6
votes
2answers
114 views

Do we have fundamental conflict in biology?

As saying "fundamental conflict", I mean something like two (or more) widely accepted results from different areas (or scales) can not exist logically together. In physics, there have been three ...
0
votes
1answer
11 views

What is contiguous premise culling and dangerous contact culling?

I am reading this paper related to FMD (foot and mouth disease) epidemics which occurred in UK. It mentioned about terms like IP (infected premise culling), CP (contiguous premise) and DC (dangerous ...
5
votes
1answer
30 views

Can we produce synthetic red blood cells lacking antigens?

I had an idea come to me during Biology class and I immediately asked my teacher, but she couldn't really answer the question, so I'll ask it here. What are the limiting factors in the production of ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

GPCRs: Gi and Gs

GPCR = G-protein coupled receptor Gi = G inhibitory alpha subunit Gs = G stimulatory alpha subunit Are there structural differences between Gi and Gs subunits (secondary structure)? Or is it just ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Recessive alleles at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

I've run into a question that I disagree with others on but I would like to receive the input of others. The question is: If a population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which of the following can ...
4
votes
1answer
78 views

Do human-ape hybrids exist?

Since humans and apes share up to 99% of their DNA, can they interbreed? For example, a horse and a donkey seem to be just as distantly related and produce offspring. Mules, however, are sterile. ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Why do genes with closely related functions often reside on different chromosomes?

Why do genes with closely related products are so often positioned on different chromosomes? To illustrate what I mean, here is an example from immunology: the invariant region of MHC is on ...
3
votes
2answers
71 views

Before I move my arm the brain sends signals - what causes the brain to send signals? [closed]

Please tell me what causes the brain to send signals, how does the brain send signals? can you tell me what happens between the point when you make an intention to pick up a glass of water, and ...
5
votes
2answers
202 views

Specificity of the immune system

We know that the adaptive immune system recognizes foreign particles when their proteins are expessed of the the surface of T-cells, complexed with MHCs. But MHCs present only short peptides of length ...
5
votes
0answers
65 views

Does crude oil or kerogen contain ancient DNA?

According to wikipedia by the formation of oil there are a lot of organic materials present including DNA. Is it possible that this DNA is conserved somehow for millions of years?
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Is there any biological support for the concept of “chakras”? [closed]

Is there any support in modern biology for the ancient concept of "Chakras"? I've seen the concept of 7 chakras linked to the major endocrine glands in the human body (pineal,thyroid, adrenal, ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Question regarding an Escherichia coli reaction

With respect to this link http://www.biocyc.org/ECOLI/NEW-IMAGE?type=REACTION&object=RXN-14479 Here the enzyme is mentioned and the two reacting compounds. Now , my question is 1. When these ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

pedigree analysis of inbreeding

Under a given situation of cousin inbreeding, I will obtain the same inbreeding coefficient ragardless of using the genealogy or the path approach, i.e. F=1/16 ...
-1
votes
1answer
83 views

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog?

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog? In other words what changes take place as a tadpole becomes a frog, and does this metamorphosis affect the DNA in any way? I would appreciate ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Why is translocation of food in the phloem still a debate?

I currently take tertiary-high school biology and I am taught that translocation of food in the phloem occurs by the pressure flow hypothesis. I would like to ask why it is still a hypothesis, and ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Are vegetables really needed in our diet?

I want to believe that eating vegetables is necessary even when one takes vitamins, but I can't find any medical evidence for this. To make my question specific, suppose a study on twins were done in ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Why can we control our breath rate but not our heart rate? [closed]

Even though we cannot survive for more than few minutes if we stop breathing or if our heart stops, why is it so that our heart beat is controlled involuntarily while breathing can be voluntarily ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

How do minute changes in an organism, as a result of evolution, get carried over to next generation

Theory of evolution states that random variations in organisms occur to better suit their surroundings. We take for example a bacteria's flagella. There's a bacteria who has a tube kind of structure ...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Oscillatory electrical system using a chain of neurons

Many daily activities that we perform are result of inbuilt oscillatory circuits in our body. For example walking, breathing, heart beat, blinking, etc. The coding and decoding of stored memory also ...
7
votes
1answer
163 views

What is the reason behind high resting membrane potential of pacemaker cells?

Pacemaker cells have high resting membrane potentials of -50 to -40 mV, whereas normal cells have their resting membrane potential around -70 mV. Which ions, and what kind of channels are responsible ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

Woodpecker pecking, an effective evolution? [closed]

I was sitting out on my balcony earlier and saw a woodpecker land on a tree nearby. It began pecking at the tree, and did so about five times, in intervals of about four pecks each time, before ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

How many mitotic divisions do haploid cells undergo before fertilization?

