0
votes
0answers
16 views

Question about cytoskeleton coordination

I am trying to study for a biology and I am having some confusion over the following topic. Can anyone help explain/ shed some light on the concepts of Rho family GTPases. Is it true that we have Rho ...
7
votes
1answer
47 views

Reasons for the HIV-1 epidemic

So, the HIV-1 jump to humans occurred as early as the 1920s, but the AIDS epidemic didn't start until the early 1980s. Some things I don't understand about this: Why the delay? What is needed for a ...
4
votes
0answers
76 views

Phylogenetic method to detect shift in mean of continuous variable

I am currently working on a project where I study the change of a continuous morphological variable with body size (measured as body weight) across diverse taxa (insects, spiders, lizards, frogs). In ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Why use creatine phosphate?

We use creatine phosphate as an energy storage to resupply ADP with a phosphate group as our muscle cells only contain about 2-5 mM ATP. But why doesn't the muscle cells just keep 20-30 mM ATP instead ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Why doesn't the body optimize how many fatty acids it burns?

Ketone bodies are produced due to an excess of fatty acids being burned (accumulation of acetyl-CoA) so my question is: Why doesn't the body simply regulate how many fats it burns so it doesn't have ...
5
votes
2answers
34 views

Time required for RNA precipitation in ethanol

I precipitated bacterial RNA during 1 hour at -80ºC after depleting rRNA with Ribo-Zero kit. Does more time lead to better results?
2
votes
1answer
28 views

How are ketone bodies used?

While searching for literature on ketone bodies, I can only seem to find how they are synthesized, but not how they are broken down. I'm looking for the series of events with enzyme names and ...
9
votes
1answer
266 views

Why gluconeogenesis?

It seems quite pointless to me. Why would I want to use energy to create a molecule that I can then use again for less energy? It seems only to serve as a complete waste of energy to me? Can someone ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

NADH shuttles - Why cytosol?

Why is the malate-aspartate and the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttles located in the cytosol and intermembrane space? The krebs cycle happens in the matrix so why wouldn't they push electrons from the ...
5
votes
2answers
42 views

Why is 5S-rRNA is different from other rRNAs in place of transcription and usage of RNA polymerase?

While transcription of rRNAs happens in nucleolus mediated by RNA Polymerase-I, we see that 5S-rRNA is transcribed elsewhere by RNA Polymerase-III. What is the cause and why?
2
votes
1answer
18 views

How is circadian rhythm of gastric acid secretion regulated?

Gastric acid secretion shows a circadian rhythm where acid production in the morning is minimal and it reaches a maximum towards the evening. How is this process regulated?
3
votes
0answers
27 views

What percentage of cells in the human body are infected during a non-fatal viral infection?

I understand that this would be a very rough estimate, but approximately how many cells in the human body are infected during an average non-fatal viral infection before the infection is eliminated by ...
1
vote
1answer
124 views

What is the chemical composition / empirical formula of Herpes Simplex 1?

Viruses such as polio are so well documented that a search for "empirical formula polio" gives you something like ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Further progression with neuroscience education [closed]

Question for you I hope this is in the right area and all if not please advise on where to put it, Having taken biological neuroscience for a year now as a masters program I feel like I want to go ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

Regulation of V. cholerae virulence factors

So I know that several different environmental signals, such as pH, bile, and temperature, regulate virulence gene expression in V. cholerae. Specifically, they control expression of the genes ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

Involuntary twitches and apnoea during early phases of sleep

I assume most people either experienced or have seen people with the following phenomenon: in the early phases of sleep sometimes involuntary twitches occur that usually accompany the pause of ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Cholesterol's role in lipid uptake

I'm studying the digestion of fats and I understand that our dietary fats mostly consist of triglycerides. We absorb the fats and eventually they end up in a muscle/adipose cell for storage (as ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Do you know of ways that help a plant to produce more flowers?

In Crocus sativus, or saffron crocus, the most commercially important part is stigma of flowers. Each plant produces one flower (so there is more than one plant in this picture) and each flower has ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Where does the oxygen and water produced from the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase enzyme go?

How are they disposed of by the body, or are they disposed of at all? Since our body needs water and oxygen anyway, I'm speculating that these "waste product" will be reused/recycled by the body in ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

What physical force attracts the anti-codon on tRNA to the codon on mRNA during translation?

What physical force attracts the anti-codon on tRNA to the codon on mRNA during translation? I know that these two bond together, but what actually makes the tRNA move through the cytoplasm to the ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What kind of experiments could you do to see which end of a microtubule is most dynamic?

I'm stuck between two ideas. Not sure which one of them would be best. Do a FRAP on the middle of a MT. If it grows from the + end, that section will remain dark. If it grows from the - end, ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

If ALL the melanin in a person was pheomelanin [closed]

If ALL the melanin in a person was pheomelanin... What would change about their appearance and what would the health effects be from such a change?
1
vote
2answers
26 views

How does the placement of it's motor domain affect the directionality of a motor protein?

I'm going over some of my notes, and I have written down that motor proteins with + cytoskeletal directionality have a reversed schematic representation relative to - directed motor proteins. Then I ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Bolyerine Snakes maxillary bone, split?

