0
votes
0answers
11 views

What happens to the ink of a tattoo over time? [duplicate]

Tattoos are commonplace all over the world, but a simple yet key question is what happen to the ink injected in the derma over time. Is it digested by macrophages or simply encapsulated by ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

off-target score: same scale as guide sequence score?

I have a basic question that I have not been able to find the answer for. I am designing sgRNAs with http://crispr.mit.edu/ The interpretation of scores for guide sequence goes easy (optimal is 100%, ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Is the “freeze response” really a remain of our reptilian past?

I'm looking for any reliable sources relating the common-known human reaction on a stressful situation, humans sometimes freeze and can not move. From some materials found on the internet I got that ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

My BRIG run is suspiciously quick. What is a typical length of time for a run?

I use the BRIG (BLAST Ring Image Generator) program to compare prokaryote genomes. It executes a local BLAST+ and visualizes the results as rings around the reference genome. I downloaded three ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Cell cycle-regulated genes and mRNA

I am a mathematician and my knowledge about biology is close to zero. I am reading a bioinformatics paper and I would like to understand a bit more about the biology task they are talking about. I ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

How do bacteria use oxygen for respiration and growth? [on hold]

I recently did an experiment with the rest of my class in which we had to see which of two solutions best aided a bacterium's growth. The bacterium had already undergone slight growth in the ...
0
votes
2answers
39 views

Simple computational biology project for AP Biology class. Ideas? [closed]

Our teacher assigned us a project to do with an extremely open-ended prompt and it should be completed within a month. I was planning on doing something related to computation and evolution in terms ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Why are treatment periods with antibiotics longer than 1-2 days?

Antibiotics are given prophylactically for several indications (e.g. prior to dental surgery). Why are the treatment periods for prophylactic antibiotics much shorter than when treating an ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Is there selection against long proteins and long genes?

Background thought Titin and TTN Titin is the largest protein in the human genome with 33423 amino acids. Titin is coded by the gene TTN that must be at least $3 \cdot 33423 \approx 100kb$ long. ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How effective will the synthesized virus be without epigenetic marks?

Will a de-novo synthesize infectious virus be as effective as the natural one? How important are epigenetic marks for the virus and is there a mechanism to restore them?
0
votes
0answers
28 views

What were the camels' bumps good for back in the polar areas?

I've heard that camels lived in the North America formerly and just in the last few thousands years they've migrated to the hot deserts. Thus they allegedly utilized the adaptations against the cold ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

What's the name of this bug?

A friend of mine found this bug in Germany. He sent the picture and asked if anyone knew what kind of bug it is. Since no one knew and I didn't find anything similar via google search, I decided to ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

Is it possible to make a contagious cure to a virus?

In a TV series Ive been watching The Last Ship, - spoiler alert - a scientist develops a cure for himself for a virus, but actually continues to remain a carrier, and sort of weaponizes the virus ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Is there any study on odour remanence in human olfactory system?

does anyone here knows about at least one scientific study about how odours could impact human olfactory system and create some phenomenon that could be loosely compared to retina remanence? As an ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

When do 3 germ layers form in embryo? And why is there only one mature egg formed?

During the process of pregnancy, when do the 3 germ layers form in embryo? Is it after formation of gastrula? Also, during oogenesis, why does only one mature egg form? Why don't use polar body egg ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

mVenus fluorecent protein, life time? luminosity?

If fluorescence proteins get excited by radiation, how long does it usually take for the excitation to decay (at room temperature)? I guess, if the life time is too long, the luminosity will be very ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How do flies detect the presence of glucose in a choice chamber?

It's a standard AP biology lab: you put fruit flies in a sealed, symmetrical chamber with a cotton ball soaked in plain water at one end and a cotton ball soaked in glucose solution at the other end. ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

autosomal recessive population numbers

This question is background research for a science fiction / fantasy novel, my knowledge of genetic is very basic. It seems obvious to me that for genetic disorders that are autosomal recessive, if ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Does the cell have a mechanism to determine DNA sequence from protein?

Something like a reverse genetic code.
18
votes
2answers
3k views

How can birds disperse seeds when they are able to digest them?

I've just read in a book that birds' guts can digest almost all the consumed seeds with the exception of mistletoe and loranthus (which stays stuck on the branches). On the other hand, I know that the ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

How does epigenetics affect the birth conditions via alcohol?

Recent study has shown that epigenetics can play role in male-caused infertility and it cites for example studies which showed an enhancing of silent genes when drinking alcohol. Since the study ...
-1
votes
0answers
40 views

Contraction of scrotum in heat? [closed]

The mean temperature in desert regions is 50°C. Can human scrotum ascend testes to the pelvic cavity to cool them down?
4
votes
2answers
43 views

How does the muscle return to its resting state after muscle contraction?

I know that when ADP binds to the myosin head, it moves along and as it does so, it releases the ADP. The ATP attaches to the myosin head and releases the myosin head from the actin filament. Then the ...
11
votes
1answer
156 views

Which biological kingdom comprises the greatest biomass on Earth?

Which of the five biological kingdoms - animalia, protista, plantera, monera, or fungi - has the largest biomass? To clarify, if the biomass of every species in each of these kingdoms was added up, ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Do blind birds bob their head when they walk?

Birds try to keep their heads still for short periods of time between steps to improve their ability to see. You can find amusing videos of chickens used as small video camera stabilizers. But does ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

What model of epistasis best fit the reality?

