2
votes
1answer
28 views

What are the advantages of blood's redness? [closed]

Although this page (http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIE5aNotadaptation.shtml) denounces the idea that blood's redness is not an adaptation, I remain inquisitive on the matter since no ...
6
votes
1answer
152 views

why is DNA antiparallel? Can it be parallel?

My biology textbook mentions that DNA is antiparallel and it got me wondering... Can DNA be parallel? What would happen if it was parallel? could DNA still replicate right?
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Glycerol 3-phosphate nomenclature

Why is Glycerol 3-phosphate named in such way? Shouldn't it be named as Glycerol 1-phosphate by proper IUPAC- nomenclature?
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Which came first in hominid evolution: language or bipedalism? [closed]

I suspect both language-use and upright-posture have anatomical consequences. So does the fossil record show which came first? NOTE: To the folks who marked this question "homework": This is ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Why is ATP the main nucleoside triphosphate used to exchange energy? [duplicate]

Out of all of the nucleoside triphosphates what makes ATP the most used? Is it its structure? The amount of energy it contains? Why is GTP not used as much? What is the deal with the other nucleoside ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Parallels between pixelized image and the human retina

On Wikipedia it is explained that the human eye has a certain 'resolution'. Does this mean that the retinal image consists of pixels? If yes, what shape would these pixels have?
2
votes
1answer
21 views

In a typical population, what might the percentage of plants be to predators and everything inbetween?

I'm not sure if this will be a simple question that is almost a natural law for an ecologist, or a complex serious of assumptions. I vaguely remember from school that only 10% of the energy is ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Evolution and Death [closed]

I am curious about how evolution views death. I am splitting the question in response to the broad question flag. Is there any species that welcomes death (meaning does not flee/fear death)? Why ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Known ways to modify the genetic structure of the 13 loci used in CODIS

After reading the answer to Does our DNA change during our lives?, I was wondering if and how it would be possible to change the structure of the 13 loci that are used in the CODIS database, in such a ...
19
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do adults lose hearing at high frequencies?

Children and teens can hear high pitched sounds that adults can't hear anymore. Why do adults lose high-frequency hearing?
0
votes
2answers
57 views

Why is water a polar molecule? [closed]

Also, what is the definition of polar in this case? (9th Grade) Does it have to do with the bonds it makes?
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Multi-modal distribution for gene expression data

Why would some genes have more than two modes in their expression distribution? What external factors would cause this anomaly? I'm referring to the expression distribution of a gene across different ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization but not in the first time when the pathogen is new and they play the role of antigen presenting cells(APCs) first ...
3
votes
0answers
29 views

Why is heterochromatin localized next to nuclear lamina?

The heterochromatin is generally localized at the nuclear periphery (also near nuclear lamina), whereas active genes are preferentially found in the nuclear interior. Children with ...
25
votes
3answers
3k views

Why draw blood from veins rather than arteries?

Why draw blood from veins rather than arteries? Is it more convenient or safer?
2
votes
1answer
29 views

How semi-synthetic cell with artificial DNA works

I know that by now this is old new but I heard that a cell that used a synthetic pair of nucleotides, called X and Y, have been made. My question was, how did the cell understand the X and Y ...
4
votes
3answers
263 views

How many different kinds of polypeptides, each composed of 12 amino acids, could be synthesized using the 20 common amino acids?

How many different kinds of polypeptides, each composed of 12 amino acids, could be synthesized using the 20 common amino acids? The book's answer is $20^{12}$. However, I disagree. This result ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

Why asexual reproduction?

When I took a course on genetics and evolution, I learned that recombination and sexual reproduction is advantageous compared to asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction allows more combinations of ...
1
vote
2answers
104 views

How does DNA damage cause ageing in yeast?

As I understand it, in yeast ageing there is daughter cell and mother cell. The daughter cell is has newly "fresh" DNA and mother cell dies after some counts of replication. What happens to the ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Energy metabolism in Cancer cells

The TCA cycle intermediate Isocitrate dehydrogenase commonly undergoes point mutations in cancers. This allows IDH to reduce a-Ketogluterate to 2Hydoxygluterate, causing a reduction in pVHLs ability ...
4
votes
2answers
33 views

What’s the reason for isovolumic contraction and isovolumic relaxation?

During cardiac cycle, there are two periods in which the heart volume doesn’t change, but there is a change in tension/pressure. It takes about 0.25-0.35 second to achieve this change. I searched in ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

How do you call that part of the muscle that connects directly to the bone?

When you open up a chicken leg or a clam and you remove the meat, there is this little part that is connected to the bone and is not easily scraped off. What is this part called and what mechanism ...
1
vote
2answers
137 views

How to do whole genome sequence alignment in R or Ruby/C++, any good language? [closed]

I need to perform tuberculosis mutation analysis. First step I need to do is to align sequences in fasta format against one reference file. i tried CLC genomics workstation --- it hangs on 60 000 ...
6
votes
1answer
64 views

Is it dangerous to rub closed eyes?

