0
votes
1answer
16 views

What is the difference between Ostracodermi and Placodermi

I looked the word origin and found Placodermi is PLATE SKINNED while Ostracodermi is Shell Skinned. Can you please explain the difference between being Plate skinned and Shell skinned?
3
votes
0answers
21 views

dominance coefficient, why (1+k)?

I'm trying to get a better understanding of quantitative genetics by reading Lynch and Hill 1986. I'm getting stuck with some notation that's used right at the beginning referring to the mutant and WT ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Arrangement of genes in chromosome [closed]

How are genes arranged in the chromosomes, is it linear or spiral? I think that it is spiral because genes are segments of DNA which are highly coiled when the chromosome is formed therefore I think ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Cancer in myogenic heart cells?

Why cancer does not occur in myogenic heart cells? Is there any special ability in heart cells to resist cancer ?
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Can anyone identify this plant from Bangladesh?

I have taken the picture from an agriculture university in Bangladesh.
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How to model missing residues on a protein from multiple PDB files?

I have multiple X-ray structures (PDB files) of the same protein. All of them have missing stretches of residues. I want to use all of them to build a single model, with as little missing residues as ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Normalise protein database domain-wise

Suppose we've collected a big (hundreds of thousands) library of different protein sequences with certain features. Then we want to use this data base to train a classifier. And for several ...
4
votes
2answers
85 views

Why is the DNA helix anti-parallel? [duplicate]

Why is it that DNA strands are running in anti-parallel fashion? Given the chemical base-pairing, they could have been parallel just as well.
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Biomolecule , DNA-RNA difference [duplicate]

Why is that a RNA has uracil in place of thymine? RNA could have thymine bases but it has uracil ? What is the reason for the presence of uracil there ?
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Handwriting analysis by profession (muscular control) - Athletes, musicians, etc [migrated]

I have a question but am not sure which stack to put it under. If there's another stack I should ask under, please do let me know. Thank you! Is there any scientific study on handwriting by ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Why do feces vary so little in color?

Why do feces vary in color so much less than the food they are results of? E.g. you may eat food of all kinds of different colors but the resulting feces will almost always be some shade of brown.
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How to avoid primer dimer in PCR? [on hold]

I am trying to amplify a CDS in a plasmid. One of the primers I'm using, however, self-dimerizes at its 3' end. Because I want to amplify only the CDS, I can't change the starting nucleotide of the ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How does the brain regulate its temperature?

I recently ran into a bio-physical paradox while trying to solve an engineering problem, using nature's way as a guide; namely the brain. I'm working on designing a totally new system of liquid/gas ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

How did the tendency to perform death rituals evolve?

Both elephants and humans perform rituals when deaths occur. However, I do not see any evolutionary benefit of this. The rituals take time, which apparently could be better spent hunting, foraging, ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

What is the mechanism by which bactericides kill bacteria? [closed]

"Bactericides kill bacteria". What is the meaning of "killing" in this context, and how exactly is this "killing" happening chemically?
3
votes
2answers
46 views

Can anyone ID this flower plant by the photo?

Can someone identify this plant? It has big red flowers when it flowers! Not sure if it is native, but it is in my grandmothers garden in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
1
vote
3answers
73 views

Why didn't humans evolve to reproduce identical twins all the time?

According to the selfish gene theory, it seems like because identical twins sometimes get produced, a mutation to a gene that says, "if you have an identical twin, be fully altruistic towards them" ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Why are diabetes patients usually overweight when they don't even use the glucose?

Diabetes is a condition where either you are insulin resistant and therefore produce less insulin than usual or you don't produce insulin at all. Insulin is the "key" to the cell's "sugar lock" which ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How can we determine the polarity of fat molecules?

I'm trying to solve a question in a biochemistry quiz, which is asking for classifying a set of lipidic derivatives, by increasing polarity. Unfortunately, we didn't cover the classification of ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

How do signal transduction pathways utilize transcription factors to express a specific gene?

I have an inquiry regarding the regulation of genes via extracellular signaling. To my knowledge, in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine cellular communication, large protein ligands that cannot ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Please explain what a gene isoform is in lay terms?

