0
votes
1answer
19 views

Degenerate Alignment Analysis

Can someone please tell me what is Degenerate alignment analysis? Could not find a good article on the internet that could help me understand what it means? (I have not studied biology since last 8 ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

TAA- Tumor associated antigen

An approach to find Tumor associated antigens is based on transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing desired MHC haplotypes. Can someone please explain what this line ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Microarray probe and target

In a microarray, which one is called a target and which one is the probe? the one that is added later , is that the probe or the one present in the slots of the microarray, that is the probe? (I have ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Can the difference in brain-signals between presumptuous thought and considered thought be detected with any existing equipment? [closed]

I am thinking that if we can detect when somebody is being presumptuous we can signal to them that they are and this may reduce mistakes made by humans due to being less than fully cognitive?
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Why do moths not die when they fly into a window?

Sometimes at night when I'm inside with a light on, I can hear (I'm sure) moths fly into the window, and it's so loud I can sometimes hear it over the TV from the other side of the room. Since ...
3
votes
0answers
36 views

How does Natural Selection Shapes Genetic Variation?

Background Importance of the additive genetic variance As stated here, the fundamental theorem of Natural Selection (NS) by Fisher says: The rate of increase in the mean fitness of any organism ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Why can't NMR be used on large RNA molecules?

While reading my Molecular Bio textbook, I came across a sentence that stated that NMR cannot be used on large RNA molecules to determine their structure. Why is this? Is it because RNA is single ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

How does a cell compute/perceive gradients? (And which papers/books have written about this?)

I have heard that a biological cell can perceive the change/gradient of a chemical by integrating/differentiating in some way, i.e. that the cell can do math in some way. I really don't know much ...
5
votes
1answer
46 views

Protein Isolation from mammalian cells

What non-SDS buffer can I use to isolate protein from mammalian cells? The protein is intended for testing electron transport chain complexes.
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Origin of the 260/280 ratio?

This is not a duplicate of all the other 260/280 ratio questions, I already know that DNA is supposed to be 1.8 and RNA is supposed to be 2.0. However, this might be more appropriate for chemistry, ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

What's the mechanism behind 'losing heat through your extremities'?

I can understand how if you are not circulating enough (warm) blood, by not moving much while in a cold environment, your extremities themselves lose heat, and become cold - but I don't understand how ...
3
votes
2answers
49 views

Is there a difference between any of these terms for proteins: “crystal structure,” “NMR structure,” “solution structure,” and “complex structure”?

My homework wants me to plot all crystal structures determined per year, but when I search on PDB for all structures, many of the articles say "crystal structure," but some say "solution structure" or ...
6
votes
1answer
68 views

What does “Mutational Variance” mean?

Background The concept of mutational variance can be found in many articles including this one for example. The mutational variance of a trait number $i$ can be found in the M-matrix in position ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?

Besides oxidizing fatty acids to form prostglandins, leukotrienes, and epoxides, what other roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?
6
votes
1answer
334 views

What about a bat's immune system protects them from Ebola?

Current evidence indicates fruit bats are a reservoir host for Ebola. Has any research established what is different about their cell biology or immune system that reduces virulence? Failing research ...
8
votes
2answers
120 views

Did Darwin ever reach the conclusion that selection will remove variation?

According to simple models of selection the genetic variance in a population should be reduced by selection. (Fisher's fundamental theorem states that the rate at which a population can evolve is ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

What is the classification for animals with full tube digestive tracts?

What is the formal name for animals with full digestive tracts, by which I mean a mouth and an anus, and what is the classification for animals that have a single hole for exchanging food and waste?
0
votes
2answers
61 views

Negative role of Placenta

How can a placenta turn hostile to the mother or fetus ? What are the abnormalities found during placental delivery ?
6
votes
1answer
321 views

How do birds influence brood sex ratios?

This paper concludes that birds can adaptively modulate brood sex ratios. How do birds modulate brood sex ratios? Are they somehow able to influence the sex of their young? Or once young are born, do ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

Which sex is homogametic in side-blotched lizards?

I'm just trying to find out whether the male side-blotched lizard is the hetero- or homogametic sex in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) - some reptiles are ZW system (female heterogamete) and ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

How is it that ionic diffusion is independent of other ions?

This question arises from the explanation of what the resting potential of a cell membrane is. In the Goldman formula, there is no interaction between different ion types. If diffusion is caused by ...
7
votes
3answers
971 views

Why is the current Ebola outbreak different from previous outbreaks?

I don't know if this question has an answer at this time, but I would like to know if there is some biological reason why the current Ebola outbreak is so much more complicated and widespread than in ...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

Why do we absorb vitamins better from whole foods than from pills?

We can't rely on pills to provide us our nutrients because we don't absorb the nutrients from the pills as effectively. Presumably this is because pills are lacking components that are required for ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

What is this vinca like vine?

What is this vinca like vine? Is it poisonous? 62521 USA Illinois
3
votes
3answers
96 views

Why can't you just take a vitamin? Why you need a healthy diet on top of that?

