2
votes
0answers
35 views

Estimated protein size using CDs data [closed]

The number of amino acids in a protein is important to predict their size. I used coding DNA sequence (CDs) to predict the average of the protein size of E.coli k12 from a sample provided by the ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
1
vote
1answer
27 views

How would cloning affect conservation of rare species?

Many species are at risk of extinction, and cloning could be seen as a relatively quick method to produce large numbers of members of the species to aid in conservation efforts, especially if the ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What should I do if there's a mistake in my textbook regarding anatomy? [migrated]

Some information in my college level Anatomy and Physiology textbook is about a decade (if not more) out of date? The information does not only cause a lack of understanding, but also encourages a ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Amino acids in human cancer cells expose dextrorotation?

I would like to know if the amino acids in the human cancer cells are dextrorotatory or levorotatory. I mean the majority of them. They expose levorotation just like the amino acids in the normal ...
4
votes
0answers
68 views

Does Cas9 require a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for it to work in a Eukaryote?

I'm trying to establish if it's required to add a NLS to Cas9 when expressed (or transfected) in a Eukaryotic cell. Several papers report using a viral NLS, but is it absolutely necessary? Could ...
4
votes
0answers
39 views

Does depolymerisation take place at the minus end of microtubule?

Wikipedia says that Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the 'ends' of a microtubule. but Karp's Cell Biology, 7th edition says Dynamic instability ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Measuring physical properties in soft tissue

I am working in a mathematical model of tumor growth in the framework of continuum mechanics. This kind of models allows to take in to account not just the tumor, but also the physical forces such as ...
5
votes
1answer
44 views

EC number classification of synthase?

It is quoted in wikipedia that: Following the EC number classification, they belong to the group of ligases , with lyases catalysing the reverse reaction. And we all know that enzymes are ...
17
votes
1answer
4k views

What is this crawling next to my house?

I just found this outside my house while walking the dog. I was thinking it's some kind of slug? It's been raining a lot lately and today, so maybe that has something to do with it being on the ...
7
votes
1answer
204 views

Why is aconitase classified as a lyase?

Aconitase in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle isomerizes citric acid to isocitric acid via cis-aconitic acid intermediate. Since overall it functions as an isomerase, why it does not belong to ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Relationship between genetic diversity within and between species

Here is a quote from Wagner (2008) A second line of evidence [against neutralism] comes from the relationship between the mean number of polymorphic differences between alleles within a species, ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

What do arranging and assigning mean in sequence annotation?

Please could someone explain these lines to me in a simple way These sequences were then arranged based on some overlapping regions present in them. This required generation of overlapping ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Why are sarcomas rare compared to carcinomas?

A sarcoma (from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh") is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Thus, malignant tumors made of cancellous bone, cartilage, fat, ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

A 10mm long creature in the California dust

I observed this tiny creature burrowing through the dusty soil of Cachuma Lake Recreation Area in Santa Barbara County, California, on June 8, 2014, about 7 a.m. I have really no clue what it could ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

What is the difference between a Human Being, Homo Sapiens and a Neanderthal?

I know that the Neanderthal's are a branch of the Human Being but how do all three relate to each other or more specifically what is the difference?
3
votes
1answer
19 views

What is the effect of TSH on the calcitonin?

I know that TSH is released from the pituitary gland and it motivates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, and calcitonin is released when the calcium level is high in the blood, but is calcitonin ...
-1
votes
1answer
49 views

Has anyone done a GCTA of leg length? [closed]

There is extensive genomic research on height, but nobody seems to have done a gcta of leg length.
0
votes
1answer
36 views

What's the name of this insect?

Here's a picture: That's pretty much it, besides that it was found in Vienna, Austria. Edit: Thanks to Magne Flåten; it's called Hausmutter in German.
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Are there any pre-existing evolutionary explanations for the viscosity and abundance of canine mucus?

If there is, it's not something you find on search engines. To be honest, I first posed this question in a "Bad Ad-hoc Hypothesis" convention kind of context, but now I'm curious if there's any real ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Complementar receptor proteins on T-cells to antigens

T-cells have receptor proteins that are complementary to antigens on a pathogen. But what if a pathogen infects the body and none of the T-cells in the body have receptor proteins complementary to the ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

why is the cleavage in frogs holoblastic and not meroblastic?

background information The cleavage of the frog embryo during the embryo development is holoblastic (complete cleavage). However when we look at yolk-rich eggs we see a cleavage pattern which is ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

miRNA_ID to GENE_SYMBOL conversion

I have a list of miRNA IDs and a list of mRNA IDs and they are from Mus musculus species. I have converted the list of mRNA IDs to gene symbols by a list of data that was exist in NCBI and miRNA IDs ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Moss Transportation System

In my biology textbook, it says that mosses are avasculer and do not have xylem like spermatophytes. So by what means do mosses transport nutrients ?
5
votes
3answers
105 views

What is the difference between a predator and a parasite?

