4
votes
1answer
59 views

Unable to identify a muscle of the anterior thorax

I was watching an YouTube Anatomy Video which goes over the major muscles of the anterior superficial thorax. There is a structure present throughout the video which goes unmentioned, and I can't seem ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Santa Fe xeric indigenous tree

The hills around Santa Fe are covered in a particular xeric tree which is quite small and looks like some kind of juniper which I have been unable to identify: What is this species?
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Toll Like Receptors Vs Toll Receptors

What are the major differences between them, apart from one being in humans and other in Drosophilla?
1
vote
2answers
63 views

Alternatives to His-tags

What are the alternatives to using a histidine-tag in detecting protein-protein interactions? Why would they be more beneficial than his-tags?
5
votes
1answer
74 views

Why don't the genetic similarities between ‘unrelated’ individuals of the same and different species outweigh the differences?

Ever since starting to learn about the concept of inclusive fitness during my BSc, I've been bugged by this questions: if inclusive fitness can account for many ‘altruistic’ behaviors, why don't the ...
6
votes
1answer
167 views

How does the brain recall information?

In computers, finding a single word is realized through serial attempts across all available connections to find a specified target. How does the brain solve this? How does the whole process, from ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

genetic complementation problem

I've attached the picture of the problem. SO, based on the information I managed to assemble two large cistrons. (if the combination of two mutants yield (-) mutations are on the same chromosome) A)...
5
votes
0answers
41 views

What type of tree is this?

I photographed this group of trees a couple of years ago at the northern tip of Prudence Island in Narragansett Bay. Any idea what species these are?
1
vote
2answers
158 views

Is there a difference between visual sensation and imagination in the brain?

How substantial is the difference between the neural signal associated with seeing an image and the imagination of that image? Surely, it can not entirely copy the pathway from the sensory organs to ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

Is a nucleus more dense than the rest of the cell?

On the one hand, it seems like there's a higher density of 'stuff' in a nucleus, so it should be more dense. On the other hand, if it was more dense, I'd imagine that nuclei would 'settle' to the ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

Gemini usage of --sample-filter

I am using gemini to query databases made from vcf files, which contain data from multiple samples. However, I need to query data only from one sample, (for which I currently use grep to filter the ...
7
votes
1answer
133 views

If so many different hormones/molecules work by activating adenylyl cyclase, how do they have different effects?

It seems that many hormones and molecules work by activating adenylyl cyclase to convert $\text{ATP}$ to $\text{cAMP}$, such as adrenaline and glucagon. Both of these seem to bind to $\text G$ protein ...
17
votes
1answer
183 views

What effect does a bat's echolocation have on other bats?

Bat echolocation is a perceptual system where ultrasonic sounds are emitted specifically to produce echoes. By comparing the outgoing pulse with the returning echoes, the brain and auditory nervous ...
5
votes
2answers
841 views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
7
votes
2answers
254 views

At what point during an action potential are the sodium potassium pumps working?

I'm trying to understand how all of the potentials during an action potential are created. My question specifically is about the sodium potassium pumps, however I would also be grateful if someone ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Locomotion of Hydra: Why Somersaulting is better than Loop locomotion when moving to a larger distance?

In my text I read about different types of locomotion of Hydra where I learnt that generally Hydra moves by somersaulting and it is faster than 'Loop locomotion' which Hydra uses for moving to a large ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Why aren't gene drives extremely common?

The ability for gene drives to sidestep the Mendelian mechanism and rapidly spread through populations (even if the gene is slightly fitness reducing) is extremely powerful. Why aren't normal ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Why are vegetables either red or yellow?

Have you ever wondered why these two colors occur so often? Take these: onion waltnut potato carrot/parsley and even cabbage which can be green or red. Why these two pigments? Or is it just one ...
7
votes
1answer
72 views

What stimulates a nociceptor?

For instance, when pressure is applied to the skin, what determines how much pressure results in nociceptor stimulation. And when a sharp object pierces the skin, why is pain, rather than simply touch,...
1
vote
2answers
24 views

How would substances that have anti bacterial characteristics interact with yeast? [closed]

This question has its origins at home brewers where the question was asked how would substances with anti bacterial qualities interact with yeast a fungus? No one at home brewers was really sure so I ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

What does `knee atlas` means in an IEEE's paper?

I am referring an IEEE's paper for my project which has a term called knee atlas, I am not getting the exact meaning of this term, does they mean it a processed image or something else? I am working ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Hayflick limit and hair or nails

I am not a bio major but I have heard about Telomerese shortening in each cell division which leads aging and cellular death. I also read that Hayflick limit is about the number of divisions a cell ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

What are the structural characteristics of a protein-protein interaction network

I am an researcher in computer science. I am interesting in the alignment problem of PPI networks of difference species. I know a PPI network is a graph in its nature. I want to know whether there are ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Why is it called Nematocyst “Battery”?

I was reading an article on Hydra where they mentioned Nematocyst Battery. I know that Hydra and other Cnidarians have nematocyst but why are they called Nematocyst 'Battery'?
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Can genes be expressed sequentially?

