4
votes
1answer
78 views

Blood consumption

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? There was a news-article about unnatural chemicals found in the blood of mothers. This reminded me about a question I have pondered upon ...
5
votes
1answer
106 views

Why don't warts caused by HPV spread to the whole body?

My son had a plantar wart on his foot, which (as I understand it) is caused by a virus which only infects skin cells. Once in the skin cell the virus replicates, but when attacked by the immune system ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

Are Night Parrots (Pezoporus occidentalis) really extinct?

This incredibly rare animal has been reported to be extinct since 1990, however several cases has been raised that night parrot was spotted in the areas of Australia. What is the cause of their ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

downloading a reference genome for alignment

I am currently working through the code example on the MATLAB website. It requires me to download the reference genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) so I can use BowTie2 to align the Chip-Seq ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
5
votes
5answers
155 views

What are some examples of evolving networks in biology?

I'm a master student working on networks analysis in general. A network is something that has nodes and there are links between the nodes. Nodes and links could have attributes. An evolving network is ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

What do viruses do during incubation period?

For example, there is an incubation period of around 1 to 3 days for common cold, and that of AIDS can range over to decades. What do viruses do actually do during the incubation period? What ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Conclusions from hybridization results

A double stranded DNA was denatured in a mixture that included mRNA from a gene in the segment. The mixture was then cooled to promote RNA and DNA hybridization. The following figure the results. ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Calculation of water potential

For a mesophyte growing in a moist soil, water potential of its root sap is -3 atm, then how to find the water potential of moist soil and leaf respectively?
4
votes
1answer
279 views

The parameter for setting the number of mismatches in standalone blast

In a standalone blast search, is there a parameter that could be specified to fix the number of mismatches allowed in an alignment. I went through the parameters and I could only find parameters to ...
3
votes
4answers
599 views

Bad Eyesight and Evolution

Why do many humans have bad eyesight, such as near-sightedness, which hampers performance in a wide variety of tasks? Shouldn't there be evolutionary pressure towards better eyesight?
4
votes
2answers
111 views

A photosynthesizing mouse?

N. Shubin's Your Inner Fish makes the point several times that there is a lot of functional similarity between some seemingly remote gene cousins. If that needed reinforcing we have the spider-goat, ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Anti-parallel DNA code operons

Coming from a software engineering standpoint, suppose I have a string of code like so: ... 5'-ATAGAC-3' ... ... 3'-TATCTG-5' ... Assume the above code is part of a larger segment. Now, reading ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

Biological advantage of electric synapses

Electric synapses are synapses that do not process information but simply foward one action potential from one neuron to the next. There are no neurotransmitters, no inhibitory and exitatory ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Steps to confirm if predicted miRNA is good or bad

I aligned all miRNAs available to the supercontigs of a particular genome with certain parameters (e value of 0.01 and a word match of atleast 7 as suggested in this paper). I have also isolated the ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

mFOLD prediction result interpretation

I am trying to predict the secondary structure of certain predicted pre-miRNAs through mFOLD which is the generally accepted technique for structure prediction in most studies. I am finding it hard to ...
0
votes
2answers
120 views

Blood Type Compatibility [closed]

It should be that because O+ blood(which is my blood type) has all antibodies but no antigens that all other blood types including O- would be incompatible making O not a universal donor so why is O ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Is the human body composition real?

In Fullmetal Alchemist when Ed goes to disprove to Rose the Sun God's "miracle" to bring humans back to life by proving that science (in the form of Alchemy) can create people by saying Water (35 ...
3
votes
1answer
212 views

What is “bacto” peptone?

Standard recipes for yeast medium often include "bacto-peptone". Is this the same as bacteriological peptone? Is there an authoritative source that spells it out?
1
vote
1answer
94 views

Meaning of “auto” in trans autophosphorylation?

Why this process called "auto"? Is it because each tyrosine kinase receptor subunit of the RTK dimer has the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine or other amino acid residue present in other subunit of ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Why do some fruits have their seeds disintegrated

Sometimes I'd come across a Lychee or a Naseberry whose seeds are kinda disintegrated.. in a thick powdered form, either completely or partially. What could cause such a thing? And is the fruit with ...
0
votes
1answer
415 views

Genes, chromosomes, base pairs and the 23 pairs

OK so I'm a bit confused. Does a chromosome consist of genes and do genes consist of DNA? What about the 23 pairs in sexual reproduction? I can't remember what the pairs consist of
8
votes
1answer
488 views

How does yeast dissolve in sugar?

There's this fascinating "kitchen experiment". Take a "brick" of baker's yeast (not dry yeast), and a couple teaspoons of sugar, put them together in a cup and stir together. There's no doubt both are ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

How much mechanical stress can a skeletal muscle bear?