Background This question is about human physiology and gametogenesis. A spermatozoid is not necessarily the direct "offspring" of diploid cell. Stated differently, a spermatozoid cell can be the ...
0
votes
2answers
26 views

Ribosomal DNA references sequences

I'm having a bit of trouble with searching for this piece of information. I'm doing a study related to phylogenetic susceptibility of hosts to pathogens (based on a recent Nature publication), ...
-2
votes
1answer
75 views

Our muscles give us the ability to move our arms but…? [closed]

I have a strange question, but let me tell you something first. If you think of this carefully, then you realize something, please try this right now: Contract your muscles only so that your arms ...
3
votes
0answers
23 views

How can I create R8 (homopolymer repeat) filter without using illumina pipeline?

illumina instruments have built-in -or online- analysis software for variant analysis (CASAVA). This software can filter out the false positive variants near the homopolymer repeats (AAAAAAAA) and ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Difference between pulse and blood pressure

I'm a very naive and biologically illiterate person, and from what I've read on the internet I'm not really sure I understand the difference between pulse and ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

What is the probability of fixation for a mutant under fluctuating selection?

Here is an answer which explain how one can model the frequency of an allele that is under fluctuating selection (selection that varies through time). Not, thinking about fluctuating selection, there ...
1
vote
2answers
27 views

Primer Design With Primer-BLAST

I am trying to design primers for sanger sequencing snp detection. In the past I have used Primer-BLAST, but I'm trying to pick up KRAS codon 12 mutations. The problem is that in Primer-BLAST you ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

How far in can non-extremophiles live, in Earth?

I am a high school student. I'm doing a project where I need to find a planet in our galaxy that might be habitable. Then I need to create an organism that could live on that planet and justify ...
6
votes
1answer
39 views

Parameters for Fitzhugh-Nagumo model of Action Potential

I'm a high school student who's currently in AP Biology, so my background in biology is quite limited. I'm interested in mathematically modelling action potentials. Doing a quick google search, I ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular?

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular? What are the cases in which it can be both uni and multi cellular?
-5
votes
1answer
56 views

Why do fingers swell during cold winters?

When exercising, tissue in the hands may swell. This may be caused by the muscles generating heat, which leads to blood being pushed to the vessels closest to the surface of your body to dissipate the ...
7
votes
2answers
75 views

Is cyanocobalamin toxic?

I see that cyanocobalamin is not naturally occurring, and is synthesized in vivo to methylcobalamin. As part of the synthetic pathway, cyanide is broken off. All opinions I can find are that this ...
1
vote
2answers
19 views

How is the “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in this paper?

Could anyone please explain to be in very basic terms how Fig 2, and the associated text(located above the figure) is done? The jargon is too much for me to understand and I really need a simplified, ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Can intron become exon in alternative splicing?

From this image We can saw several exon that is actually intron in other gene. It's not a really different gene, it's an alternative splicing of a gene. My background is not biology so is it ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Human bone density and Brown Bear bone density?

It is stated on this website that the density of a Grizzly bear bone is ten times our own. And since I am not into biology at all, I am confused as I don't understand the meaning of bone density here. ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Evolutionary distance between Canidae, Felidae, and Rodentia

Comparing the families Canidae and Felidae, which have the shorter evolutionary distance to the order Rodentia? Less sophisticatedly put, are cats or dogs more related to rodents?
2
votes
1answer
28 views

What does it mean: carrying the stably integrated gene

Reading this study http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v23/n10/full/cr2013122a.html They writing Multiple exogenous and endogenous genes can be simultaneously activated by CRISPR-on We tested ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Resources of all known biochemical pathways?

I am looking for a encyclopedia or biochemical pathway atlas of all known or reported pathways. I am very much interested in network and systems biology. Also the references can be open databases, ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Energy transformations in chemiosmosis and ATP synthase

In terms of energy, how does chemiosmosis drive ATP synthase? How does electrical energy turn into mechanical energy and then into chemical energy? Would the movement of $H^+$ be considered passive ...
4
votes
1answer
19 views

Is it possible to express the cistrons from a polycistronic insertion fragment in a single plasmid?

I have a insertion fragment that I wish to express from pUC19 in Escherichia coli. The insertion fragment is a sub-section from a larger operon sequence and contains just the last two cistrons from ...
10
votes
4answers
643 views

How can we differentiate between respiration and breathing?

I am a student of 10th grade, and I eagerly want to learn biology. What is the difference between respiration and breathing?
7
votes
1answer
248 views

Can scientists name themselves in the scientific name when they discover a new taxon?

There are sometimes people names in taxonomy, like Myotis keenii was names after Mr. Keen who contributed to discover the species. So, if you discover a species and someone else is constructing the ...
2
votes
3answers
65 views

Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
0
votes
0answers
20 views

What are some commonalities between biology systems and semiconductor physics?

It seems that fundamentally both neural system and semiconductors are operating using similar principles on the same scale. Things such as drift and diffusion current plays major role in both systems. ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Has a new functional structure ever been observed arising spontaneously?

Have we ever observed a new functional biological structure arising spontaneously such as a new functional organ (sensory or otherwise. such as tracing some creature in the past few hundred years ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Reliability of Sanger sequencing

Hailed as the "gold standard" of sequencing, I was wondering to what Sanger sequencing owes its incredible accuracy to. If possible, I would like a quantification of the accuracy (because I doubt it ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Stop codons and exons?

If we had a hypotheical gene called gene exampleGene and this gene had 5 exons, labeled A, B, C, D, and E in that order on the chromosome, could it be the case that the stop codon for this gene be on ...
5
votes
1answer
105 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...

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