2
votes
1answer
21 views

Gemini usage of --sample-filter

I am using gemini to query databases made from vcf files, which contain data from multiple samples. However, I need to query data only from one sample, (for which I currently use grep to filter the ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Dogs recognize eachother on sight. How come?

Is it possible that the fact that dogs regonize eachother on sight is caused in the developing embryo, wich is to say that the developing map from wich the motorcells conect to the motorsystem somehow ...
14
votes
2answers
312 views

Why do people dying of immune deficiency diseases appear sick?

Please forgive the obviously silly appearance of this question, and/or of the tenor which may come across as flippant or dismissive of real world suffering. My intention is none of the above. As a ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Molecular Biology and Genetics [closed]

What's the best textbook and online courses to study Molecular biology and genetics for undergrad student?
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Infants tend to look longer at novel stimuli than at repeated stimuli, is this true in adults? [migrated]

I have recently read an article in which it is stated, that the researchers can discriminate if a baby knows an object, by looking at the length of time the baby looks at the object. Is this feature ...
3
votes
2answers
77 views

Why do pine stands exist?

I live in the midwestern United States. I cycle to work, sometimes on heavily wooded roads, and I can't help but notice that in most places within the surrounding deciduous forests Pine and evergreen ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

How are isovolumetric contraction and afterload related in the cardiac cycle?

In the cardiac cycle isovolumetric contraction occurs and causes a pressure gradient. The "afterload" is the pressure exerted on the ventricle from the artery. Is the afterload the cause of ...
-1
votes
0answers
35 views

Why does maximum likelihood rarely use morphological data? [closed]

ML uses Dna rather than morphological data most of the time, unlike parsimony. I was just wonder why this is the case
4
votes
1answer
39 views

Purifying large amounts of PCR product

I have had trouble purifying very large quantities of pure PCR product. We are using these as templates for the reconstitution of nucleosomes and I require hundreds of micrograms to milligrams of ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Find how much times blood is filtered in the kidney? [on hold]

The blood that circulates in our body is about 1/12 of our mass. If the kidneys filter 7.5 liter of blood a hour, then how many times does it filter in the kidney the whole blood of a person will mass ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

differentially expressed genes of the treated with estradiol samples

I did differential analysis on samples treated (G1E-ER4) with estradiol (differentiation induced by estradiol) and control (G1E). The genes that I gor as differentially expressed in G1E-ER4 showed ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the difference between a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and a plasmid?

Is it just that a BAC is generally larger and artificially constructed? Or are there any other differences?
6
votes
4answers
4k views

Do plants with non-green leaves have chlorophyll and photosynthesis?

Is it even possible that plants with non-green leaves have chlorophyll, and do such non-green leaved plants carry out photosynthesis?
2
votes
1answer
27 views

ADCs: by what mechanism are antibodies internalised [closed]

I read that ADCs (Antibody-Drug Conjugates) act by a -mab for a particular target being bonded to a cytotoxic compound. From my high-school-with-crayons knowledge of antibodies, however, one part of ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Is the relative amount off junk DNA a measure of an organisms complexity? [closed]

A rice plant contains as much active DNA (protein coding) as a human being. Can this be a sign that the more junk DNA the nucleus of a cell contains, the more complex the organism is that develops?
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Acrosomal enzymes and the female reproductive tract

My textbook wrote that the reason why acrosomal enzymes are so securely contained within the sperm (thus needing capacitation to facilitate their release) is to prevent any premature release in the ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

What came first? The DNA or the DNA polymerases?

I know this sounds a lot like chicken and egg question and while the latter has an answer, I am intrigued about the former. A modified form of the question would be, in the course of abiogenesis, ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

In the life-cycle of the HIV virus, how does the created DNA enter the nuclear membrane?

I am in a high school biology class, so I cannot truly attest to how accurate the information I am given is, but as far as I know only RNA and very small molecules can enter the nuclear membrane ...
11
votes
1answer
214 views

What is the transmembrane 'Positive-Inside Rule' nowadays? Has the definition changed over time?

First definition. Two publications by von Heijne in 1989 and 1992 coined the 'Positive-Inside rule' and showed it's practical value in topology prediction of transmembrane helices. It was clearly ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

At what cancer stage do tumors release circulating tumor cells into the blood?

And would a very accurate sensitive system for detecting circulating tumor cells (which detects 1 cell per 50 billion) be useful as a screening tool ?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

I am 15 and 163 cm tall - will I grow taller? [migrated]

I am a 15 year old Indian. I currently stand at 163 cms but I weigh 75 kg, which is overweight I know. But is there any way I'll grow more? If yes, how much? My dad's height is 172 cm and my mom is ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Diffusion coefficient of cells in blood?

What's the diffusion coefficient of white cells in blood? Is it well defined, or are cells too large and few as to be treated as particles in this context? PD: I have tried to look this up, but what ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Hydrophilic vs water soluble? [migrated]

Is the term 'hydrophilic' a synonym of 'water soluble' or can you have a molecule that is water insoluble but hydrophilic (or water soluble and not hydrophilic)?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

head transplant on monkeys [closed]

According to Wikipedia: In 2015, Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero has said the procedure (head anastomosis venture) might be feasible – with improved technology and more accurate ability ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

What is the term for toes that pull together with an upstep?

