1
vote
0answers
90 views

Why are there ghost images of objects just out of focus

I have observed an interesting phenomena with my vision lately. I just think I have never reflected over this before but it might always have been this way. I am nearsighted and have no problem with ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Hypoglossal nerve location

I kind of know where the hypoglossal nerve is located when I look at the diagram but I'd like to know how far is the nerve from the skin and where is the closest area to the skin before and right ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

What would the blood work look like for someone on a very high protein diet? [closed]

What will blood test results look like for someone on a very high protein diet consuming 1-2g of protein per pound of bodyweight per day? Is it healthy to maintain such a diet?
6
votes
1answer
110 views

What recovers normal polarisation after hyperpolarisation?

I have been taught that a Na+/K+ pump helps to recover normal polarisation after hyperpolarisation in neurons. I could not find out how it does that, since I've also been taught that such a pump moves ...
0
votes
3answers
76 views

how to find accurately the closest species to my plant species?

I'm working on some bioinformatic analysis of a non-model woody plant within the family with least information. So, I'm looking for a closest species to my plant. Any suggestion would be highly ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

Dominant and recessive epistasis [closed]

Can anyone clarify my confusion about that the epistasis seen in "Labradors , an example of recessive or dominant epistasis? ? I am not getting definite results . It's dominant somewhere and ...
3
votes
2answers
59 views

Terminology for inefficacy of selection on recessive alleles

I am wondering is there some proper terminology which is used to say that deleterious recessive alleles might be able to hide, reducing the the efficacy of selection, in diploid organisms/chromosomes. ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

What is meant by clonal isolates?

With respect to this website: http://horfdb.dfci.harvard.edu/ what does the term clonal isolates mean?
1
vote
1answer
39 views

How many NOD like receptors in Human?

This is pretty specific question maybe. Anybody have an estimate? For Toll Like Receptors there are something like 10... http://www.jbc.org/content/276/4/2551.long I'm only finding NOD1 and NOD2 => ...
3
votes
1answer
924 views

Why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?

This causes more transpiration to occur from lower leaf surface. What's the exact reason for why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?
1
vote
0answers
15 views

rRNA colony PCR amplification not working

We used some universal primers to amplify rDNA in a certain isolated bacterial specie. The problem is that rDNA PCR is not amplifying. Primers were working well in other strains of same bacterial ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Why gays are gay? [duplicate]

Is there any study on this topic ? Some of my gay friends have choose to be gay, some others said they always have been. Is there some evidence of education, genetic or environmental criterion on this ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Would somebody born 'reversed' (e.g. heart on their right side, etc.) be completely healthy?

By reversed I mean their body is a complete mirror image of a normal human's.
2
votes
1answer
160 views

Why are Oxyuranus snake species named Taipan?

It is interesting, why are Oxyuranus species called Taipan. The snakes are Australian but taipan looks like of Chinese origin word (it means big shot - important person).
2
votes
1answer
70 views

White blood: cells concentration

Anyone knows of a table with average concentration that can be found in white blood? Something like: Neutrophils - 80% Mast cells - ?% Dendritic cells - ?% B cells - ?% Helper T cells - ?% Killer ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

Stable and strong promoter?

I need a mammalian promoter that will maintain stable expression through differentiation. I was originally planning to employ UbC for this specific project, however new information from a different ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

What is the Magnitude of Nonspecific Oligo Binding at Low Temperatures

I am working on designing a protocol to capture genomic sequencing bound oligos (the part in question is identical to primer binding of genomic DNA during a PCR reaction). I'm wondering if anyone can ...
2
votes
2answers
167 views

Cleavage of RNA by restriction enzymes?

Six restriction enzymes discussed in Sequence-specific cleavage of RNA by Type II restriction enzymes (Murray et al.) have the ability to detect and cut RNA strands with that enzyme's recognition ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Question about contents of small bowel

I know, or at least I think I do, that the contents of the stomach are called chyme and that it is acidic. What are the contents of the small bowel called and is it acidic?
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Downstream analysis after in vivo pathogen RNAseq

We performed RNA-Seq of in vivo bacterial samples and identified some key up- and down-regulated pathways. We compared bacteria during infection with conventional agar plate. Which could be the next ...
0
votes
2answers
52 views

Mathematical modelling of omics data [closed]

I'm interested in modelling host-pathogen interactions using mathematics. I know there are good resources in Pubmed but seems I'm looking for a book or introductory reviews. My background in maths is ...
9
votes
1answer
731 views

Why is the brain dependent on glucose?

The strict dependence of the (human) brain on glucose has always been puzzling to me. While ketones can substitute for a portion of the brain's energy needs, it cannot substitute completely: blood ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Are upstream activating factor (UAF) and upstream binding factor (UBF) the same thing?

During ribosome pre-40S and pre-60S synthesis, many sources state the importance of UAF or UBF in initiation complex of ribosome DNA transcription. None of the sources I've seen mentions the other ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Would it be more genetically efficient to have shorter lifespans?

If, for example, humans had an average lifespan of, say, 30 years, and we reached sexual maturity at age 10, then we could "evolve" more quickly and theoretically "weed-out" more genetic diseases ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Very introductory online source of information in evolutionary biology

We receive quite a lot of questions from layman in evolutionary biology in this site that are sometimes difficult to answer just because there is way too much to say. Why don't human keep evolving? is ...
0
votes
2answers
290 views

Why don't we keep evolving until we are super-human? [duplicate]

Humans (homo sapiens) have been on the earth for thousands of generations, and we have kept evolving throughout that time. Why don't we just keep evolving so that, let's say, we live for an average of ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Evolutionarily, why do male rats and horses lack nipples?

