1
vote
1answer
38 views

does life make or break?

Ok, this question seems like it may be impossible to answer, but would be interesting to see if anyone has an idea. Throughout the course of a human life, do we make more molecular bonds than we ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Trouble identifying a gene given an Expressed sequence tag

I have an assignment where we need to answer several questions about an EST, however, I'm having trouble getting started. My sequence contained a Not I site (clipped that) and no poly A signal. We ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
4
votes
1answer
44 views

Why do we only initially feel the bending of a hair?

In my neurobiology class, my professor prompted us to take the tip of our pencil and fold or push down a single strand of hair on our arm or leg in the opposite direction that it grows in. He then ...
3
votes
2answers
49 views

How to obtain a list of proteins sorted by the ~1400 unique protein folds?

The databases CATH and SCOP both have around 1400 unique protein folds recorded from analysis of the PDB. However, I do not see any method to access this particular data. A list of each of the 1400 ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Origin of aerobic respiration [closed]

Since life originated in water, did the first eukaryotic organisms utilize the dissolved oxygen in the water or they respired anaerobically?
-1
votes
3answers
103 views

Are seedless fruits considered life? [closed]

From school, I remember that for something to be considered life, it must be able to reproduce. With the creation of seedless fruits (such as watermelon), would this be considered life as they don't ...
7
votes
2answers
143 views

Why does the intensity of an action potential once generated at the trigger zone remain undistured throught the axon?

What causes this consistency? I read the previously asked questions on this site none of them carry an answer to this question.
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Molecules, Targets and Isoforms

I have a question. Given a molecule A and two isoforms of a gene X, Y, and the knowledge that A targets X. Can I infere from this anything about whether A targets Y? As a motivation think about ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Are there in biololy specific QM-phenomena which are necessary for their processes?

Of course QM should be every where, because that is how nature is. But for example if you take the fusionprocess of our sun it appears that the sun wouldn't give any heat and light without making use ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Does the Michaelis-Menten equation take in account the non-enzyme formation of products?

I only recently learned about the Michaelis-Menten equation recently, since I am not studying biology or anything related. Let's write the equation as $$\frac{d[P]}{dt} = V_{max} \cdot \frac{[S]}{K + [...
6
votes
1answer
54 views

Is there a difference in cytoplasmic pH between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

The cytosolic pH in human cells is around 7.4, but fluctuates as the cell is replicating. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are vastly different in many ways. One thing they share is cytoplasm. Is there any ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

An experiment to test if a bacterial resistance gene is on the plasmid or chromosome?

So I have an E.coli strain phenotypicall resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin and rifampicin. How do I test if the AmpR gene is carried on a plasmid and not on the chromosome? In summary, I ...
4
votes
0answers
35 views

Artificial reduction of NADP into NADPH by means of an electrical current

I've recently been attempting to artificially drive the formation of NADPH via the NADP reduction mechanism utilized by Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase in the Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis in ...
52
votes
2answers
8k views

What is the evolutionary advantage of red-green color blindness?

Red-green colorblindness seems to make it harder for a hunter-gatherer to see whether a fruit is ripe and thus worth picking. Is there a reason why selection hasn't completely removed red-green ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Are there non-essential cell organelles? [closed]

Suppose an eukaryotic animal cell would have to choose to loose an organelle, akin to the voting system of the TV show Big Brother. Which organelle would be the least important to the cell and ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Rubella in pregnant women [closed]

Would I be able to detect rubella virus from pregnant women without a history of skin rashes, and/or had IgG+ve and/or IgM-ve or had no antibodies?
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Determine OTU identity using Blastn full database or organism specific database?

I am seeking opinions on the best way to determine OTU identity using Blastn. Would the best way to identify an OTU be to blast the OTU to the full nr/nt Nucleotide collection or to blast your OTU to ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Why alcohol can't help with OCD?

I was thinking about influence of ethanol on our brain. We know, that ethanol can affect GABA receptors and increase flow of chlorine in our brain cells. So it makes signal weaker and slow our CNS ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Rick's gonna die, but why? [closed]

Rick puts his head on the desk in his garage, with the door wide open, and falls asleep until he finally dies. In such a scenario, what would most probably be the cause of death? Why and when? ...
0
votes
1answer
97 views

Identifying an Unknown Blood Type [closed]

The following case study has a student working with blood samples to identify their blood types (A, B, AB, and O). Consider the situation and answer the questions. A student is given eight ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

Fold Coverage of sequence read? [duplicate]

What does it mean when N-Fold coverage of read of sequence? Details will be much appreciated if a link provider with brief explanation.
5
votes
0answers
41 views

How much of the genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees are due to genetic drift?

Both natural selection and genetic drift play a part in changing our DNA over time. Are there trustworthy estimates how much of the differences over the whole genome between us and chimpanzees are due ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Why does BLAST employ local alignments? [duplicate]

Why does BLAST use Local alignment, not Global alignment? And when would a global alignment be useful?
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How quickly does plant cells regenerate? [closed]

This is a question from my Biology class homework? I've looked online, but I can't find the answer.
3
votes
1answer
111 views

What is the direction of current flow in myelinated nerve cells?

Is it correct to say electric current flows through the extracellular space, or cytosol of a nerve fiber during impulse conduction? I know that an impulse is actually a change of membrane potential ...
4
votes
2answers
76 views

What is the meaning of the “d(…)2” notation when writing a DNA sequence?

