3
votes
1answer
77 views

How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

How many possible DNA strands in a single chromatin? [closed]

If a chromosome is replicating but not yet finished is it considered to be a single chromatin with two DNA strands? My question stems from this general biology testing question: Suppose a biologist ...
4
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the efficacy of Pertussis booster vaccine among different age groups?

The Murray Microbiology book says that it is prefentially 10 years, similarly Estonian and Finnish health associations. However, my professor says that it can be 5-7 years. I started to think if the ...
6
votes
3answers
608 views

Is there any kind of immortality in plants?

I asked a question about immortality of hydra and learned good things about senescence. Now I would like to know about immortality in plants, if there is some kind of immortality in plants and how ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

Does our brain really “flip” images perceived by our eyes? [duplicate]

I know a similar question has been asked and this is closely related to cognitive science. However, I want to know whether is there any mechanism or structure in the visual cortex which is proved to ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Public Pacemaker database online?

I am looking for any database about pacemakers with the leads atria A right ventricle VR left ventricle VL I did not find any in Physionet. Is there any anonymous data about different ...
2
votes
2answers
39 views

Hydrophobia Outside of Rabies?

RELATED: Why does rabies cause hydrophobia? Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles Has hydrophobia been found outside of rabies? I have only seen it ...
6
votes
3answers
516 views

Should I dilute DNA with water or elution buffer?

I've extracted DNA using a kit and final step is eluted with buffer. If I must dilute my DNA samples, do I use the same elution buffer or can I use milliq water?
6
votes
1answer
93 views

What are the effects of long-term liquid breathing?

I just saw a recent Physics question that mentioned liquid breathing (which I had never heard of before) and I started to wonder about its long-term effects. Let's imagine a person underwent liquid ...
3
votes
2answers
108 views

Why do we have to exhale (or inhale) in order to speak?

Every time we speak, sing, or make any other kind of advanced noise with our throats, we exhale, or to put it that way, blow air through our throats. Why is this required? After all, speakers do not ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
3
votes
3answers
57 views

sex limited genome transmission

In general, for dioecious species, a large portion of the genome passed from parents to offspring of both sexes - in mammals the X-chromosomes and autosomes are passed from a mother to both daughters ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

What is meant by “genes involved in the stress response”?

I would like to know about the term stress response. For example "some genes of a species under study is involved in stress response". What does that mean? I got this as a part of my assignment ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Cigarette consumption dose-response function WRT health outcomes

I'm curious how health risks (mortality, lifetime probability of cancer, etc) change with cigarette consumption. Specifically, treatring cigarette consumption like a continuous variable, rather than ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

How does air-liquid interface (ALI) culture work?

For studying diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cells are often grown in air liquid interface. I understand that the common way of establishing this these days is to grow ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Terrestrial Vertebrate Limbs

This question is regarding the conversation that took place here: Why don't mammals have more than 4 limbs?. I'm not sure if someone mentioned this and I just missed it, but everyone is talking ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

What is the origin of DNA? [closed]

Deoxyribose nucleic acid underpins most life on this earth. It seems to me that the structure of DNA is already reasonably complicated and a certain degree of evolution may have already occured rather ...
23
votes
4answers
4k views

Why don't mammals have more than 4 limbs?

Arthropods have 6 or more limbs and arthropods with 6 limbs appear to move faster than arthropods with 8 limbs so I wonder whether this might have something to do with fast and efficient locomotion. ...
6
votes
1answer
73 views

Reformulation of Hamilton's rule

Who (and in which article) was the first to reformulate Hamilton's rule using the letters $B$ and $C$?. See below comments on this reformulation. Hamilton, in his 1964's article gave a mathematical ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the appropriate blender speed to maximize nutrition and digestion of fruits and vegetables?

Blender companies state that a blender for smoothies should have speeds of at least 30000 rpm. They argue that only at 30000 rpm are cells of fruits and vegetables sheared enough to maximize nutrition ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Are more animal species edible than plants?

While grocery shopping I was thinking that we restrict ourselves in regard to which animals we eat. I surely don't want to eat spiders and ants, for example, but I know that this is just because of my ...
7
votes
2answers
129 views

How does Natural Selection shape Genetic Variation?

Background Importance of the additive genetic variance As stated here, the fundamental theorem of Natural Selection (NS) by Fisher says: The rate of increase in the mean fitness of any organism ...
2
votes
1answer
228 views

Is sexual selection evolutionarily advantageous?

Our biology teacher says that peacocks will soon become extinct because of bigger and bigger (and harder and harder) tails. Why natural selection did not eliminate sexual selection?
1
vote
0answers
112 views

Praying Mantis (female) put sticky white stuff on wall of aquarium [closed]

Anybody know what this sticky white stuff is? She had a foot stuck in it; I had to help her get it loose. Was she purposely gluing herself there (perhaps in preparation for molting), or is she sick? ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

What do you NEED for a 100 meter sprint? [closed]

I was discussing with my friends the 100 meter sprint. Somehow, the topic changed to decreasing the time that the sprint would require: What parts of the human body could you feasibly remove to set a ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Amphibian blood circulation

In an amphibian blood entering the right atrium shows higher levels of oxygenation than that in left atrium when : A.It is hyperactivated B.it is hibernating C.it is submerged D.it is in the ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Does a presence of ants on a plant mean that the plant has been infested by aphids?

