1
vote
1answer
24 views

What gives diarrhoea caused by Cholera its milky colour?

The diarrhoea caused by the Cholera bacteria is a milky colour, also known as 'rice-water' like. Why is this? I have a fairly good understanding of how Cholera acts on the body.
4
votes
0answers
35 views

How many residues can a reliable ab initio structural model contain?

A recent question on ab initio that I answered involved touching on the limitations of ab initio modelling. A review from 2009 put forward that typically only in the order of 100-110 residues could be ...
8
votes
1answer
150 views

Can we say the 'goal' of Mullerian mimicry is a 'decrease in the number of sacrificed indivials'?

Can we say that Mullerian mimicry allows two species to decrease their number of sacrifice individuals because: Originally, one species needs to sacrifice some individuals to allow predators to ...
3
votes
1answer
371 views

Formula for number of divisions required to form x number of cells (Mitosis and Meiosis)

In case of Mitotic Division, we say that if the total number of cells formed by mitotic divisions are $x$, then counting from the first cell onwards, we get $x-1$ divisions ($N$) $N = x-1$ This is ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How many species of mites live on the human body?

How many known species of mites regularly live on the human body? I've always heard that most people have eyebrow mites. This source mentions 2 species of face mites, Demodex folliculorum and D. ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

What is projected to go extinct first? [closed]

Though a number of animals have been going extinct at alarmingly quicker rates (so called anthropocene extinction), a number of 'star' threatened animals are still alive. Which of the following ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

Does RNA serve as the genetic material of some plants and animals along with viruses?

My teacher mentioned that some plants and animals have RNA as genetic material but did not substantiate his statement with examples. I'm wondering if it is so? I have searched the internet but have ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

How do the major and minor grooves in the DNA helix arise?

I understand that they arise due to the pairing of bases of two opposite stands and are sites through which important proteins needed for replication and transcription of DNA interact. But I don't get ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

What are the most efficient sources of nutrition to add lean mass? [closed]

In conjunction with an exercise routine, what sources of nutrition will best help increase lean body mass. Most non-hormonal exercise supplements risk causing liver damage and gout due to excess urea ...
3
votes
1answer
203 views

What is an isolated beta bridge?

DSSP gives the letter B for a "residue in isolated β-bridge (single pair β-sheet hydrogen bond formation)", according to Wikipedias page for secondary structure (and various other proper sources). Can ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Atmospheric gas changes, and their effects life

I was curious how life on Earth, or an Earth-like planet, would be effected by changes in the gases which make up our atmosphere. Assuming there is a similar level of oxygen in an atmosphere, could ...
1
vote
1answer
9 views

Dehydration Synthesis: Why does a monomer contribute a -H instead of an H atom?

My Campbell's Biology 9th edition textbook says that a dehydration synthesis is a reaction in which water is produced while two monomers are joined together. Specifically, it makes the following ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Small non-coding RNA (sRNA) vs. micro RNA (miRNA)?

What are the differences between micro RNAs (miRNA) and small non-coding RNAs (sRNA)? Are these two terms used interchangeably?
0
votes
2answers
123 views

Why we shiver/tremble/shake while performing some work which requires high accuracy?

Shivering when nervous or anxious is a common thing. But, shivering or trembling sometimes also occurs when we are performing a work which requires high accuracy. In such case, our whole body doesn't ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

how do we prevent restriction enzyme of bacteria to cut and destroy our new recombinant?

Based on cloning principle, the new DNA recombinant will be introduced to host cells, commonly bacteria, how do we prevent restriction enzyme of bacteria to cut and destroy our new recombinant ?
1
vote
0answers
20 views

From DNA to final traits of microorganisms? [closed]

From the answer of this topic, could someone indicate me a book or article about how DNA set the phenotype of microorganisms? For example, showing how DNA changes the shape of such a cell or how DNA ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Does our brain contain an innate function about closing only one eye?

I wasn't sure where to post this, but biology seemed fitting for me. Sorry if I'm wrong. I was wondering why, when we close both our eyes and look at light, it is clear we can see the light even ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

How does the snail shells' fertilizer compare to regular fertilizers?

May I ask about the quality of the fertilizer derived from the shells and their effectiveness compared to other fertilizers on the market ?
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Are dominance hierarchies always maintained through violence?

Is there a species in which a dominance contest cannot escalate to a fight? I don't know of any but I'm not a biologist.
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How to induce a steady increase in cyctoplasmic [Ca2+] in HEK293T cells? And is there any simple marker/method to confirm it?

We are trying to find out whether increase or decrease of cytoplasmic calcium concentration affects the interaction of two proteins, using co-IP in HEK293T cells as a readout. In different forums and ...
6
votes
0answers
140 views

Is there an evolutionary basis for why women mature faster than men?

Females develop both physically and mentally earlier than males do. For example; females start puberty at an earlier age than males, and females brains mature more quickly than male brains. Girls ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Can Bacteria Repair Dephosphorylated Plasmids?