When the sequence of a DNA oligo is written as d(CGCTAGCG)2 what is the meaning of the d(...)2? Why would it not simply be ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Biological neural network nad output layer [closed]

I have a question. I have read the code C model biological neural network Eugene M. Izhikevich (https://senselab.med.yale.edu/modeldb/showModel.cshtml?model=115968 - spnet.cpp - C program to simulate ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Would a vial of anticoagulated, warm blood attract mosquitoes?

Would mosquitoes feed on free blood as an easy source of nutrients? They home in on veins by means of infrared light (heat detection). Also, blood needs to be in liquid form. So would they feed on ...
4
votes
2answers
85 views

How does valerian make you calmer?

Why do Valerian pills make us calmer? What is the mechanism behind it? I understand how artificial tranquilizers work. Do valerian pill have similar chemical components?
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Can oral bacteria be targeted by white blood cells?

Today I was told from a dentist that a leukocyte is much larger than a bad bacterium. So a leukocyte cannot remove bad bacteria when they hide in very places like the space between the gums and teeth ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

If chylomicrons can not get into the capillaries, how do they supply to tissues?

The transport of chylomicrons is into the lacteals mainly because they are too big to get into the capillaries and yet they later supply triglycerides in the extra hepatic tissue by traversing in the ...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

Does atrophy of the thymus not effect T-cell selection and tolerance?

The thymus atrophies as age progresses. Does the T cell selection (which happens in the thymus) continue to take place? This doubt came into my mind because in the cadaver we dissected, the thymus was ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Why does my corn appear to have perfect flowers?

Corn is said to be a synchronously monoecious plant with separate male and female flowers. I am growing a cross between a Peruvian and heirloom variety which seems to be growing some perfect flowers ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Why are amides transported via xylem vessels? Why not phloem?

There is a statement in my textbook: "since amides contain more nitrogen than amino acids, they are transported to other parts of plants via xylem vessels" I wanted to know why the book ...
7
votes
2answers
133 views

What is this creature?

I found this small creature in my water bucket which i filled from my water tank. I would like to know what kind of creature I have found here. Features which ought to help for identification: ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Unwanted E. coli product in plasmid product

Using a TOPO XL Cloning kit, our lab took some amplified human DNA, inserted it into the vector, and attempted to clone it in E. coli. However, upon sequencing the purified plasmid product, the ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Coefficient of Inbreeding - calculating for very large family tree

I have a very comprehensive family tree of many thousands of horses going back dozens of generations. I now wish to calculate the COI for every animal in the entire tree. I have seen that there are ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Which is the proportion of metagenomics reads that cannot be mapped in any genome?

I was wondering if anybody knows how many reads from metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data do not map to known sequences and are therefore unidentifiable? I found a figure for viromics, which seems ...
4
votes
1answer
25 views

Identification of proteins in this animation of a ribosome translating mRNA

This gif is from this page After each aminoacyl-tRNA enters the ribosome, one blue thing comes and pushes the whole tRNAs whats that? I couldn't find it anywhere.(maybe some elongation factor?) Also ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Pooling already extracted dna?

I had ethanol precipitated a large amount of DNA (2ml) and had to split the sample in half to spin down because only the microcentrifuge has the correct rotor to spin that fast. I want to get as ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Multiplication of bacillus subtilis

I have a supplement for use in horticulture. It is a powder that contains mostly subtilis with smaller amounts of a few other strains. Prior to horticultural application I would like to "multiply"...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Bioinformatics basics [closed]

What are the basic differences between genbank, NCBI and entrez gene? And please tell some books and webpages where I can get more about the databases .(currently I'm using Bioinformatics and ...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

Can the dendrites of sensory neurons be a meter long?

The typical textbook structure of neurons is a cell with a short dendritic tree and a long axon. The dendrites receive information and send it to the axon via the cell body (soma). The axon is a long ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

ECG Atlases of Many Years?

I am looking for ECG data/atlases of Many years in healthy individuals of age from 6 to 40 years old. I would like to study several processes/effects occurring in years. Note the long-term ECG data ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

How to improve DNA extraction

I am using the following protocol to extract chromosomal DNA from bananas: Cut up one banana into small pieces, approximately (1 cm3) Add ½ a cup of warm salt water and the banana pieces into the ...
4
votes
0answers
18 views

Why do kupffer cells not attack sporozoites of malaria?

During malaria, why don't kuppfer cells (hepatic macrophages) attack the plasmodium and stop schizogony, thus saving us from the disease?
4
votes
2answers
90 views

How can a tongue-biting parasitic arthropod become a fully functional tongue?

From wikipedia: The parasite Cymothoa exigua [consumes a fish's tongue and] then replaces [it] by attaching its own body to the muscles of the tongue stub. The fish is able to use the parasite ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

How are physiological reversal potentials (or ion concentrations) of neurons measured?

Patch clamp electrophysiology experiments typically use an intracellular solution that mimics the ionic concentrations of neuronal cytosol. At the same time, the extracellular solution is meant to ...
1
vote
0answers
80 views

How would the immune system respond to antigens and food poisoning?

QUESTION: How does this information explain the likelihood of a more violent response in someone who has already had food poisoning caused by salmonella bacteria WHAT I KNOW: In the first exposure, ...

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