From what I understand, your body needs certain amounts of vitamins and minerals to maintain health. Why can't we just take enough pills to obtain these vitamins and minerals?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Alternative protocol for evaluating RNA integrity, using a bleach gel

I hate having to run MOPS PFA agarose gels with DEPC and everything just to verify my RNA integrity. I came across an alternative protocol that uses ordinary household bleach in the gel to inhibit ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What biological processes are affected by dietary fiber besides peristalsis?

Dietary fiber affects the rate of peristalsis, but what other effects does it have? Does fiber affect signal transduction, hydration, the autonomic nervous system, organ function, other biological ...
4
votes
0answers
51 views

What is this fuzzy, black fungus that grew on my plates in the 4C room?

I often find the fungus below growing on my (ostensibly) sterile plates in the 4C room. Presumably it takes a few days to reach this size. The colony looks puffy and dimpled in the middle, like a ...
2
votes
2answers
77 views

Identification of this insect

These insects lived inside the wood of my bed in little round holes. They bite, lеаving very itchy red marks. And when crushed stink really bad. In the picture the lines are notebook lines for size ...
0
votes
2answers
22 views

Does chromosomal crossover result in a mutation?

Is chromosomal crossover considered a mutation? Would this be a large-scale mutation?
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Do the eyes play any role in producing the visual experiences you have during dreaming?

Sometimes, you remember a vivid picture of a dream that you saw. What is the role of your eye in this experience? Please provide me with the answer that is as simple as possible since I am in Class ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

long-term fertilizer value of organic fertilizers

I would like to know what to look for when assessing the long-term fertilizer value of any organic fertilizer ? Especially in the context of phosphorus cycling and availability. Thanks in advance for ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Is epilepsy more heritable from maternal side?

I am thinking if paternal or maternal genetic line is the risk factor. Mitochondrial DNA is coming from maternal line. I do not know the pathogenesis of epilepsy so well that I could answer my ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

Immunodominant Peptide

Can someone please explain me the concept of Immunodominant peptide in simple language?? I did read the wiki article but did not understand it clearly. Please help! (I have not studied biology since ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Has it been confirmed yet that the DNA found in dinosaurs was really DNA?

I hear different sources claiming different things, bbc said they did, wikipedia says it hasn't which is it?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Why does the bunny have a white butt?

There are several species of plant eaters that have a very visible bright white behind: several kinds of deer, rabbits, antelopes, etc. Does this white spot have any function to it, or is it purely ...
2
votes
1answer
15 views

How long does it take for a hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) to reach sexual maturity?

How long does it take for a wild hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) to reach an age where they are reproductive? How does fecundity depend on age and size? I've looked at several hard clam life cycles ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

What causes skewed ladder bands on an agarose gel?

I frequently ran into an issue where the bands of my ladder become skewed. What causes this? Here's an example: 0.7% agarose gel, 100V, 60 minutes. Same problem occurs with 1%. I loaded 10 ul of a 20 ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Heterozygosity and the Wright-Fisher model

I was reading the textbook Probability Models for DNA Sequence Evolution by Durrett. In chapter 1, he discusses the Wright Fisher model and the coalescent theory ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Is plastic just as good for you as corn?

To specify, I mean plain corn-on-the-cob, not anything processed like corn flakes. Since one of the main important functions of corn is that it's not digestible, and therefore helps with digestion by ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Is greed an evolved trait?

Thanks for looking. I am not a biologist, but I am fascinated by evolution. I was watching the news this morning and, as so often is the case, there was a news story about a corrupt politician who ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

If someone were to die on the moon, would their body decay? [closed]

I heard that the footprints of Neil Armstrong are still there, so I was wondering if someone were to die there, would they remain preserved, too? If not how long would it take for them to decay?
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Localization of B and T cell

What does localization of B-Cell mean?? "Localization of B and T cell in allergens may not coincide". What does this statement mean? (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

What is the expected effect of pH on the activity of a fungal pectinase?

I am working on an enzyme assay for a fungal pectinase.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from pH 1-12.5 However,the enzyme has good activities starting from pH1-10.5. Is it possible to have ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

How do tight junctions in stratified squamous epithelia affect nutrient supply?

In histology we know that epithelium tissue isn't vascularized so it takes the nutrition from Lamina propia (CT) via diffusion and in other hand we know all epithilial cells have tight junction which ...
1
vote
2answers
28 views

Where to find the corrected BLOSUM matrices?

I was looking at this paper which talks about the miscalculations in the BLOSUM matrices and how the "wrong" BLOSUM62 matrix performs better than the corrected version. I was trying to find the ...
4
votes
3answers
50 views

How many Type II restrictions enzymes are currently available (commercially) [closed]

How many Type II restrictions enzymes are currently available (commercially) for purchase as of the date of this posting (September 1, 2014)
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Applying Constraint Programming to sequence alignment/analysis

My Masters program is focused on formal methods such as SAT solving and constraint programming. I am interested in applying such techniques to problems in sequence alignment and sequence analysis, ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Fatty Acid Synthesis of Fats Longs than 16 C

I understand that the human body when performing Fatty Acid Synthesis can synthesize only until C16 (palmitate). However the ER has desaturases and elongases. I know that elongases are used to add ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Are retroviruses cytotoxic?

There are typically hundreds of retroviruses found in healthy human beings. Are retroviruses then cytotoxic? (In other words, are they able to kill or damage other cells).

15 30 50 per page