How is the maxillary bone split in the Bolyerine Snakes described in T.H Frazzetta's "From Hopeful Monsters to Bolyerine Snakes?" In T. H. Frazzetta, "From Hopeful Monsters to Bolyerine Snakes?" He ...
2
votes
2answers
56 views

What is meant by nucleated in this context?

Hi I am little confused in one of my classes; because the teacher will say that " the actin is nucleated by the ARP 2/3 complex" or "microtubles are nucleated by the centrosome". Unless I am ...
5
votes
1answer
140 views

Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?

Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere: How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Solid mouse (C57BL/6) WT primers

I am trying to get a good pair (or better yet, library of pairs) of primers that give me one band in WT mice (C57BL/6). Do you know where I could find such a thing? Alternatively, I thought of just ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

How does a change in the potential across a neuron's membrane get turned into a signal that is sent down the axon?

I understand How a signal is propagated down the axon. How the membrane potential of a neuron changes during the course of it's "firing". But I don't understand how physically the change in ...
4
votes
2answers
66 views

Are all action potentials the same shape and amplitude when graphed with respect to time?

The most common visualization of an action potential is a graph of the difference in membrane potential (y axis) at a particular time (x axis). According to my textbook Cognitive Psychology by E. ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

How does a microelectrode work?

On Wikipedia, the entire microelectrode page states only the following: A microelectrode is an electrode of very small size, used in electrophysiology for either recording of neural signals or ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

How can I use this data to make a function? [closed]

I'm currently in high school biology (final year) and am currently working on an assignment. I need to create some sort of interactive model, so I've decided to make a simulation-type program. I've ...
5
votes
1answer
138 views

What is the maximum number of babies a human woman can have?

I know you could divide the female fertility period (~40 years, right?) by 9 months which would give something like ~50 kids (with no multiple kids per pregnancy). The limiting factor in this ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How to do Sliding 80mer Window search against a database with fasta

I know how to do a 80-mer window search against a single protein ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

What's the frequency resolution of the human ear?

I was thinking about audio compression (namely mp3), that "filters" out sound that we would not likely hear. The MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual ...
11
votes
2answers
152 views

Why reference genome is a reference?

I have heard that a reference genome such as humans is generated by randomly choosing samples from a group of donors. But why do we call the DNA sequence generated as a reference? Why should we ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Myopia as a microscopic superpower?

A few years back my Physics professor made a joke that his Myopia/Nearsightedness gave him a "superpower" that allowed him to see close objects much more clearly than someone with typical eyesight. ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Why do naked mole rats live in colonies with a queen?

What was the evolutionary advantage in having queens? Is it because the ones that had queen like tendencies in the new environment had kids that cooperated better giving higher chance of survival of ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

Core Biological concepts explained to a Computer Scientist?

I am a computer scientist delving into Bioinformatics and I need to gain insight in biological phenomena. How would you explain three core concepts as: Evolution, Selection and Variation, to a ...
4
votes
1answer
91 views

Water soluble molecules

I believe I may have misunderstood water solubility this entire time. I assumed that water soluble meant that it would literally dissolve in water. It would break down into atoms. A sugar molecule ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Richard Goldschmidt's “systemic mutations”?

[TLDR] I dont understand the fault people had/have with Richard Goldscmidt's concept of systemic mutations [/TLDR] As a preface, I am a undergrad biology student, so sorry if this is a "Stupid ...
5
votes
1answer
90 views

Why does a “cascade” of events happen during signal transduction?

I've been watching some videos on signal transduction and it says that because there are enzymes being activated by the signal, then there is a "cascade" which happens afterwards...I don't understand ...
9
votes
1answer
89 views

Circadian Clock During a Flight

I am interested to know how does our Circadian Clock respond (and its resultant changes if any) when we are traveling across Time Zones?
2
votes
2answers
38 views

What are the typical values of probabilities for nonspecific binding to an antibody?

I'm physicist by training, so please excuse me if I don't use the proper terminology. I think there is a way to make a sensor that detects if a single antibody has caught something from the flow. So ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

The selective pressure of contraceptives

Does it seem probable that the existence of contraceptives (which has reduced human reproduction to below survival-level in many populations) will be a completely new selective pressure on human ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

What is the statistical relationship between radioactivity and mutation rate?

This question tries to narrow down the scope of that question. What is the statistical relationship between radioactivity and mutation rate? By how much would the mutation rate be lowered in a ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Selection Pressure on Orca Whale Coloration

What is the proposed selection pressure that leads to the distinctive coloration of Orca whales? I can find nothing in the literature.
4
votes
1answer
24 views

Epistasis Across Chromosomes and Individuals 'Homozygous for Interactions'

Apologies for any failures in nomenclature. I'm a mathematician who is making a foray into genetics for a masters thesis. Specifically, I'm generating artificial diploid genetic sequence data and ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

Do nucleosomes ever completely unwrap during transcription?

In eukaryotic transcription will the nucleosomes ever completely unwind the DNA and the histone complex disassemble? If an operon is more 160 base pairs it seems it must.

15 30 50 per page