Phosphene from rubbing the closed eyes where first described at least since Ancient Greece, but I caught myself thinking that I wouldn't want to try it out. So I wonder, how safe it is to actually rub ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

inter codon mutation statistical analysis

I am looking for an statistical approach to inter codon mutations. for example a 64*64 (64*63 actually) table, that contain the possibility of mutation from one codon to another codon (CCA to CAA or ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Why after physical activity I see flickering concentric circles? [duplicate]

After prolonged hard physical exercise such as running uphill I sometimes experience rapidly vibrating black-and-white concentric circles for a few minutes, looking like a sinusoidal zone plate, small ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Why am I feeling more hungry when lying on my back? [closed]

I noticed that when I lie on my back I feel more hungry than in all other positions. How is it possible?
2
votes
0answers
41 views

How is atrial muscle stimulated, when the Atrioventricular (AV) Node is heart main pacemaker? [closed]

When the sinoatrial (SA) node is blocked, the atrioventricular (AV) node is heart pacemaker and controls ventricular contraction. The heart then beats 40-60 times per minute. What happens to atrial ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What free software is the best for the alignment and phylogenetic tree construction from the two or more .fasta whole genome sequence files?

What free software is the best for the alignment and phylogenetic tree construction from two or more .fasta whole genome sequence files? I have tried to run alignment using CLC Genomics workbench ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

How to build gene interaction network based on correlation between gene expression values using software like Cytoscape and R?

How to build gene interaction network based on correlation between gene expression values using software like Cytoscape and R or smth else? I have .tab with gene names and total expression values. ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Is it possible that a set of functionally related proteins in a pathway fulfill different functions?

Could it be that a given pathway of enzymes (or proteins in general) may fulfill different purposes in a cell by for shifting partners? Say protein A activates B, B activates C and C has a specific ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

What effects does being cryogenically frozen have on a person's body? [closed]

I'm wondering what effects are known to happen to a person's cells when a person is cryogenically frozen, especially those that need to be overcome in order to "bring them back to life." From a ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Does the size or mass of a body affect the time it takes for rigor mortis to sets in?

Does the size or mass of a body affect the time it takes for rigor mortis to sets in? For example: compare a 300 pound man to 100 pound girl to 5 pound animal.
4
votes
0answers
31 views

Grapefruits and CYP3A4

Grapefruit juice contains furanocoumarins, which irreversibly inhibit CYP3A4. For this reason, when one is taking certain medications it is necessary to not eat grapefruits because the inhibition of ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

How much of the human body is processed sunlight?

So I believe (and correct me if I'm wrong--it's logic, not research) that the human body is pretty much all just processed sunlight based on the food chain. How much, if any, of the human body is ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

Are there any viruses that have infected all humans in the past or present? [closed]

Are there any known viruses that have managed to infect all of humankind either in the past or presently, either benign or otherwise?
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Are there any viruses that are part of all land animals?

An article on I Fucking Love Science (linked to below) got me thinking, are there any viruses that have been so successful that they have spread to all land animals similar to Toxoplasmosis which has ...
1
vote
2answers
77 views

What does to “evolve” exactly mean? [closed]

In this article, the author says: Evolution isn’t “leading up” to anything, it just drunkenly limps along using the same set of tricks in slightly different orders. On other occasions, however, ...
3
votes
1answer
255 views

What does x in “Miscanthus × giganteus” name stand for?

I came across a species name that contains "x" in its name, namely Miscanthus × giganteus. What does this symbol stand for and is it commonly used in taxonomic nomenclature?
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Is it true that some organs “sleep” at certain times of the day and does this affect dieting or when to take medicine?

Is it true that some organs (such as the liver or the intestines) are less active at certain times of the day, regardless of whether the individual is awake or not?
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Which Papaya (Lechosa) plant (male or female) bears fruit?

I will be planting Papaya fruit seeds and I understand that there is a female and a male plant, so how can one distinguish which are the ones that will bear fruit and which I should just rip up by its ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

What is the most effective way to eliminate silverfish (g. Thysanura) from walls and floorboards?

I've had our home fumigated, but the silverfish seem to return unaffected. Are their eggs unaffected? What's the best way to eliminate them from your home?
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Are large depth changes ever a barrier to gene flow in elasmobranchs?

I'm looking to find out if large changes in oceanic depth have ever restricted gene flow between populations of elasmobranch, or any other fish for that matter. I'm particularly interested in deep ...
1
vote
2answers
25 views

Can iGEM distribution parts be directly PCR'd?

The iGEM DNA Kit Plate Instructions say that there is only 2-3ng of DNA per well, which is already miniprepped and in plasmids. Then it says that "there is not enough DNA in each well to perform ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

An Example of Building something from scratch in small steps [duplicate]

I take it as self-evident that the level of engineering complexity in life forms is very high. Most Biologists assert that this complexity was built by the method of small incremental changes (random ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What log transformation and normalization functions are most commonly used for microarray and how to select them?

Need help on rational approach to choosing log transformation, standartization and normalization functions in microarray experiments. I am using Expander software and it provides Log2 transform and ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What to do if microarray t-test, ANOVA, SAM and LImma show various selected significant genes?

Need advice: how to approach discrepancy in differential microarray gene expression test results: what to do if ANOVA, ttest, SAM and Limma procedures show different results and especially more ...
4
votes
2answers
454 views

Father with mutated gene for mtDNA- why isn't his offspring at risk?

Mothers transmit their mitochondria (and therefore mtDNA) to their offspring and fathers don't. Lets assume that father had a mutation of the gene that encodes mtDNA, would then be his offspring at ...
5
votes
1answer
35 views

How much of the weight of yoghurt is due to bacteria?

I recently started making all kinds of bacteria-processed foods by myself (such as yoghurt, but also Sauerteig and so on), and I found myself wondering how much of the weight of these products is ...

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