2
votes
0answers
37 views

Does medication make the body dependent? [closed]

First of, I know of course that certain medication can cause an addiction if incorrectly used. But as far as I understand it, drugs prone to cause addiction have some agent in it, that makes them ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Why are sequencing reads shorter than PCR products?

I have desinged and tested primers for RT-PCR, then purified the PCR products from the gels and send them to sequence at GATC (SUPREMERUN) using the forward primers. After blasting the reads to ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Does this habit present any harm? [closed]

Sometimes I am able to put one knee down on the floor, rest my weight on that knee, and then relax it in order to make the knee cap go up and "crack" the knee. I can do this with both knees, I think ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Do ants use something similar to the honey bee “waggle dance” to instruct the rest of the colony where to find a food source?

In the 20 years since we built our home, we've just recently had our first ant infestation. I'm familiar with the fact that ants leave scent trails to find their way back and forth between the ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Do animals demonstrate target practice (i.e., playful accuracy behavior)?

Do animals demonstrate any sort of accuracy-motivated play? (please provide examples!) Consider most human sports and related hobbies. Most share the common goal of hitting a target or being ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Why does heating kidney beans at a low temperature potentiate the toxicity of phytohaemagglutinin?

I recently found out that red kidney beans contain a relatively high amount of the toxic lectin, phytohaemagglutinin. An article on phytohaemagglutinin on the FDA website states: Several ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Panel 9 urine/ prescribed ADDERRALL XR [closed]

My doctor conducted a Genesight test, finding out that I am an ultra rapid metabolized. Often times, my body will metabolize my medications before they enter my system. Thus is why my prescriptions, ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Comparing genetics [closed]

Compare the possible effect on an individual of knowing that they have genes predisposing them to type-2 diabetes and the dominant allele that causes Huntington's disease. I am not sure about the way ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

DNA Topology. Question on twists and writhes

Hi guys there is a question which has been driving me crazy ever since I saw this video(https://youtu.be/az2c6UbEdug). At 4:50 the guy says that when a right-handed circular DNA starts forming a right ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Why bacteria and viruses are so much smaller than animal cells?

Why are bacteria and viruses so much smaller than animal cells? - I don't have more information about the question, sorry if this is too vague.
0
votes
0answers
63 views

How do CAM plants keep stomata closed by day and open at night?

I understand how plants open stomata, with the H+ ion removal and the resulting K+ ion influx in the guard cells to induce turgor (wikipedia article here), though not how this process relates to ...
3
votes
0answers
25 views

Droppings of mystery: What are they

I have noticed the droppings below, quite visible on snow, next to an inner-town building situated next to this place in Luxembourg, central Europe. There are quite a few, but I have not noticed them ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

Nicotine levels in non fruit/edible parts of plants (that are not tobacco)

I am an ex smoker who now vapes (uses e-cigs). Various authorities are equating vaping with smoking by calling it a 'tobacco product' - which is in a sense true given that the majority of nicotine ...
0
votes
2answers
36 views

Does a gene that regulates itself necessarily be a transcription factor?

I am not a biologist, so please pardon the overly noob question. Some genes are transcription factors (TF) and regulate other genes. My question is: if a gene is NOT a TF gene, can it regulate itself? ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

How is HIV evolutionarily viable despite its extreme virulence?

How does HIV survive natural selection? And how has it managed to kill far more than any non-airborne virus in recorded history?
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Do antioxidants interfere with chemotherapy?

Since most of the chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells by damaging their DNAs by means of free radicals. So antioxidants, which will detoxify free radicals, should theoretically decrease the efficacy ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Atlas from human brain structures to 3D coordinates?

I would like to visualize specific human brain structures in the three dimensional space and compute specific geometric properties of these brain structures (size, centroid, etc). Therefore, I am ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

How to predict Protein-Protein Interactions from a pair of gene symbols?

I have a list of pairs of gene symbols who interact (putatively) and would like to assign each pair a score (and record other details) based on the predicted Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI). The ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Is there a joint on a brain connecting both inner speech and outer speech sensation?

I'm interested of the neurophysiology of the inner speech/inner voice aka. auditory thinking. This question is similar to: What are the common neural circuitries between visual sensation and the ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

What is vascular cambium?

I'm confused over the two terms vascular cambium and intrafascicular cambium. Is vascular cambium same as intrafascicular cambium?
1
vote
1answer
41 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

What is working definition for female infertility?

I've studied infertility and found that its quite complex to define. However, I came to know about a useful working definition of infertility; which was " Failure to achieve pregnancy". Few days later ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

ECG Calibration by Infusion Pump?

I am trying to understand how to calibrate 5-lead ECG device with an infusion pump before the human calibration as described here. The system uses 5 electrodes (RA, RL, LA, LL and Chest). The monitor ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Why do Major and Minor grooves exist in dna strands? [closed]

I've been trying to find what causes the periodic appearance of major and minor grooves in DNA but have not yet been successful. Geometrical explanations would also be appreciated as I cannot ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

How does a Plasmodium move?

