4
votes
0answers
83 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
4
votes
0answers
107 views

Nocioception (pain perception) in subcutaneous tissue

There seem to be no nocioceptors (pain and temperature sensitive nerve endings) in subcutaneous fat. there are nocioceptors and other receptors in veins running through fat, but these can be avoided. ...
4
votes
0answers
121 views

Eye color genetics

I am trying to find a model to link the phenotype eye color to its genotypes. I know that there exists a simple model from Davenport, which explains {brown,blue} eyes. Further, there is an extended ...
4
votes
0answers
123 views

Why do ants dig surface paths?

A few days ago I observed a corridor built and used by ants that went over a path in fields: Why do they build it? It seems it doesn't bring any considerable protection from the surrounding ...
4
votes
0answers
131 views

What is the mechanism by which Melatonin increases dream vividness and intensity in humans?

I'm looking at the wikipedia article on Melatonin and noticed that it mentions vivid dreaming caused by melatonin. I have the "Melatonin and the Biological clock" pamphlet referenced in the article, ...
4
votes
0answers
50 views

Are all Autoreceptors Downregulated by their Respective Endogenous Ligands?

I know that the 5-HT1A and $\alpha$2 adrenoreceptors receptors serve as autoreceptors for serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine respectively and are down-regulated by repeat exposure to their respective ...
4
votes
0answers
33 views

Does Doxylamine have any Influence on the Monoaminergic System?

Does doxylamine have any affects on the monoaminergic system? Specifically I am interested in adrenergic or serotonergic activity but additional information on its dopaminergic activity won't hurt ...
4
votes
0answers
83 views

What is the frequency of double-hets between parent and child?

Say both parent and child are genotyped for all SNPs. In this setup we are only looking at variant positions between one parent and child - so neither parent nor child are homozygous reference (no ...
4
votes
0answers
39 views

What metabolically happens when an egg fuses with the nucleus of a somatic cell

In stem cell biology, it is recognized that embryonic stem cells are transcriptionally inactive for the first 3 days of development. However, during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus is ...
4
votes
0answers
127 views

If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
3
votes
0answers
17 views

Effect of ethanol and detergent on cell membranes problem

I am currently writing my biology report for an experiment I did on how ethanol and detergent affect the cell membrane. For my ethanol experiment, all went as expected BUT for my detergent experiment, ...
3
votes
0answers
35 views

How do chromosome pairs get “paired up” for protein synthesis?

If my understanding is correct, during interphase a normal human cell will have 46 chromosomes scattered about in the cell nucleus. These chromosomes can be thought of as pairs: there are two copies ...
3
votes
0answers
53 views

Are plants really oxygen neutral?

This accepted and most upvoted answer to the question Does grass alone produce enough oxygen for life? claims that plants are oxygen neutral: Plants are oxygen neutral The question wording is a ...
3
votes
0answers
7 views

At which voltage will the conductance decrease due to the narrow pore in a voltage-gated potassium channel?

If you have a voltage-gated potassium channel that do not inactivate, at which voltage would you see decrease in ion conductance related to the narrow path in the pore? With that said I know that in ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

What happens to the brain during sleep versus unconsciousness?

How does being unconsciousness differ from being asleep and whether it causes breaks in consciousness?
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Breeding Southern Right Whales Genetics

I don't know much about biology. I just like watching David Attenborough videos and this made me curious. I just watched this video about breeding Southern Right Whales, and these two quotes puzzled ...
3
votes
0answers
16 views

What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Some background: Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any attached cargo ...
3
votes
0answers
18 views

Potential homogeneity across cell membrane

During respiration, individual bacteria (and mitocondria) produce a relatively large potential difference (∼100 mV) between the inside and outside, using energy to pump $H^+$ out of the cell to the ...
3
votes
0answers
78 views

How to calculate information content of a DNA sequence

How does one calculate the information content of DNA sequence like ATCGGCT where mutation rate of G's is 10% and the most common mutation product binds with C and A with equal frequency. I know that ...
3
votes
0answers
25 views

Is there a correlation between Animal Intelligence x Playing time?

I'm writing a small text for a blog about playing time and I wish to have more resources about the correlation between Intelligence and Playing time in animals. If not exactly that, maybe some ...
3
votes
0answers
34 views

Is diarrhoea advantageous to the microbe?

Diarrhoea is a common side effect of many feco-orally transmitted bacterial infections. How does diarrhoea help the pathogen? Should it not have a selective evolutionary advantage? Do all symptoms of ...
3
votes
0answers
12 views

Why the name hypopharynx?

Why the tongue (like structure) in cockroach (or other insects) is called hypopharynx? In humans I know it's the lower part of pharynx, not a structure.
3
votes
0answers
21 views

Where do class 2 preservatives end up after digestion?

Do anybody know what happens to class 2 preservatives in general after they are digested - i.e details like weather they are absorbed into blood as simplest elements or excreted out or assimilated to ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

Runs of homozygosity - degree of inbreeding and disease associations

Been reading recently about methods to determine how inbred a particular person is by measuring their "runs of homozygosity." Loosly, these are defined as regions of the genome (typically >1Mb) where ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

Behavior of plant guard cells: open or closed stomata

On an exam of mine, I had the following question: The interaction between the guard cells and stomata in a plant leaf can be seen in the diagram below. In which scenario could the guard ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

Cellular demand for antioxidants

Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione serve to inactivate radicals and counteract spontaneous oxidation reactions, such as unwanted disulfide bonds in proteins. These systems are cycles, ...
3
votes
0answers
46 views

Is $F_{ST}$ a probability and a correlation coefficient?