In theoretical population genetics, it is very common to have to assume a model of epistatic interaction. The two most common models are the additive model and the multiplicative model. Additive ...
-1
votes
0answers
48 views

Does the Anthony Walsh book “Is Race a Socially Dangerous Idea” have biological merit?

Preface: I'm not a biologist asking this question, but I do find this curious. I was reading Science Wars by Anthony Walsh, and in a chapter titled "Is Race a Socially Dangerous Idea" he outlined the ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Can anyone identify this bug/insect?

!Saw this bug/insect/spider? on a ranch in Santa Ynez, CA. Pretty fast moving-this was the only photo I could get. The creature is the thing in the photo that looks like two puff balls on a very black ...
-1
votes
0answers
30 views

Why oxidation for energy occurs in the tissue?

Air consists of 20% oxygen while a percentage of dissolved oxygen in water is ~0.005-0.0015% in normal Earth condition. Why do animals use dissolved oxygen for energy production ('aerobic' digestion)? ...
0
votes
2answers
50 views

Genetics - Ancestry DNA relationships

If my uncle and I both got our DNA tested and compared ancestry results, should we have 50% or 25% similarity? I get normally it would be 25% but since the mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome are ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What tell a plant to have one/a lot of flower(s)? [closed]

some plants just have one flower and some have more. This is the question. please simply tell me how? which genes or pathways control this in various plants?
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Banana cultivar identification

I found a cultivar of banana that I haven't seen before (and that was significantly different from the standard Cavendish cultivar) in a market in Hong Kong today, due to the language barrier ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Proteins in water vs proteins in crystal

I am not very familiar with the experimental procedure of x-ray crystallography except that it involves the very delicate matter of producing crystal that contain proteins and then diffracting rays ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Why wrap a dolphin in wet towels?

In this video, a dolphin jumps into a vessel. Even though the guides know they will be quickly helping the dolphin back into the water, they first make sure they wrap the mammal with wet towels. Why ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

What negative effects does cannabalism have in other species (like prion diseases) and how are they mitigated?

It is well known that human cannibals are likely to suffer from a variety of ailments, particularly prion diseases. However a great many other species, from insect to ape practice cannibalism at much ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Estimating RNA concentration from Specific Activity of Labeled RNA

The question reads, Using T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe in vitro a 100-nt RNA off a DNA template. This RNA contains 19 Adenosines. In your 100 uL transcription reaction you added 1.00 µL of ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Ant trail behaviour

I observed an ant trail through a house for some years. I wonder why the ants established that trail. The ants are small ants of common type for middle europe, found almost everywhere in this region. ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How Cas9 scan DNA? is it 5' to 3' or 3' to 5'?

Does Cas9 scan both strands of DNA in chromatin ? I mean is its movement on the DNA strand directional? I know that it is sensitive to the PAM (5' NGG 3') sequence but on which strand?
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Glucose Oxidase, Condition to be Active?

I most recently was reading/watching information on honeys antibatical and antimicrobial properties. The enzyme Glucose Oxidase came up often as a main antimicrobial, yet it is inactive in honey. ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

where can I find a full list of examples of data types in biology? [closed]

I have no background in biology and I would like to build a collection of the data types in biology. I start searching and reading bout that and found there are 7 data types: 1-Sequences: DNA, RNA, ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

What is this white stuff inside apples?

I live at Vancouver, BC, Canada and very often find this kind of white stuff in the apples I buy I used to live in Europe (Switzerland) and never saw that before. It very much look like a fungus. ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Material recommendation: molecular biology for mathematicians and computer scientists [closed]

I am wondering if there are some introductory learning resources on molecular biology designed specifically for scientists with heavily math-oriented curricula (math/physics/computer science). They ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How many ATP can be bound to f1 of ATP Synthase?

Diagrams show a bunch of ATP being produced simultaneously, is this possible? Or is it one ATP per rotation of ATP Synthase?
3
votes
1answer
38 views

What is the substrate for glycogenesis?

In glycogenesis (i.e. the synthesis of glycogen), are sugar phosphates the direct substrates for glycogen polymerization? I would certainly think so since glucose is phosphorylated and then stuck onto ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How can plants be grown in hydroponics, and yet not handle too much water in soil?

It's pretty much common knowledge that plants planted in pots or soil that doesn't have good drainage can't be watered too much, or they'll "drown". Regardless of what actually happens, experience ...
3
votes
3answers
58 views

Is Einstein's mass energy equivalence ($E=mc^2$) relevant to biological systems?

I'm more than 100% sure that the kilograms I eat don't get directly converted to feces and urine. I'm sure some of it goes to regenerating tissue that is constantly being disposed as well, and maybe ...
4
votes
0answers
40 views

How do chromosome pairs get “paired up” for protein synthesis?

If my understanding is correct, during interphase a normal human cell will have 46 chromosomes scattered about in the cell nucleus. These chromosomes can be thought of as pairs: there are two copies ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

What is this wood-infesting insect?

I have these insects in a very old wooden floor. I would like to know whether they are possibly termites, and if not, what they are. They are about 4 mm in length (and I've had difficulty taking a ...
5
votes
0answers
34 views

How to estimate heritability from breeding data

I have a lot of plant-breeding data (tens of thousands of results) that are composed of phenotypes of parents and offspring. The plants however went trough years of selection and it is not balanced. ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

Bubble Boy syndrome [duplicate]

I know that under normal circumstances, immunosuppressors are needed to mitigate the host body's immune reaction to the graft. However, people suffering Bubble Boy Syndrome have pretty much no immune ...

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