20
votes
6answers
9k views

Why haven't prey evolved the ability to always outrun their predators?

I can understand why some prey can't outrun a recently evolved species. However, since cheetahs have existed for so long, why haven't its prey evolved to always outrun it, driving cheetahs to ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Why is the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex endergonic (induced fit model)?

In the section about the induced fit model for enzyme substrate binding, my MCAT textbook claims that "The substrate has induced a change in the shape of the enzyme. This interaction requires energy, ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

Do ants use something similar to the honey bee “waggle dance” to instruct the rest of the colony where to find a food source?

In the 20 years since we built our home, we've just recently had our first ant infestation. I'm familiar with the fact that ants leave scent trails to find their way back and forth between the ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Why does fumonisin toxicosis cause leukoencephalomalacia in horses, but not other species?

Fumonisin B1, a toxin produced by various Fusarium mould species, is well established as the aetiology of equine leukoencephalomalacia. As a result the disease is also commonly known as "mouldy corn ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

How does one apply Bayesian inference to quantify a read the deeper you sequence?

For NGS sequencing technology, the "deeper" you sequence given fragments, the more certain you are of what is being sequenced. This sounds like a simple application of Bayes's Rule. What is the ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Why People have skin color between fair and dark?

According to Mendel's laws traits do not show any blending. So according to his laws people only with fair or dark skin should exist. Do the alleles in this case blend? And why?
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Why is the manchineel tree so poisonous?

The machineel tree is incredibly toxic to humans. What advantage could Hippomane mancinella have for being so poisonous? It's name even apparently translates to “little apple that makes horses mad”. ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Datasets in Biodomain like Word similarity datasets used in word2vec and Glove [closed]

I am training word2vec on biomedical texts. In order to perform word similarity and word analogy tests I want to have pairs of biomedical terms having same relationships(could be any), just like we ...
0
votes
2answers
46 views

Comments on Experimental result regarding Anti-Bacterial soap

After using soaps, we rinse our hands with water. Do bacteria from the water attach themselves to our hands again? If we wipe our hands to cloth after washing our hands, do bacteria from the cloth ...
3
votes
2answers
48 views

Age-Dependent STD Infection

It seems that young females (comparing age 15 vs age 24) are 20x more likely to get chlamydia from a single unprotected sexual encounter with an infected male. What are the reasons for this? Are ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Why is statistical mechanics relevant to RNA and protein folding?

This is a very naive question. As far as I understand the folding of a molecule is governed by the electromagnetic forces between its atoms and also between its atoms and the atoms in the surrounding ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Why is nitrogen isotopic labelling required for protein NMR?

Why is labelling required for Nitrogen (by 15N) for studying structure of a protein using NMR?
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Do ants have a “stay away” signal?

Last night I discovered many ants entering my house through a window with an imperfect seal. I placed a poison ant bait on the window sill and within seconds they were feasting on it. This morning I ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How does stimulus reach neural threshold?

I understand that when the stimulus into a neuron is greater than the threshold it triggers the action potential. Do all the contributing stimulus have to occur at the same time, or can they occur ...
0
votes
2answers
50 views

How is UV light damaging DNA as the chromosomes are deep in the cell?

When UV light is on your skin it has to go through the cell membrane and to the membrane of the core. So it looks like that the DNA is protected. But it probably isn't. But can't membranes not been ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

Would there be any other possibly exceptional phenomenons happen in the study of ' Concordance of monozygotic and dizygotic twins for traits'?

I am a first learner in this realm and I could not really understand any other academic papers on the websites , which is complicated for me .So I not sure how to use them effectively to support my ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

Why Crocodiles don't eat Hippos?

I have been following documentaries about crocodiles and amazingly, crocodiles and hippos apparently seem to live happily in the same pond together without attacking each other. Why is it so? Like ...
5
votes
2answers
54 views

Insect making continuous sound in summers

In deciduous to tropical-deciduous forests and residential places with such vegetation I have found this insect to make continuous sounds all through the day (even in nights sometimes) during the ...
-1
votes
1answer
36 views

Why was the study of “Concordance of Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins for traits” designed in this way? [on hold]

I am confused by the twin study 'Concordance of Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins for traits.' My questions arose from 3:17-4:17 of the video And this is the related data I have referred I have ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Does mechanotransduction of cells play a role in the biocompatibility of titanium?

What exactly is mechanotransduction as the information varies between sources. Some sources indicate that mechanotransduction is the underlying principle where cells pull on the surface they grow on ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Are the subordinate genes of a repressed operon really “turned off”?

Operons are often described using all or nothing language. A repressor binding to the operator is usually presented as "turning off" the regulated genes. Case in point, Scitable at Nature.com says: ...
-5
votes
0answers
23 views

To which functional group DNA and RNA shows higher affinity of binding [closed]

i want to know if a DNA or RNa binds to any nano particle via functional group playing role which functional groups must have to bind DNA and RNA
7
votes
2answers
8k views

When designing primers how important is the GC clamp?

I'm designing a set of primers and reading about the principles of primer design one of which is: GC Clamp: The presence of G or C bases within the last five bases from the 3' end of primers (GC ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Why does it take many sperm for one sperm to fertilize an egg?

Hundreds of acrosomes must undergo exocytosis to digest holes in the zona pellucida. This is one case that does not bear out the adage, “The early bird catches the worm.” A sperm that comes along ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Get Parent GO terms of GO term vector?

