3
votes
3answers
132 views

Help explain multi alleles in terms of actual genetic code

I understand that someones genetic makeup at an allele is usually denoted as (AA,Aa,aa). That means that instead of an A-T pair you get a C-G pair on none, 1 or 2 copies. Now, what exactly happens ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

What are the Gateway clonase enzymes?

The Gateway cloning system utilizes what Life Technologies refers to as "Clonase enzyme mix" to catalyze the BP and LR reactions. What is in this enzyme mix? Is there a sequence for them?
2
votes
0answers
31 views

examples of chromosomal aberrations with lack of sexual chromosomes?

Are there any examples in animals where individuals survive having no copies of their sexual chromosomes?
3
votes
1answer
128 views

Dimerization of Immunoglobulin G

I would like to know the specific determinants for formation of IgG dimers. My understanding is the stem of the antibody is a homodimer of two heavy chains, covalently bonded through two disulfide ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Why are embryonic germ cells considered stem cells?

In a class that I'm taking we were presented 3 types of stem cells. Adult stem cells which come from bone marrow Embryonic stem cells which come from embryos Embryonic germ cells which come from ...
2
votes
2answers
51 views

What are Antihistamines doing in a baby?

In his song Lullaby, Tim Minchin sings: Your nappy is dry and your tummy is full Of enough antihistamine to chill out a bull Yet still all this gringing According to Wikipedia, ...
4
votes
1answer
771 views

How does a pine cone open?

When a pine cone is wet, it remains closed. However, when it's dry it opens again. From the perspective of physics or biomechanics, what is the mechanism that allows a pine cone to open and close as ...
27
votes
7answers
4k views

Why does evolution not make our life longer?

Why does evolution not make life longer for humans or any other species?
2
votes
1answer
64 views

How to study the effect on tau protein isoforms on microtubule based transport?

From what I read, A-beta plaques inhibit microtubule based transport of mitochondria when tau protein is present in the cell. How would I be able to do a test to see if one isoform of tau is more ...
4
votes
2answers
108 views

Are there special constants in biology that define organism's morphology?

In math, there are special numbers, like Pi (3.14159...) and e (2.71828...). In chemistry, there's numbers like avogadro's number (6.0221413e+23). For example a circle can be defined in terms of 2 * ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Size of DNA in phage

I have read that DNA(after recombination) is packaged in bacteriophages lambda only if it's between 40000 and 53000 bp long. This constraint can be used to ensure packaging of recombinant DNA. I ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the proper format for genus and species names in latin?

When using the latin nomenclature for a fish in printed materials (such as Sander vitreus for walleye), what is the correct capitalization of each word? In this example, should 'S' be uppercase ...
1
vote
2answers
48 views

Why will tissue from identical twin be rejected in some cases?

From Medline Plus : Also, transplants from one identical twin to another are almost never rejected. My question : Why can a tissue from an identical twin be rejected ?
1
vote
2answers
135 views

What is most simple eukaryotic genome?

Expressed in number of Base Pairs or Bytes, about how large is the simplest eukaryotic genome? How much of this is 'junk-DNA' (non-coding)?
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Enzyme kinetics [closed]

I can't understand how to study enzyme kinetics. Say I have a lipase and want to study the kinetics of this lipase using a fluorogenic substrate, how would I do this? From what I understand I would ...
6
votes
1answer
563 views

Do birds have navels?

This picture shows the development inside a bird egg: This shows the connection of the embryo to the yolk sac. Does this mean birds have navels? And if so, what happens to the umbilical cord once ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

evolution and mutation of microrganisms against medicines?

I presume microorganisms would have very short life span and they would multiply more creating millions of their kind. Is it really a threat to consider when we use anibiotics and other stuff more ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

About a mechanical aid to the heart

I saw a news story a few years ago (I think) about a girl with a poor heart having a device implant that took over only some of the functioning of her heart ( I think they called it a piggy-back ...
3
votes
2answers
132 views

Do RNA molecules bind each other?

I have a question, maybe a naive one. Let's assume that we isolated some RNA from a tissue. Do RNA molecules can bind each other if they have the complementary sequence? I know that some small RNA ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Image formation

I have learnt that the brain provides a perception of image due to previous memory and experience. Then how does a blind person attain vision after cornea replacement?
1
vote
1answer
40 views

How do I tell whether a mass spectrum was made with ESI or MALDI?

I was working through a previous exam and came across the following question (with reference to the picture shown below): "What MS ionization method was employed (MALDI or ESI)?" I cannot seem ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Function of the Auricle in heart

What is the function of the auricles (conical appendages through the atria) present in the heart? Do they have any other function than increasing the volume of blood the heart can hold?
6
votes
1answer
765 views

Why do Bee stings cause swelling?

Why is it that when a bee stings, a little area around it gets swelled? I think it is some sort of defense mechanism of the body. But how does it help?
7
votes
2answers
217 views

Can oncogenesis happen without apoptosis pathway being affected?

Has there ever been incidences of one or more cancerous cells having all it's cell-death pathways and apoptosis mechanisms intact and functional?
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Modern research or study on patterns in nerve signals

I am trying to find any recent study on pattern recognition in nerve signals. It does not really matter the part of the body where the research is focused on. It can be anything from studying activity ...
4
votes
2answers
123 views

Does increased physical activity increase the rate of cell division?

