2
votes
1answer
46 views

Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
5
votes
1answer
24 views

Why does influenza sometimes cause GI symptoms?

I'm speaking strictly of influenza, not gastroenteritis which is sometimes mistakenly called "stomach flu." I just read this article on the mechanism through which rotavirus causes diarrhea and ...
1
vote
2answers
54 views

Density of cells in human tissues?

Where can I find values, or estimates, of the density of cells in human tissues? Maybe an overall estimate, or distinct values for distinct tissues? Or maybe not human, but mammal tissues (which ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

gene regulatory networks reconstruction using biological databases [closed]

i'm a student in biology systems field. I would need some tips or ideas for generating a gene regulatory networks using multiple data sources.
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Conversion of ALP in milligram to IU/L using BCIP/NBT [closed]

For my project, I need to detect the serum enzyme ALP and quantify the concentration by analysing the color formation due to its reaction with BCIP/NBT reagent. I need to obtain a calibration curve, ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Does vitamin C decrease after reacting with oxygen free radicals?

From the research that I have done, I know that antioxidants such as vitamin c donate electrons to oxygen free radicals and effectively neutralize them. They themselves do not become free radicals as ...
0
votes
1answer
82 views

Definition of Phenotype

I'm not a biologist but I'm trying to enter molecular biology from a perspective. I have noticed that concept of genotype is quite well defined while ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

using bioreactors for bacteria and yeasts

I have some questions about the OD to inoculate in a bioreactor and the OD for the induction using bacteria and yeasts (Pichia pastoris) to produce recombinant proteins. Which is the OD for the ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Is silent flatulence actually smellier? [closed]

The colloquial phrase silent but deadly refers to the passing of intestinal gas where the passing is remarkably silent but the odour is especially strong. In my ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Convert flux value in nmol/min/mg protein to nmol/min/cell?

This is a question about unit conversion. I found an experimental measurement of the saturation uptake of glucose in yeast: $$V_\textrm{max} \approx 650 \textrm{nmol}/\textrm{min}/\textrm{mg ...
-2
votes
0answers
34 views

how close is the science in the x-men movies to being a reality? [closed]

genetic mutations giving us superpowers possible or not and if not why not? you will all probably laugh at this i know but I'm not high and yes i have just watched the x-men movies and now wonder how ...
5
votes
1answer
51 views

What are some examples of undirected weighted networks in ecology?

I'm a math major with a current interest towards network theory. A network can be considered as a collection of nodes, and edges between these nodes signifying some relation between them. The most ...
4
votes
1answer
117 views

How do I make a multiple sequence alignment (MSA)?

I have a DNA sequence that makes protein 1, but now I have asked to: compare the amino acid sequence of protein 1 with nine homologous proteins and make a multialignment of the sequences. Determine ...
4
votes
1answer
41 views

Question about SAM CIGAR string

My question is about the CIGAR specification. The documentation states: M 0 alignment match (can be a sequence match or mismatch) ...
4
votes
1answer
66 views

All-or-nothing-law: law or general principle?

The all-or-nothing principle indicates that a nerve cell fires at maximum potential or not at all, based on a threshold on the stimulus. Is this a statement which is always true, or only ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

On ways to treat cancer [closed]

Since cancer cells are a lot more uncontrollable and mutated than 'regular' non-cancerous cells ( they are more susceptible to heat for instance); if an area that has tumours is affected by some ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Reason for aquatic plant roots

My question is about why aquatic plants have roots. At first they seem a bit superfluous to me because leaves of the plants could just absorb nutrients directly from the water thereby skipping a need ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

The evolution of sleep [duplicate]

Are there evolutionary theories as to why we (and most animals) sleep? Some claimed functions of sleep include: restoration, waste clearance, memory processing, etc. But unless we understand why ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Genetic coding question, amino acid to base relationship

I'm studying for a test and I am confused by these problems/statements. How many amino acids will 18 bases code for? Answer: 6. I got this right. If a certain complete protein has 33 amino acids ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Difference between protein channels, protein carriers and protein pumps?

I'm revising for my biology exam and I don't fully comprehend the difference between protein channels, carriers and pumps. I know that: Protein channels do not require ATP (passive transport) The ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

What does glucose change into? [closed]

What are the names of the substances that glucose can be changed into that a plant needs for different functions or structures?
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Possible calculations with temperature, humidity, images and VIS spectrum of a plant in an Integrating sphere

I am currently working on a project which involves growing some plants in a integrating sphere made of foam. I have added temperature, humidity and soil moisture sensors as well as a Spectrometer (350 ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Normal cell diffusion in normal organism?

We know, that cancer cell can travel across an organism. Is this ABSOLUTELY impossible for NORMAL cells? For example, is it EXACTLY ZERO probability to find some bone cells inside liver or some skin ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What Techniques available to generate genomic data? [closed]

For instance I have heard of NGS (next generation sequencing); What are all the other available techniques? and What devices are used?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Readers in biological nomenclature

I know that a binomial name may be followed by the name of the reader who has been the first to identify the species and to give it that binomial name. It is not completely clear to me what the same ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

What causes the opaque green colour in Lepidoptera?