$F_{ST}$ is one of the most famous and most important statistics of all of evolutionary biology. Yet, many people misunderstand it or misuse the classical results from the literature on $F_{ST}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Are there animals that can deliberately manipulate their metabolism, apart from hibernation?

Are there animals that can slow down their metabolism deliberately? I know that hibernation would be one mechanism, and maybe being cold-blooded, but I was wondering if there was maybe an animal that ...
3
votes
0answers
17 views

Controlling the pursuit path of the human eye

The human eye scans images by panning focus along a certain path. Stork et al. (2002) revealed that there is a feedback process involved in moving ocular focus along a path that produces minimum ...
3
votes
0answers
33 views

Minichromosome maintenance protein structure and function

I am having difficulty answering three homework questions which relate directly to Chong et al. (2000). Questions The authors have determined that MtMCM is able to bind both ssDNA and dsDNA (see ...
3
votes
0answers
74 views

Chart of blood pH across different animal species?

How does blood pH vary across species? I can't find an article or chart listing this kind of information. So far I've found bits and pieces like: Human blood pH is nominally 7.4. 7.4 seems to be a ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
3
votes
0answers
12 views

Coagulation of blood in small intestine due to trypsin

Trypsin is secreted in the small intestine to convert proteins into dipeptides i.e. to carry out digestion of proteins. However, it is also a coagulating agent which coagulates blood by hydrolysing ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

What happens to the cell during post-hypothermia?

A friend of mine said that the cell membrane somehow changes after rewarming from hypothermia and that the body does not recognize it's own cells, thus leads the immune system to attack it self. Is ...
3
votes
0answers
17 views

How is the side-polarity of the myosin filament in myofibril maintained?

If myosin molecules are the properly oriented relative to their position in the the myosin filaments, the sarcomere is not functional. But how is the orientation of the myosin molecules determined? ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

Are there bacteria that respire anaerobically in aerobic conditions?

There are facultative aerobic bacteria that switch to aerobic respiration in an aerobic state, but are there any organisms that would still perform anerobic respiration even when shifted to aerobic ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

What is an extinction test?

In Stolerman & Olufsen (2001) I read the sentence: After drug-appropriate responding with the training mixtures reached 85%, generalisation to ethanol was examined in extinction tests. ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

Do eukaryotes assimilate DNA that is floating in the extracellular membrane?

Prokayotes, which replicate primarily using binary fission, don't get much genetic diversity. For this reason, they take in any genetic material they encounter, in a gambit to help them better adapt ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

How does glucose delivered intraperitoneal (i.p.) get into the peripheral circulation?

Intraperitoneal delivery of drugs or fluids is something that occurs much more frequently in veterinary medicine than clinical medicine. In veterinary medicine or scientific studies using animals, ...
3
votes
0answers
25 views

How is recruitment of multiunit smooth muscle cells fine tuned if they are innervated by varicosities?

In my physiology textbook (Silverthorn) and on wikipedia it says that: Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cells; as such, they allow for fine control and gradual responses, ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

How to quantify quality of vegetables and fruits?

I am interested in knowing if there have been studies in quantifying the quality of vegetables and fruits. By simple examination, it is possible for us to identify if a particular vegetable is ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

How did dolpins acquire the dorsal fin?

I had been thinking bout atavism when I saw a picture of a dolphin. I had seen it before, but suddenly the dorsal fin startled me. How did this dorsal fin evolve, especially, is it some atavism from ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Is the male satin bowerbird's bower-building behavior innate?

The male satin bowerbird builds a stick structure, known as a bower (distinct from a nest), where courtship and mating take place. They curiously decorate their bowers using blue or shiny objects. ...
3
votes
0answers
18 views

How would one identify cellular transcription factors associated with a viral protein in a treated cell line?

I've been working as the computer guy for a microbiology lab for the past few months. I've always been interested in bench work, but my wet lab experience is rather limited and thus so is my ...
3
votes
0answers
70 views

How to solve the problem of 2 melt peaks in real time PCR?

I am facing a problem in my real time experiment. After standardizing the annealing temperature by semi-quantitative PCR, I did real time for my gene of interest. In one of my samples, I got 2 peaks ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Can tardigrades survive being eaten?

Compared to a tardigrade, the cockroach seems fragile. But can tardigrades survive the acidic environment of being eaten by most animals?
3
votes
0answers
38 views

Does the bending of a tree's trunk in the wind stimulate and strengthen root growth?

Recently Southern California experienced extreme wind velocities and afterwards the news reported over 300 trees had fallen in San Diego County. I had either heard or read somewhere that the action of ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

In the life-cycle of the HIV virus, how does the created DNA enter the nuclear membrane?

I am in a high school biology class, so I cannot truly attest to how accurate the information I am given is, but as far as I know only RNA and very small molecules can enter the nuclear membrane ...
3
votes
0answers
56 views

RAD sequencing: choosing the appropriate enzyme?

I’m studying Darwin’s finches genome and I say in some articles that the researchers used restriction enzymes to cut the DNA in their double digest RAD protocol. They are using EcoRI and MseI (GAATTC ...

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