I fairly recently learned the term digitigrade, to describe the anatomy of a creature that stands on its toes rather than on the flat of its foot, like cats and ...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

Etymology of the term monilophyte

I would like to know the origin of the term Monilophyta. I know it's from Kenrick and Crane, but where did they get monilo-? It's not in my enormous Liddell and Scott Greek dictionary, nor is there ...
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Examples of animals with 12-28 legs?

Many commonly known animals' limbs usually number between 0 and 10. For example, a non-exhaustive list: snakes have 0 Members of Bipedidae have 2 legs. Birds and humans have 2 legs (but 4 limbs) ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Bacteria surviving a β-lactam antibiotic

What changes can occur in the cell wall of a bacteria for it to survive a β-lactam antibiotic? I think that because a bacteria possesses peptidoglycan in its cell wall, they are β-lactam sensitive, ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How to detect Zika in mosquitos

I'll keep this as brief as I can. I am an engineer and I have an idea for an early detection system for the Zika virus. I want to build it. However, first I need to do research on how one detects Zika ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

When and why did humans start disliking the way we naturally smell? [closed]

Like many animals, humans produce pheromones as well as other scents from sweating, bacteria, etc. Many of these scents are used throughout the animal kingdom for mate choice, recognition of ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What percent of cells are lysed when I make my smoothie?

This is an entirely irreverent question, but it does concern biology. I'm a physicist by training so I like to be able to estimate order of magnitude. I made a smoothie the other day with milk, ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Do endosymbiotic organelles have Latin classification?

Do endosymbiotic organelles such as chloroplasts or mitochondria have Latin classification?
21
votes
3answers
4k views

Did the Zika virus mutate?

The Zika virus was already present in known to the world (mostly in Southeast Asia) before the current outbreak. Why has the virus caused such an extreme outbreak? Has it mutated from its ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

How does a test like the Natera Panorama distinguish the child's genome from the mother?

Blood tests on an expectant mother, like the Natera Panorama, are now being used regularly to screen fetuses for chromosome abnormalities. At my wife's recent prenatal visit, she wasn't really even ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Supporting evidence to research paper

I am writing a research paper about the connection between age and active memory. I have been writing about the changes/development in grey and white matter, and in particular about synaptic pruning ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How to increase pheomelanin production?

How can you increase the pheomelanin production in your body, while decreasing the eumelanin production? In other words, shifting the balance towards pheomelanin. From what I see, sulfur and cysteine ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Is it known how human sweat glands evolved?

If human descends from apes than probably we lost our hair. Perhaps in the age of homo erectus we lost our hairs and began transpiring through our skin with sweat glands. But how did these glands ...
3
votes
3answers
4k views

Which organs do cats not eat on their prey?

My female cat is a very active hunter and brings me her prey daily. Except for shrews and birds, she always eats them entirely. This afternoon she brought me this: It was quite large (maybe ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Amplified Fragment Lenth Polymorphism (AFLP) primers

I am trying to blast AFLP primer sequences to the genome to find the locations of the AFLP markers. However, I can't seem to find full alignments for the primers on the genome. For example, in the ...
13
votes
1answer
156 views

Doing a medical study on yourself?

What research guidelines is a person legally mandated to follow if they want to do medical experimentation on themselves? There is a large amount of variation in the types of medical experiments so I ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Do DNA supply houses maintain a watch list for dangerous oligos (Anthrax, Smallpox, etc.)?

The recent work by DeLoache, et al. on a synthetic opiate-precursor production pathway in yeast has generated a lot of scare stories in the media about people homebrewing heroin as easily as they ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Glucose to Glucose-6-phosphate [duplicate]

What does actually occur- ATP is hydrolysed and esterification between glucose and HPO4^2- (formed as a result of hydrolysis) take place to form Glucose-6-phosphate or nucleophilic attack of O- of ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Why bone marrow patient and donor cannot meet? [migrated]

There's a common policy that bone marrow patient and donor aren't allowed to meet or reveal their identities. In some countries they can't meet for a year of two after the transplant. In some others ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Why is the penicillin/ceftriaxone hypersensitivity test only done once?

I have had a severe bacterial infection. I was prescribed ceftriaxone, and when the time came for injecting it the nurse asked me whether I have an allergy to ceftriaxone. I answered that it's my ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Explain allelic complementation at molecular level

I know that Allelic complementation is a phenomenon where two recessive loss-of-function allele generate a functional gene product by compensating each others' defect. But I don't get how do they ...
15
votes
3answers
7k views

Can the dead be brought back to life by viruses?

Zombies have been a part of popular culture for decades. The living dead rising up to take over the world is a terrifying concept, worthy of Hollywood blockbusters and television hits. Some of those ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

What tools are used in animal cloning?

So I was reading up on articles to do a project about cloning but there were no places in the article where It states the tool used to take the gene out of the nucleus and insert it into plasmids ? ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How does symbiogenesis explain reproduction of organelles along with the cell?

Symbiogenesis is an evolutionary theory that says that prokaryotes eventually evolved into eukaryotes (having multiple organelles and better structure) by forming symbiotic relationships with other ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Why is ATP converted into glucose

In photosynthesis ATP is produced in light-dependent reactions only to go to the Calvin cycle to be turned into glucose to make ATP during respiration: Why isn't this ATP just directly released ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the Michael Jackson skin pigmentation disease realistic?

Quoting wikipedia: Jackson's skin had been a medium-brown color for the entire duration of his youth, but starting in the mid-1980s, it gradually grew paler. The change gained widespread media ...

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