2
votes
2answers
40 views

TB disease - treatment and infection

Background: I'm currently performing research in mathematical biology, specifically on the treatment dynamics of HIV and TB co-infection. Question: Can a person infected with TB disease, who are ...
2
votes
1answer
129 views

Why are men stronger than women?

What are the evolutionary explanations for why women are weaker than men (on average), and is this difference adaptive? I suppose that something puts pressure on men to be stronger than women, but I ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

Optimization of annealing temperature

I am trying to optimize annealing temperature for some primer pairs. I have tried optimization using cDNA, genomic DNA, Taq polymerase, phusion polymerase etc., but every time I am either getting ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

In the endomembrane system, after a protein leaves the rough ER, where does it go?

It can either go to the smooth ER then to the Golgi or it can go directly to the Golgi, right? Also, the smooth ER gets all of its material to synthesize things from the rough ER, right? Sorry, I ...
2
votes
1answer
13 views

Classify chemotherapy drugs?

I'm studying a TCGA dataset trying to find correlations between gene expression and clinical data which might shed light on some pathways. One column of the clinical data provides a list of ...
7
votes
2answers
930 views

Why do humans find baby animals cute?

Why do humans find baby animals like cats, dogs, ... so cute? As these are potential competitors or even natural enemies (like e.g. tigers, leopards, ..), the protection instinct (reasonable for the ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Phosphorylation alters structure: Specific Example?

Why does phosphorylation activate an enzyme? A common answer to this question is that the introduced phosphate group "alters the structure" of the enzyme. Can somebody point out a specific example ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Can a protein be present in a protein-based complex but not important for the function of the complex

Suppose protein A is present in a protein complex ABC. Is it possible that protein A is actually is not important for the function of protein complex ABC? Or put alternatively, can a protein X not ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Stem cell that can pass through blood vessel

I know that blood cells can pass through the smallest of capillaries, but I was wondering is it possible for stem cells to pass through the smallest of capillaries? In other words, is it possible for ...
-2
votes
0answers
18 views

Twisted Toe Pain

Occasionally, when curling and stretching my toes in an attempt to pop them, either my 2nd toe will get caught behind my 3rd toe, or my 3rd toe will get caught behind my 4th. Then there is an intense ...
2
votes
1answer
21 views

cerebral edema and blood pressure, pulse

What happens to blood pressure in cerebral edema; does systolic and diastolic rise equally? So the pulse actually slows down? Can't find anything about that, please help
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Will a vasectomy prevent genetic engineering of a child?

Making the assumption: Within 10 years, an adult will be able to genetically engineer (modify, enhance, clean, etc.) a child from their own DNA (and the DNA of a non-related partner). then would ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

How long does it take for a cell to synthesize an enzyme?

Where can I find data regarding the times distinct cells take to synthesize distinct enzymes?
2
votes
1answer
34 views

How did the Chromosome #2 Fusion propagate?

There is strong evidence that chromosome 2 in humans is a fusion of two chromosomes of a common ancestor of chimps and humans as explained at wikipedia here Was it necessary for the common ancestor ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

How many people are required to maintain genetic diversity?

Imagine humans were to colonize a distant planet and it was a single one-way trip. How many people would they need to bring? Obviously 2 is the minimum, but that would result in a lot of inbreeding. ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Why the scent of mouth gets dirty after not eating for a long time?

After a long time of hard workout,not eating and nervousness makes your taste and scent of mouth very uncomfortable and bad why this happens and is there any way to prevent it?
5
votes
2answers
72 views

does order of genes in a chromosome matter?

does the order of genes within a chromosome matter? or is the main thing that the genes are there. so for example, our DNA is very similar to that of apes not only by the genes themselves but also by ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Do species which have a closer common ancestor to humans tend to be more intelligent?

Q: Do species which have a closer common ancestor to humans tend to be more intelligent? Our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, seems to be regarded as intelligent: Chimpanzees make ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

With an excess supply of nutrients, in how much time will the number of algae cells double in full sun?

I am growing algae in a container in my roof. It gets sunlight for the whole day as there are no clouds nowadays in my area. There is no lack of nutrients as I am constantly adding water mixed with ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Does myopia tend to decrease the risk for later hyperopia?

It seems like being nearsighted for much of your life due to elongated eyes would make it easier in general to focus on near objects rather than far since the lens would not have to change much. Since ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

How can I determine the gender of a tree seedling?

I would like to plant some home grown female mulberry trees in a circle, with a male plant in the center for pollination. How do I determine the gender of a tree seedling? I know it's possible, ...
6
votes
1answer
88 views

Disproportion in cranial nerve innervation?

The cranial nerve innervation is highly disproportionate, as far as humans are concerned. I am not sure of the advantage of being innervated by cranial nerve versus being innervated by a normal ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Keyword based literature search

I understand this is not a biological question but this is often a problem whenever I look for literature. How to look for a reference for some fact based on keywords. For instance you know about a ...
16
votes
1answer
909 views

Do insects' muscles become stronger with exercise?

I am curious to know if insect muscles become stronger with exercise, because I have seen many insects get tired out, but I have never seen one get stronger. They always seem to become permanently ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is the scientific name of this butterfly?

I have this butterfly but I don't know its scientific name. I think that it's a common butterfly which can be seen everywhere (btw, I'm in Taiwan.) Thanks for your help :D
1
vote
1answer
26 views

What is the name of this type of inflorescence?