Ever since learning that the shortening of telomeres is linked to aging I've tried to figure out what causes cells to divide, and if it's possible to slow down the rate of cell division through life ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Can Serous inflammation on pleura pulmonalis cause dry cough and runny nouse?

I am interested in the mechanism between the dry cough and runny nose (serous inflammation) here. I started to think how Acute respiratory viral infection is causing the dry cough. The serous ...
0
votes
2answers
75 views

how does DNA and RNA work [closed]

How do the DNA modules tell the cell what to do?
2
votes
0answers
965 views

What is a lip? (upper lip and lower lip)

Everyone knows what a lip is but I'm asking from a technical and anatomical standpoint. Actually what we call "lip" is "vermilion" in medical terminology. But I want to ask if my understanding is ...
5
votes
2answers
234 views

Can a virophage potentially be used to cure a viral disease?

Wikipedia states "Virophages are satellite viruses that inhibit or impair the reproduction of the auxiliary virus." Is it theoretically possible for a virophage that doesn't hurt the human body to ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Standard curve for real time

When performing a standard curve for some new primers to test for fold change, is it necessary to run the standard curve? I mean, in case your experiment has several genotypes for the same ecotype ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between vegetable and animal fats?

I often hear from many people saying to waiters - "Please, don't put oil to salad". They probably believe the fat from vegetables has the same impact on the weight as an "animal" fat (meat, eggs, ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

With an excess supply of nutrients, in how much time will the number of algae cells double in full sun?

I am growing algae in a container in my roof. It gets sunlight for the whole day as there are no clouds nowadays in my area. There is no lack of nutrients as I am constantly adding water mixed with ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Book Recommendation: Complex Traits and Complex Genetic Architecture

I am looking for a book (or any good source of information) that offers an in-depth discussion and models about the evolution and analysis of complex traits and complex genetic architecture. Do you ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Topology of closed circular DNA

Why are covalently closed circular plasmid DNAs naturally found in an underwound state ? Is it because this makes it easier for the DNA replication machinery to access and unwind DNA ? Or is it ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Defining: Evolutionary (quantitative) Genetics and Population Genetics

How do we define the fields that are Evolutionary (quantitative) genetics and population genetics. What set these two fields apart? Can you try to provide definitions? To my intuitive understanding, ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How does the ebola virus attack?

How does the ebola virus attack and how do some people get away with it? Normally any virus would attack a cell with some kind of receptors and some kind of lock and key mechanism entering the cell ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

conservation of C-peptide sequence in the guinea pig

Where can I compare the C-peptide sequence of guinea pig with human or mouse? I am also interested in finding whether the guinea pig has insulin 1 and 2 to know whether I could use an anti-C-peptide 1 ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Parallel Autonomic regulation of Cough and Runny Nose

I describe here the serous inflammation of runny nose. Cough is mediated by Cough center. I think Runny nose is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system and probably by some reflex. Assume ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Hypothalamic breakdown and effect of temperature on membrane lipids

I'm in my last year of high school and doing a research assignment on thermoregulation. In the excellence level exemplar for the standard, a student made the statement: Once the body's internal ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Regarding cancer cells and radio-frequency ablation

Are cancer cells destabilized if near a strong electromagnetic field over a long period of time? I read this technique of using radio-frequency ablation and heat shock to kill cancer cells. I don't ...
-5
votes
2answers
88 views

How are atoms created? [closed]

From small baby to the old age, we will be grown. We are composed of bunch of atoms, multitude of atoms. When you are grown from baby to the teen age, everyone will say "he has grown!" What do you ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

How would a different solar day affect evolution?

Has anyone theorized how evolution would be affected by a different length of solar day, what were the conclusions? The thought came from thinking about life on other planets/moons, but I'm initially ...
5
votes
2answers
132 views

Viruses: Adaptation to a new host through repeated host jumps

A friend told me, during a 3 minute discussion, that viruses that are endemic in host $A$ and make repeated jumps to host $B$ but can't be transmitted between individuals of species $B$, may slowly ...
2
votes
1answer
300 views

What is optical density in Lowry's protein estimation method?

I have a few questions: What is an OD value? Why do we use blank solution in Lowry's protein estimation method? If The OD of a protein is 0.01, what does it mean? Thanks in advance.
2
votes
2answers
95 views

Modern alternatives of DNA footprinting

Since DNA footprinting is an old method I thought there may be some more recent and effective methods to identify a DNA sequence, do you know any of them?
3
votes
1answer
56 views

What happens to human dopaminergic reward system once a teenager becomes adult?

I've recently heard a podcast which explained teenage impulsivity and novelty seeking in part by "Lowering the baseline dopamine activity in the reward system" "Increase in dopaminergic reward in ...
4
votes
2answers
306 views

Can animals make their own unsaturated fatty acids?

I know that animals can't make poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and so require them from dietary sources. For eg.Omega -3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. My questions : Can animals synthesize other ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

PDB file for Osteopontin (SPP1)

I am looking for PDB file for Osteopontin (SPP1). The entry- 3CXD shows the structure of an Osteopontin antibody, not of the protein itself. Thanks

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