0
votes
1answer
24 views

What kind of tree is this?

I live in Denmark, Europe and was going for a walk on a beautiful cemetary in the city. I saw this tree and would like to know what species it is. Unfortunately i have no photos of the tree from a ...
11
votes
4answers
209 views

How does the molecular machinery choose where to cut a chromosome for recombination?

I'm wondering about a few technicalities of crossover in meiosis. The point of crossover is to create new chromosomes that don't have the same allele combinations as the original two chromosomes. ...
-2
votes
0answers
24 views

Is it possible to predict with near 100% certainty how good a person is in bed from observing their certain behaviours read details? [closed]

Is it possible to predict with near 100% certainty how good a person is in bed for a given partner from observing their behaviours such as how they walk/ talk to the partner in a public place? I ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Geographic/ethnic distribution of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans

There is a really good chance that various human populations have different levels of Neanderthal DNA in their genes. And yet, the only thing I was able to find is the percentage of Neanderthal DNA ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Listing Cluster of Differentiation (CD) markers (immunology)

I hope this question is appropriate for this SE. When listing multiple cluster of differentiation (CD) markers to define a cell population, e.g. CD3+CD8+CD45+CD4-, is there a default order to put them ...
4
votes
3answers
264 views

Modern immunology textbooks

I am looking for recommendations to good textbooks introducing modern immunology. Review articles, preferably modern (post 2000) would also be useful. Please, include a brief comment with each book ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What are these red stuff on this person? [closed]

Images: i.stack.imgur.com/qTfgs.jpg i.stack.imgur.com/aJTqN.jpg i.stack.imgur.com/PKPzb.jpg i.stack.imgur.com/lLxbJ.jpg Somebody(let's call he/she X), has these red spots and stuff on X's back ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Is it possible to biologically convert potential energy to chemical energy?

To lift an object x meters it is necessary to expend, at a minimum, an amount of energy corresponding to the increase in that objects potential energy associated with the increase in height. When ...
4
votes
2answers
85 views

Why is the DNA helix anti-parallel? [duplicate]

Why is it that DNA strands are running in anti-parallel fashion? Given the chemical base-pairing, they could have been parallel just as well.
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Does pH affect Michaelis constant?

I have been trying to confirm the Km of a substrate (which is 34 +/- 4 mM). This value was obtained in 50 mM MOPS, pH 6.3. I conducted my kinetics assay in a buffer of pH 7 and obtained a Km value in ...
1
vote
3answers
73 views

Why didn't humans evolve to reproduce identical twins all the time?

According to the selfish gene theory, it seems like because identical twins sometimes get produced, a mutation to a gene that says, "if you have an identical twin, be fully altruistic towards them" ...
3
votes
0answers
21 views

dominance coefficient, why (1+k)?

I'm trying to get a better understanding of quantitative genetics by reading Lynch and Hill 1986. I'm getting stuck with some notation that's used right at the beginning referring to the mutant and WT ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Arrangement of genes in chromosome [closed]

How are genes arranged in the chromosomes, is it linear or spiral? I think that it is spiral because genes are segments of DNA which are highly coiled when the chromosome is formed therefore I think ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

why didn't natives of south america evolve darker skin?

I understand that darker skin tone is caused by melanin which helps to protect against the extra UV radiation that comes from more direct sunlight. It evolved in Africa before we migrated away from ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

What is the difference between Ostracodermi and Placodermi

I looked the word origin and found Placodermi is PLATE SKINNED while Ostracodermi is Shell Skinned. Can you please explain the difference between being Plate skinned and Shell skinned?
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Can anyone identify this plant from Bangladesh?

I have taken the picture from an agriculture university in Bangladesh.
7
votes
1answer
75 views

What is cross-immunoreactivity, and how does it impact vaccine development?

What I understand about cross-immunoreactivity is that the antibody induced by one specific antigen is also fairly effective against another antigen. How would this be used for vaccine development? ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

When does DIFFUSION occur and not OSMOSIS, and the otherwise?

For example, I do know that red blood cells have both the Na+/Cl- co-transporter and Aquaporin (water channel) that allows both Na/Cl and water molecules to pass through. But why in biology textbooks ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Operators and Enhancers/Silencers

Wikipedia has two images, of a eukaryotic gene and of a prokaryotic gene. Both show the difference that the prokaryotic gene also has an operator while the eukaryotic gene does not. Both also have ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

How did the tendency to perform death rituals evolve?

Both elephants and humans perform rituals when deaths occur. However, I do not see any evolutionary benefit of this. The rituals take time, which apparently could be better spent hunting, foraging, ...
2
votes
2answers
48 views

Definition of “essentially diploid”

While researching the F12 cell culture medium (Ham, 1965), I came across the term "essentially diploid Chinese hamster ovary cells". The terms "subdiploid" and "near diploid" were also used to refer ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Normalise protein database domain-wise

Suppose we've collected a big (hundreds of thousands) library of different protein sequences with certain features. Then we want to use this data base to train a classifier. And for several ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How to model missing residues on a protein from multiple PDB files?

I have multiple X-ray structures (PDB files) of the same protein. All of them have missing stretches of residues. I want to use all of them to build a single model, with as little missing residues as ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How does the brain regulate its temperature?

