0
votes
0answers
16 views

What chordata evolve first limb

I try to search when and what specie develop first bone limb. I also want to know when second pair develop. And first pair was front or back one? And why it stop only at 2 pairs. Are there any fish ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

If the average resting potential of a neuron is -70 mV, why is there such a high ratio of potassium ions inside relative to out?

My bio teacher was discussing the ratios of different ions inside versus outside the cell. $$\text{OUT:IN}$$ $$\text{K}^+ (1:20)$$ $$\text{Cl}^- (11.5:1)$$ $$\text{Ca}^{2+} (10000:1)$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Why can't plasma proteins migrate from capillaries?

Why can't plasma proteins shift from capillaries to connective tissue but WBCs can be very rich in connective tissue even though obviously the WBCs had to go through capillaries. Another example: in ...
11
votes
1answer
580 views

Is the discovery of dominant and recessive genes the only reason Mendel matters?

We've known that offspring inherit various traits from their parents since (at least) Aristotle. In The Elements of Plant Hybridization, Gregor Mendel treats that fact as common knowledge. Clearly, we ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Does antibody staining / immunolabeling block or inhibit protein function?

In dissociated live cells, does staining them with an antibody block the protein's function? I am sorting cells based on their expression of a few marker genes, and culturing them post-sort for ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

How do other primates treat their fingernails?

Do all primates have to trim their fingernails in some way, or do some primates' fingernails wear off through natural use? Also, is constant nail growth common to all primates?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why are our muscles limited to 7 Hertz?

I have heard from a (usually very knowledgeable) friend before, that a human can only tap his fingers 7 times per second. I generalized this to "our muscles are limited to 7 hertz" When my wife ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why can't we use vaccines from any given deactivated virus to protect against it's active form? [closed]

Why can't we use vaccines from any given deactivated virus to protect against it's active form? Simple enough question, feel free to link articles! Thanks
3
votes
1answer
43 views

why do marine organisms orient with their bellies facing downwards?

why do marine organisms orient with their bellies facing downwards (like most creatures) given that they have relatively fewer constraints on their orientations than land or air organisms?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Are there calcium channel blocking neurotoxins?

I am learning about calcium ion channel blockers (CCBs) and am confused whether there are neurotoxins that are CCBs. If they exist, what is an example of a CCB neurotoxin? What animals use CCB ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

How many mice are on the Earth?

We are 7 billion human beings on the Earth. But how many mice are there? How would you estimate such a number?
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

Genome sequencing (DNA) [closed]

Given the current state of technology to create many copies of DNA segments, how many copies must be made (the depth) to get the probability of error to be astronomically small. No worse error rate, ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Name/Examples of Traits whose benefit is non-obvious and/or which evolve despite apparent mal-adaptivness?

I'm a graduate student in cognitive science doing work on people's explanations and learning, particularly having to do with natural selection. Often, students misunderstand natural selection as a ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What is the advantage of being tired after having a sex? [duplicate]

When we have a sex with partner, we feel so tired that we don't have any power to do anything. Then it would be disadvantage to the animals, of course humans too, for they are exposed to danger. For ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Catabolism and muscle energy intake

From my own reading, there are three ways used by the body to produce energy: Alactic anaerobic (direct degradation of ATP and creatine phosphate for regeneration of ATP) Lactic anaerobic (breakdown ...
3
votes
2answers
42 views

Determining the appropriate bioconjugate

I'm thinking of crosslinking two proteins. The crystallographic nature of the interaction and the binding motif for each molecule is know. The paper says the intermolecular contacts (over 50; van der ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What's the feedback regulation of Thyroid diseases and body temperature?

While going through the feedback regulation, the control of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon is quite discussed in multiple materials including the textbook. I also understand the basic ...
10
votes
3answers
666 views

Have there been studies done to test Immortality of cancer cells in culture?

This website on cultured cancer cells () says cancer cells may be immortal. I am wondering if there has been any research done to find if cancer cells are really immortal. How old is the still ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

phospholipid alterations in breast cancer

I'm interested in designing some experiments to assess how altering fatty acid synthesis affects phospholipid synthesis/lipid profiles. I've come across papers using standard inhibitors of FAS like ...
5
votes
4answers
6k views

Can nosebleeds cause death?

Can epistaxis or nosebleeds be a of cause death?
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Why is it so hard to find the amount of biotin in food? [closed]

According to the WHO publications biotin is a thing we need. Although its non toxic, so you can't get too much. However, excluding a few (small) lists that deal exclusively with biotin content there ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

How semi-synthetic cell with artificial DNA works

I know that by now this is old new but I heard that a cell that used a synthetic pair of nucleotides, called X and Y, have been made. My question was, how did the cell understand the X and Y ...
14
votes
2answers
715 views

Why does mouldy food make you sick?

Bread gets mouldy pretty quickly, and my parents (both of whom are nurses) throw out a loaf of bread after a spot of mould is seen (because "if you can see one spot, it means the whole thing is ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Math behind the Genetic Relationship Matrix

The genetic relationship matrix (GRM) can estimate the genetic relationship between two individuals (j and k) over m SNPs and i representing a specific SNP. What I dont understand from their ...
14
votes
3answers
635 views

Why don't our cells merge when their phospholipid membranes touch each other?

Membranes of our cells consist of lipid bilayer (with some other components mixed in). Why wouldn't those lipid bilayers glue to each other and make the cells merge? If you suppose that it's due to ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

What's the relationship between Drugbank drugs and SMPDB pathways?