Developmentally male rats don't have nipples because (reddit) Testosterone release in the fetal male rat happens before the stage of mammogenesis where the teat is formed whereas other species ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

How does myopia actually work?

This is potentially more or less a question about optics, but I've never been truly satisfied with any explanation that I've been given about Myopia. In fact, I almost can't even believe it. There are ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Mitochondrial D-Loop

I know that the D-loop is a DNA complex in which the strands of double helix DNA molecule are separated for a stretch and held apart by a third strand of DNA. Usually, this third strand has a base ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Concerning rDNA in cloning, and how to determine the coding strand.

When you create a cDNA library from eukaryotic mRNA, the original mRNA would become the coding strand for the bacterial transcripts. My question is how is RNA Poly correctly oriented one the ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Infrared emitting diode eye safety

I'm thinking of creating my own laser tag system and am a bit concerned about the eye safety aspect. Most of the homebrew system I've seen use the TSAL 6100 ...
3
votes
0answers
243 views

E. coli not growing in liquid medium

We are regularly doing bacterial transformation and subculture from plate to liquid media to extract DNA. This usually goes very well and is straightforward, but occasionally, the colonies that grew ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

did pteranodons live in colonies?

In one book I read that pteranodons lived in huge colonies. But pteranodon's family in "Dinosaur Train" ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_Train ) does not seem to be a part of any colony. So, ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Why do teeth decay of sugar?

Sugars is a common component in diet of mammals. Why then their teeth did not develop resistence to sugar decay?
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Why MHC class I antigen presentation exist in normal cells?

The book "Kuby Immunology" states that normal infected cells might present antigenic peptides on their surface via MHC class I, but these can't activate naive CD8 cells. Only infected professional ...
3
votes
2answers
360 views

Why are some housekeeping genes considered better?

Whenever a PCR is done, we have to use housekeeping genes like GAPDH, to self normalise the values to account for different starting cDNA/DNA. Now there are many different genes like GAPDH, ubiquitin, ...
3
votes
0answers
270 views

Storing Taqman plates with polymerase in fridge before running

I'm going to be running some Taqman assays on cDNA generated from RNA collected from various samples, and will end up running a bunch of plates (right now the setup is 1/2 a plate per sample, ...
1
vote
1answer
200 views

An example for N50? Why do we need it?

I'm trying to understand N50 on the wikipedia. But I was unable to get a sense of the definition: Given a set of contigs, each with its own length, the N50 length is defined as the length for ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Specific numbers of nucleotides in Okazaki fragments

Okazaki fragments are formed during replication of the lagging DNA strand. What determines the length of these fragments?
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Without help of Insects, can plants & trees bear fruits & flowers? [closed]

Without help of Insects, can plants & trees bear fruits & flowers?
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Why low variant frequency in exomeseq data (ANNOVAR)?

I've got an annotated ANNOVAR file with 300.000 nucleotide variants of 4 genomes. There's one thing I don't understand when looking at the data: Why are the variant frequencies so low in comparison to ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

History: Building a “Phylogenetic network” of famous evolutionary biologists [closed]

Seems like many of the famous evolutionary biologists are somehow related to each others. For example (and I might be mistaken), Ronald A. Fisher was mentored by a descendent of Charles Darwin. Joe ...
6
votes
1answer
79 views

What are the units of Phylogenetic Independent Contrasts (PICs)

PICs are a popular phylogenetic comparative method and I was wondering what units the actual contrasts are in. I want to say they are unitless but I am not entirely sure.
4
votes
1answer
105 views

How could I identify whether given RNA-seq data is paired end or single end

I need to have a RNA-Seq dataset and therefore, I've visited the following site NCBI-geo C. Elegans In the Supplemantary file part, I clicked the SRP/SRP051/SRP051702 ftp and downloaded sra file. ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

How to compute the regression of individual fitness on individual phenotype

Consider a population structured in groups of two individuals. Individuals' interactions follow an additive prisoner's dilemma: \begin{array}{c |c |c|} & C & D \\ \hline \text{Cooperate (} C ...
4
votes
2answers
333 views

Mechanism behind negative conductance of ion channels

I am struggling to understand negative conductance shown on I-V curves on ion channels. Mechanistically, negative conductance means that inward (or outward) current increases when voltage across ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

What does this mutation notation mean: MAP2K41161fs*12

I received a report that had a mutation notated as: "MAP2K41161fs*12". I'm used to seeing this sort of thing: BRAF(V600E) or BRAF(T1799TA). Can someone tell me how to interpret "MAP2K41161fs*12" ?? Is ...
5
votes
1answer
218 views

Influence of eating at late night on sleep

I have often heard the saying that one shouldn't eat a mountain of food because blood will go to the stomach and it'll be difficult to sleep well because the stomach can't rest at night. I see that ...
3
votes
2answers
189 views

How to conceptualize the action potential?

In my AP Biology class, we were taught that action potentials are not electrical impulses in the same way current travels through a wire. Rather, we were taught that action potentials are changing ...
1
vote
2answers
137 views

Trying to understand the big picture behind DNA sequencing, alignment and searching

I'm about to start a bioinformatics research project but I haven't any biological background. I know my project is in regards to a performance analysis of DNA sequencing and searching "weapons" like ...

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