I have been trying to insert a short sequence of DNA into a plasmid. I wanted to make two different versions, with the insert at different locations. I chose HinDIII and SalI sites approximately ...
1
vote
2answers
120 views

Why is HIV associated with weight loss/being underweight? [closed]

It seems that people with HIV are often underweight, is there something (or multiple things) which cause HIV sufferers to lose weight? What is happening within the body as a direct effect of HIV that ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Molecular/cellular biology textbook to consolidate what I know about molecular/cell biology

I'm a medical student (who is halfway through med school) looking for a textbook that will consolidate some of the biology I already know. While I've read a lot of books that go into great detail ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Effects of antibiotics on bacterial growth [closed]

I will do an experiment on effects of antibiotics on antibacterial growth and I will use three antibiotics: ampicilin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. To make a hypothesis I must have a guess on ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

How to transform snail shells into a fertilizer? [closed]

I heard that the chemical structure of the snail shell has elements that help in waste water treatment and in some cases as a fertilizer? What is the process used to render snail shells into ...
4
votes
0answers
29 views

Derivation of Michaelis' Equation from Michaelis' Constants [duplicate]

The enzyme reaction condition, $E + S \leftrightarrow ES \rightarrow E + P$ uses $\kappa_{1}$ (forward reaction), $\kappa_{-1}$ and $\kappa_{2}$ as the rate constants. E: Enzyme S: Substrate P: ...
4
votes
2answers
100 views

What are sources for learning bioinformatics for self-learning?

What are the sources for learning bioinformatics(books, websites/MOOCs)? Does it require prior knowledge of programming language because I am a complete noob when it comes to programming language.
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Soft Agar Substitute

I've got petri dishes with a base agar layer ready for E. coli culturing. However, I do not have soft agar in which to dilute the E. coli before pouring it on to the plate. Any suggestions on what ...
3
votes
2answers
109 views

Is heat released during work due to ATP breakdown or a increased blood flow?

Is heating up of a body during work or exercise an effect of increased speed of blood or is it because of the extra energy released while harvesting energy from the ATP
23
votes
2answers
5k views

Is it possible that by mutation a human could see infrared or other 'colours'?

Incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision. Each ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Mitochondrial Genetic code

We know that the genetic code is universal. My query is why the mitochondrial genetic code is different from universal genetic code?
4
votes
1answer
34 views

Choice of Molecular markers to carry out molecular phylogenetics

For evolutionary analysis of different individuals within a population, the preferable molecular markers are non-coding regions of mitochondrial DNA. My question is that why they are used what is the ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

I get regularly get déjà vu - but I know it's not a memory recall - I always think it's from a dream [closed]

My apologies if this is not the right forum for a neuroscientific/psychological question, especially not one coming from personal experience. Please close/move as appropriate :) Doubtless we're all ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Color of DNA, available absorption energy levels of DNA molecule, mutations

I have done a couple of DNA separations and observe that the clumped strands of DNA are white. Is that an artifact of the chemicals used in standard separations? Or is it indeed the case that the DNA ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Why is mRNA used as a biomarker for cancer over tRNA or rRNA?

I cannot find a clear explanation for why mRNA is used as cancer biomarker and not tRNA or rRNA. Is there something peculiar about mRNA which cannot be fulfilled by tRNA or rRNA?
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Relation b/w venation and transpiration

What purpose does reticulate venation in dorsiventral leaf or parallel venation in isobilateral leaf serve? Does it have any relation with unequal transpiration in dorsiventral leaf or equal ...
1
vote
3answers
40 views

Statistically, why is the number of mutated genes in eggs treated with chemical mutagenesis one?

Excerpted from the Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience [1]: In chemical mutagenesis, a scientist applies a mutagenizing chemical, such as ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or N-ethyl-N-...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

What are the evolutionary benefits for herbs having beneficial health effects on humans? [duplicate]

There are many types of plants which produce chemicals which can be beneficial in treating human illnesses, or at least alleviate painful symptoms. Why would they do that? Is it just random chance, ...
4
votes
1answer
188 views

Population dynamics ODE with Allee Effects

From reading about Allee effects, it appears that there is a modification of the one-dimensional logistic equation to account for an allee effect given by: $$\frac{dN(t)}{dt} = rN\left(1-\frac{N}{K} \...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Protein-protein interactions search

I used STRING db in order to find all the interactions of the precursor protein APP. What I specifically need is a confirmation (supported by some article and experiments in it). But significant ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

What are in common between transcription factors?

In terms of their structures (primary to tertiary) and locations? Why do they have these commonalities? Or are any of these commonalities critical to their functions?
5
votes
1answer
56 views

Definition of general anesthesia

To quote Goodman & Gilman : An alternative way of defining the anesthetic state is to consider it as a collection of “component” changes in behavior or perception. The components of the ...
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Can bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells be destroyed by resonance?

Radiotherapy has been used to treat cancer. Can the resonances by coordinated electromagnetic waves (and/or other forms of waves), of various frequencies, amplitudes and pulse rates, directed from ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

A question on Iron deficiency Anemia [closed]

I have a low iron levels. As per the blood tests, my iron levels are 56.3 ug/dl, which is well below the recommended level of 70-180 for men. But my hemoglobin is 15.6 g/dl and RBC count as 5.12 ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

Metabolic activity postmortem

I read some papers about studies on metabolism in post-mortem tissues in human, but I do not exactly the reason about why our brain continues to have activity after death.
11
votes
1answer
263 views

What biological functions does crying serve?

Tears suddenly start flowing out of our eyes when we find our long lost friend or when someone unexpectedly decides to break up with us. Do tears really save us from harm? Or are they just the reflex ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

Chargaff's rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Electrocardiogram: Difference between Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter

I have been working on analyzing Electrocardiogram data. I have read several documents related to conditions of the Atria during fibrillation and flutter, the most lucid being that atria quiver with ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

How fast is the patellar reflex?

I have found a lot of content on the patellar reflex, but I cannot find any studies on how fast the reflex is, from onset of stimulus to innervation of muscles. Does anyone know of either a study or ...

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