In the 'pathway browse' panel SMPDB pathways and their corresponding Drugbank drugs are listed. What are the relationships between the drugs and the pathways? Some listed drugs are not in the ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How spermaceti makes a whale float

In the biochemistry book I'm reading (Box 10-1, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry), an example is given in whales of how spermaceti (a wax located in the whale head), when at sea level is a liquid, ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Which plant is this?

I'm curious what plant this is! I found it at 37°52'23.2"N 122°16'55.3"W (north of Oakland, California, USA).
5
votes
1answer
38 views

Spatial learning in microorganisms

Has there ever been an experiment performed that demonstrated a form of 'spatial memory' in a unicellular organism? I'm imagining something analogous to the classic 'rat in maze' experiments, but ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

What happens when we re-start a PCR reaction?

Recently when my PCR reaction was running there was power fluctuation and the entire lab was blacked out for a few minutes and unfortunately PCR that I was running got switched off. So, would it be ...
5
votes
2answers
509 views

Are there any multicellular forms of life which exist without consuming other forms of life in some manner?

The title is the question. If additional specificity is needed I will add clarification here. Are there any multicellular forms of life which exist without requiring the consumption (destruction) of ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Interpretation of qPCR results for low expression genes

I am attempting to validate existence of a transcript using 40 cycle qPCR. I designed primers for a unique feature of this transcript, and also designed primers for a sequence in the transcript that ...
5
votes
1answer
45 views

Is there a karyotype database for human cell lines?

I'm looking for the karyotype of a specific cell line. Some karyotype are well known, such as HeLa or some carcinomas, but some are very hard to find, such as LG2 (B cells). Is there a database ...
-3
votes
1answer
34 views

Phosphorylation capacity of an enzyme [closed]

Let's think ProteinA can phosphorylate proteinB, proteinC and proteinD. Condition1: All proteins are expressed and proteinA phosphorylates proteinB, proteinC and proteinD. Condition2: Only proteinA ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Is it possible to be more tolerant to mosquito bites after being bitten many times

I heard some people (a Swedish colleague told me) in north Scandinavia go naked somewhere where are many mosquitoes and let them bite for a while. Then they claim that they are ready to last the ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

List or database of regulatory SNPs [duplicate]

I am looking for lists/databases of known (primarily homo-sapien) regulatory SNPs One resource that I have already found that used to (now inactive) accomplish exactly this: http://oreganno.org/ ...
7
votes
2answers
119 views

What are some (bioinformatic) methods to characterize potentially novel gene transcripts?

I am working with a few novel transcripts of genes- before I confirm their existence experimentally, I would like to perform some bioinformatic analysis. I have already considered coding potential, ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Could felines live without meat?

Algae are a source of taurine and mushrooms are a source of vitamin D3. Both also contain high protein. So, it seems possible to feed a cat or other felines without any meat. Are there any concerns to ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Why doesn't Manipulated Virus for Cancer Cure Work [closed]

I'm not a biologist but I have an idea for a cure for cancer and it is very simple and probably has flaws (if it worked it probrably wouldn't be a cure for all) or is not possible but ... I'm still ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

What species of eagle pushes their young to teach them flying?

There are many references to eagle pushing their young off the nest to make them know how to fly, for example this motivational video. It is also described in this website: Let me show you "the ...
1
vote
3answers
55 views

How to create a 3D density map of a system of varying number of particles?

I have a time-dependent system of varying number of particles (~100k particles). In fact, each particle represents an interaction in a 3D space with a particular strength. Thus, each particle has ...
3
votes
1answer
113 views

Can mosquitos bite in self-defense?

When chasing away wasps or bees there is a danger of them stinging us in self-defense. Can a similar danger arise when chasing away a mosquito which is otherwise not hungry? I understand that ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

RNAi in nematode resistant plants

Background : Certain plants have been genetically engineered to have sense-antisense gene of a parasitic nematode. The dsRNA produced by the plant then inactivates the mRNA produced in the nematode, ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

What does “each pathway define an independent genotype” mean?

In a section of this paper. However, if the question of independency is posed in the form: “Does each pathway shown define an independent genotype?,” then each of these three pathways is ...
3
votes
1answer
161 views

Does 405 nm light set off phosphorescence in the eye?

While playing with a blue/violet laser (5 mW, 405 nm) tonight, I noticed that on dark, non-fluorescing surfaces, the beam reflection was trailed by what looked like a dimmer reflection of the beam. ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Synthetic carbon fixation pathways

Have there been carbon fixation pathways of, in particular, oxygen-producing bacteria, that have been replicated in the lab or at least the enzymes for the pathways have been successfully produced in ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

Why is dopamine or a dopamine-receptor agonist not pumped into the brain of Parkinson patients?

I am aware that dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, but can't it be pumped inside the cerebrospinal fluid via some permanent tube implant? Wouldn't Parkinson patients chose that over ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

Could viruses be used as antibiotics?

Could we use viruses that only affect bacteria to act as antibiotics? The more bacteria, the more times the virus divides, so the stronger it gets. Is this practical?
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Why does organ transplant work although it seems organ's motor neuron isn't connected to recipient's CNS

Although it seems impossible with current technology to connect organ's capillaries to the recipient's capillaries and its motor neuron to the CNS, transplanted organ works for years. But why?
4
votes
1answer
45 views

How are the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the eye, connected?

My question is regarding the biological nature of the separation between the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the human (or mammal) eye. What connects the two in terms of the passive transport of ...

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