As I understand it, any gene on an exposed/unpacked region of a chromosome is continuously being expressed. Regulatory genes may increase or decrease the amount of protein synthesised due to its ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Biological modeling languages - some basic issues

I am trying to get used to with couple of modeling languages in biological context like SBML, BioPAX, Kappa and BEL. Some basic issues came up to my mind that are unclear to me even after a lot of ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Difference between micro RNA and short-interfering RNA and CRISPR Cas 9 system?

I read this article https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150206-crispr-dna-editor-bacteria/ and am slightly puzzled as to why the CRISPR/Cas 9 system is seen as being so revolutionary. It seems like the ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

How DNA programs the first cell in womb into a human [closed]

Sorry if you see me silly. I am just a programmer happens to be curious about biology... So far I understand how DNA make protein, how cell divides, how one composed of cells->tissues-> organs. But,...
2
votes
2answers
80 views

How to obtain a tardigrade?

The tardigrade is often mentioned as one of the most "alien" lifeforms on Earth. This video speaks for itself: (from this article) I have long wanted to see a tardigrade with my own eyes. I have a ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

metabolic heat generation and exercise intensity

Is there a relationship between bio heat equation (found here) and exercise intensity as described here That is I am trying to include the effect from exercises to the tempertaure variation in skin. I ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Why does histamine release in Type I hypersensitivity help in case of parasites?

The IgE system exists because the same events which lead to often-life threatening complications of allergy, in presence of parasites are helpful in their elimination. The tissue injury mediated ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Pathogenesis of type IV hypersensitivity

In hypersensitivity, as I understand it, a normal immune response gets excessive, misdirected or wrongly regulated to cause tissue injury. The various types determine the various ways in which the ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Epigenetics and serotonin?

In this article http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v17/n9/full/nn.3778.html it states that Increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat related ...
8
votes
1answer
68 views

How does membrane potential vary between intraceullar membranes and the cellular membrane?

Question Does each type of membrane have a different membrane potential? I'm especially interested in answers that can cite academic papers that have attempted to measure membrane potentials. ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Gel Electrophoresis

we add Etbr within the agarose gel but we do not add Etbr directly in native PAGE ?when we make agarose gel, we add Etbr before its solidification but we do not add Etbr when the native PAGE gel is in ...
1
vote
3answers
44 views

importance of cDNA sequencing of a specific gene in different plants

i want to know what if i made a sequence of cDNA of a specific gene in different plants - what is the important from the sequence and can if found difference between plants , and can i use this ...
3
votes
2answers
182 views

Are gametes determined by the sex of an organism?

In the Wikipedia article for biological sex, I read the following sentence. "The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex:..." However, is it not through the gametes produced by ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

Fur genetics - what are the causes of fur colour decision?

This Australian Shepherd puppy's father is a black-tri; mother is a blue merle. What would cause this dog to have so much white color? Are there any general explanations as to why this might ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Coefficient of Inbreeding - implementation issue

The formula for the coefficient of inbreeding is as follows... I have a family tree going back 9 generations. Say I find a common ancestor X in the 4th generation on the mothers side and in the 5th ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Dispose off a medicinal substance

Is there a protocol or a set of guidelines to safely dispose off a batch of expired drugs (as a manufacturer)? I guess the process may vary for different drugs. My specific question regarding the safe ...
2
votes
0answers
9 views

Blosum matrix computation with X%

Why does the answers to the problem found in the referenced pdf, differ from my calculation below? I am trying to understand the math from this pdf from an online tutorial I am reading and my own math ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Is the problem of cryonics only the pressure?

According to the pop-sci sources which I drew on from, the only problem with freezing whole bodies its that you can't conserve it without freeze-damage. If you were keeping a cold-blooded animal in a ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

How can my baby DNA be “brand new”? [duplicate]

If it is assumed that "over time, our body and our DNA get damaged until we can no longer function properly", how is it that if I make a baby at the age of 40 with a partner of the same age, our baby ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Are there differences in energy of glucose isomers?

There are many isomers of glucose, including galactose and fructose. Do they have different chemical energy levels, and why? What makes galactose and fructose useful compared to glucose, and would ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

From STRUCTURE to FSTAT format

From numerical simulations I output a file that is input to STRUCTURE (Hubisz et al. 2009). I now realize that I would need to process my data with FSTAT (Goudet 1995). Both are text files. Is there ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Question regarding research project on indigenous ants during Eastern European winter

I am by no means biologist (I'm a programmer), but I want to make an experiment that involve the participation of ants. So please excuse my ignorance on the subject and my potentially uninformed ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Where can I find epigenetics related microarray dataset for Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases?

In my thesis project, one of the tasks regards co-expression network analysis for epigenetics (methylation) data. In GEO and Array Express repositories, I have already searched for the microarray ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

How much energy would it cost to synthesize all cholesterol requirements de novo?

Imagine a scenario in which some person is unable to absorb any dietary cholesterol because of some intestinal mutation (for example). Thus, they have no cholesterol available from their diet for ...
8
votes
3answers
217 views

Are non-coding RNAs introns?

I am slightly confused as to what part of the genome codes for non-coding RNAs. Is it the introns? This would make sense to me as to why they are not transcribed as the introns are not transcribed. Or ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Could drugs promoting angiogenesis be used as a treatment for burn victims?

From what I've learned from my textbooks and in class lecutures it seems that inducing angiogenesis for people with severe burns would be an excellent way to speed up the healing process. Is this ...

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