Ants protect aphids from their predators (such as ladybirds): Aphids and other hemipteran insects secrete a sweet liquid called honeydew, when they feed on plant sap. The sugars in honeydew are a ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

How was the resemblance between apes and humans explained in pre-Darwinian biology?

Humans and apes have somewhat obvious similarities, these must have been apparent to natural philosophers before the possibility of a common ancestry was first proposed in the mid-1800's. These ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

What's the more abundant biopolymer: chitin or (ligno)cellulose?

Chitin is considered the most abundant polymer after cellulose (e.g., Rinaudo, 2006). Does anyone know of specific biomass estimates in literature, probably also differentiating between terrestrial ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Deeper Learning in Physiology? [closed]

I am a Pharmacology and Toxicology major at a large state school. I was only required to take physics I and II. (algebra based) At first I thought that was fine, but I soon began to realize that I ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

What percent of the population has some form of synesthesia?

Data I am trying to get my hands on: What types of synesthesia (e.g. Grapheme-color synesthesia, Chromesthesia, etc.) are most common across the population? What percent of population has that ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Does physical exercise following lack of sleep increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD)?

Is there any scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis that physical exercise following lack of sleep increases the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD)? The only relevant research I could find is: ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Is this a carpenter ant?

I stumbled upon a few hundred of these swarming around two different places in my living room today. They kind of look like a carpenter ant to me, but I'm not sure. Also, I'd love to know how you ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Pink discolouration of refrigerated cows milk [on hold]

This morning I discovered a pink partially solid substance floating on my milk (it looked something like the cream on unpasteurised milk but a light pink colour). The milk was a commercial pasteurised ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

NaCl role in CTAB - DNA complex in DNA extraction

I have a question about the role of NaCl in the DNA extraction process. So for NaCl concentrations under 0.5M, CTAB and DNA molecules can create complexes. In those concentrations, proteins and other ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Why are nausea and dizziness such common side effects from medication?

Why are nausea and dizziness such common side effects from medication? If you go through your medicine cabinet and look at side effects, those might just be on every single bottle. Is there some ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Prevent biofilm formation on moist surfaces

I have an indoor fountain with lots of water. What are the most common microorganisms in this kind of moist environment, and what are the standard way to prevent biofilm formation by them? I thought ...
4
votes
1answer
154 views

Does Blood Loss Shorten Telomeres?

If blood loss necessitates immediate cell division to replace lost cells, does the increase in cell division correlate to shortening of telomeres? Does it further cause the Hayflick Limit to be ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Can a human acquire a memory of an animal? [on hold]

I would like to know if it's possible for a human to acquire an animal memory. I mean, animals store their memories in their brain, right? And so do we, humans, store our memory. So, is it possible ...
2
votes
3answers
47 views

Increasing/decreasing signal intensity in Western blotting

So I was in class and my professor was explaining western blotting. It seems as though there's more than one way to increase or decrease the signal intensity. He presented us the challenge to discover ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

How long does it take for a cricket to die at subzero temperatures?

I am on a number of reptile groups and I often hear freezing recommended as a humane way to get rid of surplus feeder insects. However, they can also revive if you don't leave them in there long ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

PCR cycle problem [closed]

IF I began a PCR cycle with 5 copies of a particular DNA section, and copied the section by PCR, for 6 cycles, how many copies of the DNA (include the originals) would I have by the end of these ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Neuron Growth and Regeneration

Are nerves and/or neurons able to grow and repair after damage, but not regenerate? Is this specific to humans? I have heard of people being paralyzed, but after much therapy are able to use their ...
3
votes
1answer
140 views

Why Is The Toughness Of Skin Different On Different Parts Of The Body?

My cat was licking my arm with his sandpaper like tongue. It hurt and the area he was licking was slightly smarting afterwards. However, when he licks the palm of my hand the feeling is rather ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

To measure potentials of peripheral nervous system

I am trying to find a standardised method to measure potentials in peripheral nervous system. Just a device. I am mostly interested in forearm because little activities to interfere the measurement. ...
4
votes
1answer
43 views

Can a cell culture insert plate be used with a vacuum manifold?

There exists 96 well plate setups for use with vacuum manifolds. Is it possible to use 6/12/24 plate inserts with the same setup?
2
votes
1answer
22 views

Why does the 'Positive-inside Rule' exist?

Gunnar von Heijne's Positive-inside Rule seems to have been around for a couple of decades and underpins a lot of what we know about transmembrane topology. It is used to predict the topology of a ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Differences in Karr cell model and E-Cell

Recently Karr et al. published in Cell their model of Mycoplasma genitalium and published the complete code. Also, the E-Cell project allows to simulate a complete cell. Can anyone comment on ...

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