A human encountering a tiger or a malaria plasmodium is likely to suffer, and the tiger/plasmodium is likely to gain from the transaction. Not necessarily a good example, and I am aware that a ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Opening and Closing of stomata

Which is the more accepted theory for the opening and Closing of stomata : the sugar concentration theory or the k+ ion theory ?
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Plasmolysis vs Flaccidity in cells

When is a cell said to be flaccid and when is it called plasmolysed? So far I found that there is a specific relation to osmosis.
-2
votes
2answers
47 views

Can all elements be found in our body? [closed]

There are many Natural occurring atomic elements. Can they all be found in the human body?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Dihybrid Cross Help Please

lobe eyes female x crossveinless wing male F1 Progeny: Female lobe eyes: 5023 Male Lobe eyes: 4931 F2 progeny: Female wild: 1241 Male wild:630 Female lobe eyes:3803 Male lobe eyes:1892 ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Why is the middle finger longer than the others? [duplicate]

Possibly it has to do with making the hand shaped more symmetrically (in a sense as a spear) when the hand is flat with the fingers closed together? Or has it to do with the length of the metacarpal ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Are there specific non-protein substances that pathogens release into their host?

Reading research articles, I have found out that proteins called effectors get released into the host cell when a pathogen attacks a host. My question is, whether pathogens also release non-protein ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Which ingested allergens can be transferred to a partner via bodily fluids?

Can some allergens, such as peanut traces, appear in bodily fluids (saliva, sweat, semen, vaginal secretion) after ingestion? I would like to know in particular intake of which allergens should be ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Does CoA always bind to organic molecules through a thiol bond?

Does CoA always bind to organic molecules through a thiol bond? Sometimes I see it written as SCoA in textbooks but sometimes it's just written as CoA, are those actually chemically different, or just ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Do bacteria grow on pure dry glucose?

I've accidentally touched pure glucose with my bare hands (fingers to be specific), which was intended for cell-culture. I'm worried that bacteria from my skin may start to grow on the glucose and ...
5
votes
2answers
63 views

How does the brain know what to remember and what not?

People remember some information for example when learning for an exam, or remember to go to a shop after work etc., but we don't remember usually much other stuff like people passing us, what was the ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

If life is found on Mars, what can be deduced about its possible common origin as Earth life? [closed]

Assume that life is found on Mars, or anywhere out of Earth where it can be sampled and closely studied. Would we know if it is related with Earth life? By what primary means, what characteristics ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Do different emotions produce different tears?

Do tears of joy, laugh, grieve, and others contain different things or are they all the same?
3
votes
2answers
55 views

What is the most appropriate way to normalize gene expression data?

This question comes because reading a paper about normalization of gene-expression data, is not clear if the method for normalize the data is just for RNA-Seq data or could be applied also for ...
4
votes
0answers
19 views

Extiction of non-mammal Synapsida

I am following M.J. Benton's Vertebrate Palaeontology, which explains how many groups of Synapsida were already extinct in the Mesozoic Era, with one obvious exception being the group of Cynodontia, ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Why human hair is losing its color over time? [duplicate]

Human hair is losing its color over time, that's a known fact. I would like to know why, meaning what biological processes are involved in this? Also, is it part of the DNA somehow, i.e. the exact ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Why do people tend to stand on one leg? [closed]

I know for a fact, by observing people and from own experience (you can try it yourself while standing, but not too consciously and in a loose way) that they (like birds), while standing, tend to do ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

What is the Ramachandran z-score of a denatured protein? [on hold]

I thought it should be 0, but the professor pointed out I was wrong. What should the Ramachandran z-score of a denatured protein be?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Cells of Zona pellucida

My textbook states: Blastocyst hatches out by lysis of Zona pellucida with the help of the enzyme strypsin, Later the cells of Zona pellucida gradually disappear. We know that Zona pellucida is ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Cell division - meiosis

Really confused. How many chromosomes pairs do humans have in their sex cells? How many single chromosomes do humans have in their sex cells?
2
votes
1answer
35 views

How many rounds of TCA Cycle would a complete oxidation of a triacyl(15-Carbon fatty acid)-glycerol, give?

This was a trickier question on a previous test, and I'm still not sure why, but the answer was "at least four". I answered "more than 22" and got it marked wrong. I assume that each fatty acid chain ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Does the edge effect promote biodiversity?

I define the edge effect as: A term used to describe what occurs at habitat boundaries where two bordering communities influence one another. My question is whether it generally leads to an increase ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Moth with silver marking on wings

This is a moth that we found on a curtain inside the house a couple of days ago. Unfortunately, these pictures did not come out as well as I thought before I realized it outside. But I was struck my ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Why is chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) most common leukemia in the West but so rare in Asia?

In "Advances in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia" (2013, Edited by Sami Malek), several times it is stated that CLL is very common in Western countries. However, it is quite rare in Asia. (I do not have ...

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