I recently ran into a bio-physical paradox while trying to solve an engineering problem, using nature's way as a guide; namely the brain. I'm working on designing a totally new system of liquid/gas ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Biomolecule , DNA-RNA difference [duplicate]

Why is that a RNA has uracil in place of thymine? RNA could have thymine bases but it has uracil ? What is the reason for the presence of uracil there ?
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Handwriting analysis by profession (muscular control) - Athletes, musicians, etc [migrated]

I have a question but am not sure which stack to put it under. If there's another stack I should ask under, please do let me know. Thank you! Is there any scientific study on handwriting by ...
7
votes
2answers
129 views

Why does the human brain not overfit when training at some task?

One of the problems that occur during (artificial) neural network training is called overfitting. The error on the training set is driven to a very small value, but when new data is presented to ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Can cooking oil kill fleas?

I cannot find a reliable way to kill fleas after removing them from my cats with a flea comb. Soap and water does not do the job and they climb back out of the drain. Will cooking oil suffocate ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Why do feces vary so little in color?

Why do feces vary in color so much less than the food they are results of? E.g. you may eat food of all kinds of different colors but the resulting feces will almost always be some shade of brown.
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Primer Design with Primer-BLAST over specific site

I am trying to design primers using Primer-BLAST such that the forward primer spans a specific base pair site. I am looking at KRAS for which I believe the RefSeq ID is NG_007524.1 and the forward ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How to avoid primer dimer in PCR? [on hold]

I am trying to amplify a CDS in a plasmid. One of the primers I'm using, however, self-dimerizes at its 3' end. Because I want to amplify only the CDS, I can't change the starting nucleotide of the ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
1
vote
1answer
8k views

How are the paranasal sinuses linked with the capillaries in the ear canals?

Sinus congestion often seems to be accompanied by excess pressure on the outer ears (as anyone who has shared a transcontinental flight with an infant can attest to) or fluid buildup in the canals. ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

What is the mechanism by which bactericides kill bacteria? [closed]

"Bactericides kill bacteria". What is the meaning of "killing" in this context, and how exactly is this "killing" happening chemically?
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Is there a correlation between mutation rate and recombination rate?

I have in mind that homologous recombination (HR) can cause mutations (indels and substitutions). I am wondering if this is true and if it is, then I am wondering whether this effect is really ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

How do signal transduction pathways utilize transcription factors to express a specific gene?

I have an inquiry regarding the regulation of genes via extracellular signaling. To my knowledge, in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine cellular communication, large protein ligands that cannot ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Coalescence time: Is it different for haploids and diploids in population genetics?

I'm trying to model Cyanobacteria cells divergence in 2 populations with mutation rate $-\mu$ and I need to verify my model with a valid theory. I don't have much biology background and all the ...
0
votes
1answer
8 views

Blomberg's K and branch length

Do different values of the smoothing parameter lambda for estimating the divergence times (in situ Sanderson 2002) will affect trait conservatism (e.g., Blomberg's K)?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How can we determine the polarity of fat molecules?

I'm trying to solve a question in a biochemistry quiz, which is asking for classifying a set of lipidic derivatives, by increasing polarity. Unfortunately, we didn't cover the classification of ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Why are diabetes patients usually overweight when they don't even use the glucose?

Diabetes is a condition where either you are insulin resistant and therefore produce less insulin than usual or you don't produce insulin at all. Insulin is the "key" to the cell's "sugar lock" which ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Why do sneezes come out the mouth?

As anyone who's ever sneezed can tell you, it's caused by irritation in the nose. And the answer to a question on this very SE attests that "sneezing is a reflex, partially autonomous, to clear the ...
15
votes
1answer
484 views

Additive genetic variance components from LMER in R

I've set up some dummy data in R which makes 40 genetically related lines, they are all siblings within a line so are genetically related by a factor of ½ thus additive genetic variance should be ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Please explain what a gene isoform is in lay terms?

I am a physicist by training, however I am now doing computational biology research. I know what genes, DNA, proteins, enzymes, introns and exons are. I sort of understand how DNA is used to create ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Proteins and Blood Acidification

Is there evidence to suggest that excessive consumption of Whey, or similar proteins will lead to acidification of the blood?
0
votes
1answer
25 views

E value cutoff for RNASeq search

I am trying to narrow down the possible search criteria from an RNASeq experiment. I already have the cds sequences so I took these and used Blast+ program to blast the data against itself to find ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Looking for university/graduate-level texts on RNA

Although I was not a biology major in college, I took the biology introduction sequence, as well as organic chemistry and biochemistry. I would like to learn more about RNA and ribozymes. What ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How hot can a beverage get without burning the tongue?

What is the maximum temperature that a beverage can be without burning the tongue? I suspect there's a maximum temperature that the surface tissue of a tongue can withstand without being damaged ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
5
votes
1answer
89 views

Is it theoretically possible to restore the Tiger population to 100,000?

The current global Tiger population is roughly 5100 according to Wikipedia. With habitat destruction and poaching continuing and no effective improvement in conservation, most likely the Tiger ...

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