the whale head), when at sea level is a liquid, ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Which plant is this?

I'm curious what plant this is! I found it at 37°52'23.2"N 122°16'55.3"W (north of Oakland, California, USA).
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Interpretation of qPCR results for low expression genes

I am attempting to validate existence of a transcript using 40 cycle qPCR. I designed primers for a unique feature of this transcript, and also designed primers for a sequence in the transcript that ...
6
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the biological limit on hearing resolution?

I sometimes wonder how many different individual musical scales could be perceived by human ears. I define a musical scale as a collection of notes that relate to some fundamental frequency by ...
14
votes
3answers
635 views

Why don't our cells merge when their phospholipid membranes touch each other?

Membranes of our cells consist of lipid bilayer (with some other components mixed in). Why wouldn't those lipid bilayers glue to each other and make the cells merge? If you suppose that it's due to ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

List or database of regulatory SNPs [duplicate]

I am looking for lists/databases of known (primarily homo-sapien) regulatory SNPs One resource that I have already found that used to (now inactive) accomplish exactly this: http://oreganno.org/ ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Is it possible to be more tolerant to mosquito bites after being bitten many times

I heard some people (a Swedish colleague told me) in north Scandinavia go naked somewhere where are many mosquitoes and let them bite for a while. Then they claim that they are ready to last the ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Could felines live without meat?

Algae are a source of taurine and mushrooms are a source of vitamin D3. Both also contain high protein. So, it seems possible to feed a cat or other felines without any meat. Are there any concerns to ...
-3
votes
1answer
34 views

Phosphorylation capacity of an enzyme [closed]

Let's think ProteinA can phosphorylate proteinB, proteinC and proteinD. Condition1: All proteins are expressed and proteinA phosphorylates proteinB, proteinC and proteinD. Condition2: Only proteinA ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

What happens when we re-start a PCR reaction?

Recently when my PCR reaction was running there was power fluctuation and the entire lab was blacked out for a few minutes and unfortunately PCR that I was running got switched off. So, would it be ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

RNAi in nematode resistant plants

Background : Certain plants have been genetically engineered to have sense-antisense gene of a parasitic nematode. The dsRNA produced by the plant then inactivates the mRNA produced in the nematode, ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

What is the difference between a graded potential and an action potential?

I was under the impression the only signals neurons send using changes in membrane potential are action potentials. But my biology professor showed us diagrams of graded potentials and action ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

What does “each pathway define an independent genotype” mean?

In a section of this paper. However, if the question of independency is posed in the form: “Does each pathway shown define an independent genotype?,” then each of these three pathways is ...
1
vote
3answers
55 views

How to create a 3D density map of a system of varying number of particles?

I have a time-dependent system of varying number of particles (~100k particles). In fact, each particle represents an interaction in a 3D space with a particular strength. Thus, each particle has ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Why doesn't Manipulated Virus for Cancer Cure Work [closed]

I'm not a biologist but I have an idea for a cure for cancer and it is very simple and probably has flaws (if it worked it probrably wouldn't be a cure for all) or is not possible but ... I'm still ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Synthetic carbon fixation pathways

Have there been carbon fixation pathways of, in particular, oxygen-producing bacteria, that have been replicated in the lab or at least the enzymes for the pathways have been successfully produced in ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

How do drugs (or other molecules) move between the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the eye? [duplicate]

My question is regarding the biological nature of the separation between the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the human (or mammal) eye. What connects the two in terms of the passive transport of ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...
3
votes
0answers
33 views

Does tremor frequency generally increase as Parkinson's disease progresses?

I've been trying to research this question, but most if not all the on-line journals require costly subscription, and the studies that are posted look at tremor frequency with regards to other ...
-2
votes
0answers
32 views

If the immune system was temporarily shut down ( as happens in some known treatments) would this limit cancer cells? [closed]

If the immune system was temporarily shut down WOULD THIS LIMIT what tumor cells can do and how they can 'mask' their behavior or hide? One type of KRAS mutation can 'use' T cells from the immune ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

How are the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the eye, connected?

My question is regarding the biological nature of the separation between the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the human (or mammal) eye. What connects the two in terms of the passive transport of ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

What is the meaning and significance of extreme pathways

Can someone please explain me what extreme pathways are? I found this definition in this article: Extreme pathways are a unique and minimal set of vectors that completely characterize the ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Requirements for soil sample transportation over long distance

I need to collected soil sample from agricultural area far away from my lab. It would required about a week for the sample to arrive to lab. I need the soil sample for genomic DNA isolation ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Why does organ transplant work although it seems organ's motor neuron isn't connected to recipient's CNS

Although it seems impossible with current technology to connect organ's capillaries to the recipient's capillaries and its motor neuron to the CNS, transplanted organ works for years. But why?

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