I have a vector of GOIDs that are specific GO IDs outputted from an enrichment analysis. I want to cluster my GOIDs by their parent GOID term. I used GOstats to do my enrichment analysis, and I have ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Hydrophobic elution times in ionic exchange columns

What would the order of elution be of say Gly, Val, Leu? My argument is that hydrophobic residues will try and get away from the resin and the more hydrophobic the residue is the faster it will elute....
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Why do mutations in Drosophila dsx (double sex) affect both males and females?

Reason: Loss-of-function mutation of dsx gene in female embryo leads to production of a nonfunctional protein that fails to repress male specific gene expression. So somatic characters of both the ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Is there any definition of life which makes viruses undeterminable?

There are many different definitions of life (RNA, something that comes through evolution) but not one I have seen which could not determine wheter viruses are living things (even though there are ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

What animals have a blood-brain barrier?

I am curious about how old the BBB is, in terms of evolution. Is it present in all vertebrates? or just mammals? or what?
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

List of single genes in plants [closed]

I have to silence a single gene in a plant cell but I don't know how to choose and where to find a single gene.
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Why is flash light harmful to what aquatic life forms?

When visiting an aquarium, it's often not allowed to take photographs with a flashlight on. It is said that the flash light with very high intensity is harmful to the displayed life forms. I respect ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

High intensity background on western blot membrane?

I did western blot and I got the high intensity background only in the upper part of the membrane and there is a horizontal line around 50-70kDa (this line separate the upper part and lower part of ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

plant total DNA electrophoresis

Why does plant total DNA migrate as a single band in agarose gel after electrophoresis, and what kinds of DNA (single, circular, supercoiled, ...) are present in total DNA preparation? Thank you
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

Are the three different cones really distinguishable?

Our retina has three different cones (S,M and L) for the colors blue (S), green (M) and red (L). But the sensitivity of these cones do overlap each other. For example, the S is sensitive for 400-500nm ...
10
votes
1answer
225 views

Why and how is DNA synthesis so much faster then RNA synthesis in bacteria?

DNA synthesis in E. coli is 20x faster than RNA synthesis at 1000nt/s vs 50nt/s. (Mirkin'05) I find that perplexing since DNA polymerization has better proofreading than the RNA variety, which ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

How to read cladograms/phylograms?

I understand the difference between cladograms and phylograms; the latter can show the evolutionary linkage over time. However, I am having trouble finding out which two organisms are most closely ...
4
votes
2answers
349 views

How do traits with no negative effects get “weeded out” via evolution?

If only those who are most fit to reproduce are the ones reproducing the most, it makes sense that traits that prevent one from reproducing would eventually disappear from a population. But what ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

What exactly are genes, DNA and chromosomes. How do they relate to each other and what is their function? [closed]

So I am new to biology and I have been reading, and searching the web, but I couldn't understand the whole framework of a cell. So as I understood: A DNA, is a double chain of Nucleotides (A,T,G,C ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Transfer of electrophoresis bands to MS

I have a lab question that is confusing me. Just to be clear this is a homework question but I've done some extensive research and can't find what seems to be a "good" answer. The question is this: ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Density of Receptors of a mammal

I know it's a very open question. It's for a paper. So as a reference I'm looking maybe for the average density of insulin receptors per cell of a human tissue. I want to compare it to the density of ...
2
votes
3answers
100 views

What type of tree is this?

This is a tree that I have been growing. I'm wondering if this is a mulberry, and if so, what kind? Location is Arizona.
0
votes
1answer
31 views

How does 2-mercaptoethanol lead to shift of the band to a higher molecular weight?

I have a project to isolate a protein with biological properties from a plant. The purified protein forms four bands with similar molecular weight on SDS-PAGE (30–35 kDa) in the presence of 5 % 2-...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

ssDNA library amplification

Assume we are given approx. 80,000 dsDNA fragments of 40 bps length each. I would like to amplify of each of the 80,000 fragments just one particular strand, such that I obtain amplified 80,000 ssDNA ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

How to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?

It was said that this interference pattern is due to dominant allele. I fail to see that. In general how to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Mendel Genetics: Homework question [on hold]

I'm looking at a question right now about Mendel genetics..... Q) When Mendel crossed a large number of tall pea plants with short pea plants, all F1 plants were tall. The F2 generation was created ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Are antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessarily less virulent than their original strain?

In the absence of antibiotic treatment, is there a reduction in the average severity of disease caused by resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria compared to wild-type ones? I would assume that ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Why do horses recycle their endometrial lining while humans don't?

How does not recycling the endometrial lining of the uterus benefit humans (and other organisms that menstruate), while recycling it is beneficial to horses (and other organisms that undergo estrus ...
3
votes
2answers
41 views

Do disaccharidases require a cofactor or coenzyme to function?

I'm doing research on lactose intolerance and am curious if disaccharidases (enzymes that break down disaccharides) require a cofactor or coenzyme to function? Reviews or references would be greatly ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Maintenance of Diploid chromosome number at mitosis

I'm just not understanding this: A regular human cell is diploid - because it has 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs. So that means that when the cell undergoes mitosis, it will still have the full ...
7
votes
2answers
367 views

How did zootoxins evolve?

I've always wondered how toxins in certain organisms have evolved. Particularly, organisms that produce toxins as a deterrent to predators as opposed to organisms that use it to paralyze their prey. ...

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