Link here to what I mean by 'opaque' colouration on the insect, the colour intensity remains constant despite changes in light intensity and angle (not shown by the picture but the moth exhibits this ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

What are all the different methods of fixation for white blood cells? [closed]

I am doing an optical experiment on blood cells and wanted to investigate how various fixatives affected the optical properties of white blood cells. Can anyone help me compile a list of candidate ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

How do CAM plants keep stomata closed by day and open at night?

I understand how plants open stomata, with the H+ ion removal and the resulting K+ ion influx in the guard cells to induce turgor (wikipedia article here), though not how this process relates to ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other? [closed]

How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration compare? How do they relate to each other in plants, etc.
3
votes
2answers
319 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Difference between the P4 and P5 subtypes of P-type ATPases in plants

In plants there are various kinds of P-type ATPases. What is difference between P4-ATPase and P5-ATPase?
0
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the best way to block cigarette smoke from the body? [closed]

Would it be better to hold your breath after smelling the presence of it or quickly inhale and exhale to get rid of it in your system(body)? EDIT: Changed from carbon monoxide to cigarette smoke.
0
votes
0answers
25 views

How are instincts inherited and decoded? [closed]

I've studied that instincts are specific behavior ( migration of salmon) , which are inherited from parents to offspring. Since, our genome is passed only to our offsprings. Where are these instincts ...
2
votes
0answers
91 views

Two different sized colonies from the same species of bacteria. What does it mean? [on hold]

I have got two different sized colonies in a plate of Salmonella Paratyphi, identified by biochemical methods. What does two different sized colonies mean? What kind of question can I investigate in ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Difference between DNA and Genome

Can we safely use the terms DNA and Genome interchangeably or is there any (even slight) difference between the two?
1
vote
1answer
19 views

How does Organ Transplant work well despite having Foreign DNA

My question is little bit related to this one Why does organ transplant work although it seems organ's motor neuron isn't connected to recipient's CNS but only little bit. Problem ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

awakening effects of light

I tried reading by light from a neighbouring room and felt sleepier than if my own lights were on. Is there a formula for the intensity of light vs physiological preparation for sleep(calcium, ...
4
votes
0answers
37 views

Aquarium snail identification

Many of these little snails suddenly appeared in our aquarium from nowhere. I suspect that some snail eggs hitched a ride with some recently purchased plants. Can anyone identify the species? I am ...
1
vote
2answers
478 views

What is the difference between a fixed substitution and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)?

I recently read a report that stated "We found 430 fixed substitutions […], with an additional 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fixed within individual patients." What is the difference ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Is urine sterile? A reference request for evidence supporting sterility

There is a seemingly unfounded mantra that a person's urine is sterile who is not suffering from a UTI. So far I have found convincing evidence to the contrary; urine is not sterile. This poster ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

What stimulates a nociceptor?

For instance, when pressure is applied to the skin, what determines how much pressure results in nociceptor stimulation. And when a sharp object pierces the skin, why is pain, rather than simply ...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

Why doesn't lard taste good? [closed]

I mean looking from evolutionary perspective sugar tastes sweet and individuals that had this perception ate more sugar and survived and those that didn't perceive sugar as sweet didn't eat it and ...
7
votes
1answer
364 views

Can cancer cells in the same person, organ, and origin have different DNA?

Is it possible for cells from the same tumor to have different genetic material, and if so, to what degree is it possible (how fast do they mutate) ?
4
votes
1answer
50 views

What is a tardigrade “in tun form”?

While reading this article about tardigrades that had been previously frozen, I came across some verbiage I wasn't sure of and couldn't find any real explanation given the context. The article kept ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

Nicotine levels in non fruit/edible parts of plants (that are not tobacco)

I am an ex smoker who now vapes (uses e-cigs). Various authorities are equating vaping with smoking by calling it a 'tobacco product' - which is in a sense true given that the majority of nicotine ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Cis-AB phenotype verification

I know that my blood type is AB. I wanted to know if I am cis-AB since cis-AB seems to have a different approach in blood transfusion. Is there a lab test that can verify is a person is under cis-AB ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

Is ginger a vegetable?

Not sure if I should ask this here or Cooking. Is ginger a vegetable? I realise that it is a root and considered a spice. But what makes it different from other root vegetables, for example carrots?
1
vote
1answer
10 views

Difference between LH and ICSH

Are Luteinizing hormone and Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone(ICSH) the same?
3
votes
0answers
37 views

How hard would it be to synthesize a virus in 1960? [closed]

Assuming 1960 technology, how hard would it be to synthesize a virus? Im curious as to how developed technology was back then and the amount of cost and effort it would take given the fairly basic ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

how to prepare a working standard of 50U/ml [closed]

how to prepare a working standard of 50U/ml from stock catalase having activity 12852U/mg, volume 2.22ml and concentration 45mg/ml.

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