I was having a look at a rhizophora plant (from the mangrove family), and I got curious about its inflorescence. I can't make out what kind of inflorescence it is. Here is a photo of the ...
6
votes
2answers
158 views

Is recognizing one's own mirror reflection a valid test of animal intelligence/self awareness?

I've been looking at this Ted talk on interspecies internet, and it appears that they have selected a small number of species of animals (dolphin, elephant, and some ape(?)) and are intent on ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

Efficiency of plasmid DNA isolation from frozen E. coli cell cultures

Has anyone isolated plasmid DNA from frozen (at -20degrees) E. coli cell cultures (not pellets)? Has that worked and if so, with what yields? What would be the quality of the isolated plasmid DNA if ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

What does the term 'modified residue position' in phosphorylation mean?

Does it mean the position of the amino acid in the protein sequence, or something else? For example, I came across the phrase "S 368 phosphoryation" where S is the modified residue and 368 is the ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Effect of testosterone hormone on cell signalling and behaviour?

A steroid, testosterone was injected in female body which led to development of secondary sexual characters but these characters were not developed over night (Response was very slow). What could be ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

If two definitive ovums are fused will they form an organism?

Pretend that somehow in a laboratory two definitive ovums (finished 2nd miotic divisions) are are fused together. Will they form a new species?
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Assembling DNA fragments with ~10kb overlap in vitro

Let's say I have two fragments of bacterial DNA (~50kb in length each) that overlap on the ends by roughly ~10kb; the overlap sequences are unknown. I would like to assemble these into longer ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

What is the general name of the chip to simulate organ systems by iPS?

I listened the last few Nature Medicine podcasts. They are talking about some chips that are used with iPS cells to simulate the action of antigens in organ systems. Is there any review articles ...
4
votes
2answers
51 views

Database of Multicellular and Unicellular organisms?

I'm trying to annotate a list of organisms taken from NCBI for cellularity (unicellular or multicellular). Does any of you ever found a database with association between an organisms' name or taxa and ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Can lymph be in peripheral blood?

I read an argument that 1-3% of lymph is in peripheral blood. However, I am not sure if this lymph is about lymphocytes in peripheral blood; not lymph itself. Lymph gets exchanged between capillaries ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

regarding genetic disorders related to protein production

I am not completely familiar with biology, but i had a genetics course in college along with practicals. Forgive me if there is something wrong with my question. Is there a genetic disease which ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Odds of Fusion of Chromosome #2

There is strong evidence that chromosome 2 in humans is a fusion of two chimp chromosomes (i.e. common ancestor of chimps and humans) as explained at wikipedia here The question is what are the odds ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

border zone of the infarcted heart

I did myocardial infarction experiments on mice and I am a newbie in this area. I need to isolate RNA and protein from the remote and the border zone. Where should I cut the heart so i can separate ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Biology Analogy

In my book are given several paired analogies with me being asked to give reason for them. I could solve all of them except this: liver = thrifty house-keeper I mean, I do not understand why the ...
3
votes
0answers
48 views

Accuracy of genome size estimation by flow cytometry

I'm working on a genome project and using an in silico k-mer analysis to estimate the size of our genome based on the available Illumina reads. The k-mer based estimate is consistent across a wide ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

Will a garter snake eat unusual prey if made to smell like something normal?

I have noticed that my garter snake only eats after it has smelled it's prey to make sure it is a slug, and it doesn't matter whether it's moving or not. If I were to coat, say, a caterpillar with ...
3
votes
2answers
47 views

How does a stonefish get oxygen out of water?

It is said that the stonefish (Synanceia) is able to stay out of the water for up to 24 hours. I wonder how they get oxygen from the air. Could someone explain this?
3
votes
1answer
47 views

How does boiling water revive cut flowers?

A classic tip to revive wilted cut flowers is to plunge the stem into boiling water for some period of time, and then back into cold water. What process is occurring that causes the flower to be ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Limb polarity such as writing handedness, golf handedness and natural football foot

Define the term "limb polarity" to mean things such as writing handedness, golf handedness, throwing ball arm preference and natural boxing hand. I avoid using the term "handedness" because of its ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Is this statement in agreement with Darwin's theory of evolution?

Is the following statement in agreement with Darwin's theory of evolution? The number of offspring is not related to fitness. If so, why? This is not a homework assignment, I just want to ...
4
votes
2answers
99 views

Is tactile perception two-dimensional or three-dimensional?

Is tactile perception two-dimensional or three-dimensional? Can tactile sense be mapped on 2-dimensional map of the surface of the human body or does human receive tactile signal as a 3D position ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Effect of lower back on Lymphatic drainage in Posterior Lumbalis

I am studying how the muscle spasm of lower back can affect the anterior lymphatic drainage in a male obese situation (supine position) and quality of sleep. There seems to be very little lymphatic ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

How to get the fish feed from carbohydrate rich plant?

Currently, I am working on Acanthopagrus latus fish feed formulation but unable to find any good resource online. Do you have any recommendations?
4
votes
2answers
78 views

Do all humans experience flatus regardless of their diet?

Flatus frequency is affected by diet, so I was wondering if flatus production solely depends on the food eaten, meaning that some people never ever release flatus because they don't eat any ...
1
vote
1answer
217 views

How do you increase eumelanin but not pheomelanin?

Are Scientists currently looking into this?

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