I am a physicist by training, however I am now doing computational biology research. I know what genes, DNA, proteins, enzymes, introns and exons are. I sort of understand how DNA is used to create ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Proteins and Blood Acidification

Is there evidence to suggest that excessive consumption of Whey, or similar proteins will lead to acidification of the blood?
2
votes
0answers
23 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Jurkat single cell clonal expansion

I'm hoping to do a clonal expansion of Jurkat, expressing my construct which is currently transduced virally. From the FACS data I currently have roughly 30-40% expression in my culture but I need it ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Is there any difference between locus specific database and gene variants database? [closed]

I'm reading some articles about locus specific database, so this question came across my mind, Is there any difference between locus specific database and gene variants database?
1
vote
0answers
24 views

At what temperatures does food burn the roof of your mouth? [duplicate]

Does anyone know the temperature at which the roof of the mouth burns? Are the degrees of burns the same as the ones for the epidermis?
6
votes
3answers
79 views

Insect identification: white spotted beetle

3 pairs of legs, a pair of antenna, wings absent, compound eye, 4-6 centimeter approx. in size. I found this beetle at my door, in Pune, India.
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Why do sneezes come out the mouth?

As anyone who's ever sneezed can tell you, it's caused by irritation in the nose. And the answer to a question on this very SE attests that "sneezing is a reflex, partially autonomous, to clear the ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What is the distribution of the expected number of lineages in a birth-death tree after time T?

I've been looking at The reconstructed evolutionary process by Nee et al. 1994 and they provide a number of equations dealing with the birth-death process, specifically the "reconstructed" birth-death ...
2
votes
2answers
155 views

What are the theories behind zootoxin evolution?

I've always wondered how toxins secreted or emitted by certain organisms has evolved. Particularly, organisms that produce toxins as a deterrent to predators as opposed to organisms that use it to ...
-1
votes
0answers
9 views

Do a patient's cells have a higher or lower resistance to hemolysis?

There is this answered question in my book, but I don't understand the solution. A sick patient's blood cells have hemolysis in a NaCl solution 5g/l and in normal people blood cells hemolysis happens ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

BSA for trouble shooting failed PCRs?

I am using PCR to amplify a 1000bp region of the CytB mt gene. Some of the samples had not amplified and I wish to change the reaction components (or use additives like BSA) to attempt at getting ...
8
votes
3answers
75 views

How can insects survive without an adaptive immune system?

How can insects survive in a world full of pathogens that are able to defeat the innate immune system?
0
votes
1answer
25 views

E value cutoff for RNASeq search

I am trying to narrow down the possible search criteria from an RNASeq experiment. I already have the cds sequences so I took these and used Blast+ program to blast the data against itself to find ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Albinism inheritance problem: what are the father's alleles if he got an albino kid?

Albinism is caused by a recessive gen "c". A normal man marries an albino woman. The first son happened to be albino. What are the possible phenotypes of the parents? What is the chance that ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Is there a relationship to hibernation, metabolically stymied life… and lifespan? [closed]

This photo of an insect is in what I can assume is metabolic stasis, for lack of a better word .... it seems to be "hibernating". Question Is there a relationship between hibernation and this ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Why do orcas eat only the tongue of whales, liver of sharks, etc.?

I noticed that although killer whales are clearly the top predator living in the present oceans, some of them appear to be very picky with their meals. After spending hours hunting down a whale, ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Looking for university/graduate-level texts on RNA

Although I was not a biology major in college, I took the biology introduction sequence, as well as organic chemistry and biochemistry. I would like to learn more about RNA and ribozymes. What ...
1
vote
2answers
23 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work? [on hold]

Of course, I know in reference to apples. I also understand homozygous diploid pairs, like pp or PP, and heterozygous pairs like pP and Pp, and hetero/homozygous dominance and recession all that good ...
5
votes
2answers
103 views

Does polyploidy always isolate the polyploids from the diploid source population?

I am receiving conflicting information while researching polyploid speciation. On the one hand, some sources state that a polyploid can only reproduce sexually with polyploids having the same number ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

What is this fish?! Is it even real?

According to a guy in a Facebook group I belong to, this fish was caught in the Missouri River near Omaha, NE, US. I have never seen one like it in my life, not in person or photo or anywhere. What on ...
3
votes
2answers
289 views

Can people with AIDS get tattoos?

When I do a Google search, most of the results are about whether or not people can get HIV / AIDS from getting a tattoo through dirt needles. I am, however, curious whether or not it is possible to ...
4
votes
2answers
32 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
4
votes
1answer
138 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
3
votes
1answer
17 views

Decomposition Rate of A Body In A Wet Environment

I have a photo of a decomposing dog which is in a water logged environment. My peers and I are debating how long that body has been decomposing. They are saying it is at least a year old. I however ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

Spider Identification Illinois

I noticed a really huge, beautiful web on my porch last week, and tonight, I discovered its resident. I'm thinking it's a Araneus diadematus (Cross Orbweaver), but was hoping for some confirmation. ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How much does the nutritional value of insects depend on what they're fed? [closed]

Insects are often touted as being the food of the future due to their nutritional value and small amount of resources required to raise them. However, how dependent is the nutritional value of an ...

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