Plasmodium sp. does not have any locomotory organs. So, how does it move? What biochemical process allows it to move?
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Probabilities of gene amplification: four questions [closed]

Do mutations in the SLC1A5 gene affect tumor proliferation? Are SLC1A5 mutations in tumors dominant, recessive, or neutral? Amplification vs mutation vs overexpression: please explain the ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What are the determinants of tumor metastasis

Under what conditions do tumors migrate? Is it due to hostile microenvironment conditions, drug application, mutations, or other causes? Are there any migration probability values (I am doing an in ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Why is metabolism of ethanol catabolism? Could it be also detoxification?

Detoxification is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver. Additionally, it can refer to ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Is there a deblocking aminopeptidase without normal aminopeptidase activity?

The deblocking aminopeptidase is a unique exo-type aminopeptidase that liberates blocking groups (formyl, acetyl, and myristyl) from proteins and peptides. However, according to this paper, it has two ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How do Binaural Beats Work?

We have a project on different ways of relaxation. One way I found out was binaural beats. Could anyone please tell me how they work. You guys are masters when it comes to simplifying things! All I ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

Have scientists ever produce a new species in laboratory by means of natural selection?

I was wondering, if scientists ever produce a more complex species from a less complex species by means of natural selection? I imagine something like, bacteria which can't photosynthesis and oxygen ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

How are the two ATPs (properly 1.5 though) formed from oxidation of 1 FADH2?

Each ATP Synthase has three sites for binding three sets of ADP and Pi, so when the H+ pass through the a and c subunits are they (3 ATPs) not produced for FADH2 substrate? Besides is the ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Identify this large (swamp) fly?

Can anyone identify this large fly? I encountered it in Okefenokee Swamp (Georgia, U.S.A.) on May 1, 2015. Weather: 53-78°F (avg. 66°F), avg humidity = 60, dew point = 47°F. The fly was about the ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

How many protons are pumped out per pair of electrons from NADH in oxidative phosphorylation?

I have searched the web and found that 10 protons are suppose to get pumped out during the electron cycle, but i'm a bit confused. I'm trying to count, for every complex(1/3/4), the number of protons ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Are axons capable of endocytosis?

There is evidence for the uptake of toxic substances like prions from the cell bodies of neurons via endocytosis (e.g. described here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892479/). There is ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

What is meant by electron transfer potential?

I was reading a text and came across the term. What does it mean? The sentence said 'The driving force of oxidative phosphorylation is the electron transfer potential of NADH or FADH2 relative to that ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How to understand Aposematism and Batesian mimicry

EDIT I want to understand the reason for intense animal colors. I.e. I don't want to understand the variety of the colors, just the intensity. The Wikipedia page for Cethosia biblis says, the intense ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Is it possible to separate the binding and catalysis of an enzyme in two steps?

Is it possible to do the following: Enzyme E binds to its substrate S without catalysis; Add a controllable stimulus, such as light, adding or removing chemicals; The enzymatic reaction is triggered ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Male-Male competition limited to breeding season?

I'm currently reading about sexual selection in the context of evolution. Unfortunately, the focus is always on animal behavior during the breeding season. What is 'normal' behavior outside of ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

How does the splicing enzyme recognize where to splice the introns?

When the DNA from the nucleus is transcribed to an mRNA, the mRNA is spliced by an enzyme before it goes outside through the nuclear pore. What is the name of this enzyme and how does it recognize ...
-3
votes
1answer
58 views

Does evolution thinks? [closed]

I understand evolution as survival of the fittest rule , where its the nature and surroundings that shapes the life by extinction of species which are not fit to survive the nature at that period. To ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

What are the basic skills required to pursue future studies in theoretical ecology? [closed]

I am a student and just about to choose a project for my Master's thesis in biology. I want to pursue studies in theoretical ecology in the future. Between field ecology and computational biology (as ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Which of the following is NOT a type of tropism?

Which of the following plant movements is NOT a tropism? Plant stem growing toward light Plant structure growing away from light Plant roots growing in response to gravity Vines coiling around ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

What are other creatures or plants that leave “recommendations” as ants? [closed]

I'm working on a Semantic Recommendation Systems. In the state-of-the-art, I state the fact that even animals, such as ants, using some kind of recommendations by leaving markers, which are chemical ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

On ways to treat cancer [closed]

Since cancer cells are a lot more uncontrollable and mutated than 'regular' non-cancerous cells ( they are more susceptible to heat for instance); if an area that has tumours is affected by some ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Why do multicellular organisms die of old age? [duplicate]

According to this answer, bacteria do not really age, just some offspring of the bacteria have more damage and die to let other bacteria live. Most cells in an animal are "new" cells and are not the ...
3
votes
2answers
313 views

Gene and alleles

This is a multiple choice question: Consider a gene, ABC, which codes for an enzyme involved in the metabolism of sugars. There are two known alleles of this gene, ABC1 and ABC2. Which statement ...
1
vote
2answers
28 views

How is a bacterial strain defined?

When a species of bacteria is referred to by its strain, are they a clone of single founder or is a certain amount variation allowed?
5
votes
1answer
128 views

Is DNA replaced after organ donation?

If an organ from person A is transplanted to a new human body B, is it possible that we can detect A's DNA in B? How long until the organ's DNA is replaced by B's DNA so that we are no longer able to ...

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