In the movie- Saw, for the last trap Bobby was told to insert metallic hooks into his pectoralis major muscle. In his fake story Bobby has raised himself successfully, but when he was "really" ...
0
votes
1answer
122 views

Breathing under water

Why can fish breathe under water but land mammals can't? How can fish extract oxygen straight from water but humans can't?
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by ...
12
votes
1answer
140 views

Why are fly not scared when landing on a monitor with changing graphics?

I have been wondering why would insects in general, not be scared when important changes happen on your monitor where they have landed... If you move even just a finger, they are scared to death and ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Relation between respiration and concentration of citric acid

A and B are 2 reactions. If there is an excess availability of citrate, then which of the above reactions will prevail? I know that citric acid is formed when oxaloacetic acid reacts with acetyl ...
7
votes
2answers
425 views

How are Maggots Sterilized (Disinfected)?

For maggot therapy, how are maggots disinfected? I'd imagine there's a limited scope of measurements that can be taken to sterilize the maggots - i.e. we don't want to sterilize them and kill them ...
3
votes
2answers
85 views

Cancer growth and cell division [closed]

I am confused about the prerequisites for cell division and cancer. Which of the following is necessary for the cell cycle to progress? Hormones Growth factor Cyclins Cyclin dependent kinases ...
0
votes
1answer
202 views

What the difference between an inverted and everted retina?

I'm looking specifically for examples and comparisons, because the definitions of inverted and everted are remarkably similar; e.g. from Dictionary.com/Reference.com: everted verb (used with ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

What is inside IDL (intermediate density lipoproteïn)?

I am studying about the endogene lipidcycle in the human body and I know that VLDL (very low density lipoproteïn) is made in the liver and that it contains triglycerides and cholesterol from your food ...
2
votes
1answer
807 views

Are spiders part of the study of entomology?

The definition of entomology says it is the science of studying insects. I know spiders are not insects but does entomology include studying spiders as well? Otherwise is there any name to the ...
0
votes
2answers
126 views

Can jellyfish swim backwards?

Jellyfish use jet propulsion to move forward, according to http://earthsky.org/earth/how-do-jellyfish-swim. Otherwise, they drift with the ocean currents. Does this mean that, without the presence of ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

What is the best time to exercise

So, after starting to gain weight on sitting in front of my computer too long, I have decided to take the plunge and maybe stick to an exercise regimen. As has been reported by some studies, ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Why do we suffer abdominal pain after we get very angry or stress?

You also realize probably, when we get so much anger or high levels of stress, after some point we have terrible stomach ache, like really heavy pain. Why is that? How stress or anger can effect our ...
5
votes
1answer
111 views

Help Needed Identifying Corvids

I'd appreciate some help identifying these three corvids I photographed in Austria during the Summer: I know identifying corvids can be difficult, I'm not an ornithologist, just an amateur bird ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

How was Restriction Site of EcoRI sequenced?

The sequence of restriction site of EcoRI - GAATTC was identified in the early 1970s, before Sanger Sequencing was invented.(1977) How was the restriction site of EcoRI sequenced ?
3
votes
3answers
114 views

Restriction endonucleases are found in?

Quoting from : Scientific American July 1975 The Manipulation of genes by Stanley Cohen : Restriction endonucleases (and modification methylases) are widespread in microorganisms; genes for ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

What is the evolutionary reason behind human preference for salty foods?

It's been established that food palatability is related to it's caloric density. This hypothesis is used to explain why humans are partial to sugar and fat. But it is also said that humans are partial ...
2
votes
3answers
522 views

If the top epidermal layer is burned away, what is it replaced with?

If the squamous (top) layer of epidermis, or skin, is burned or damaged in another way, will it then be replaced by the next layer of below? Also, from where does the basal membrane originate? Does ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between these terms: clade, monophyletic group and taxon?

Wikipedia definitions for these terms are pretty similar: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clade http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monophyletic_group http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxon They sound like the ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Distribution of fitness in wild populations

If I get out in the wild observe wild populations and measure the distribution of fitness $f(w)$ in a given population. What will I find out? Will I observe a Gaussian distribution, a Poisson ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

What is a sex-biased gene?

How do you define a male-biased gene and a female-biased gene as they are found in the abstract of this article.
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Definition of Sexual Selection?

How do you define Sexual Selection (SS)? (One might want to subdivide SS into intra- and inter- SS to answer) Is SS clearly different from Natural Selection (NS)? Is SS nested within NS or are NS ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Is there a superterm combining “animal line” and “cell line” in disease models?

Biologists researching diseases will frequently use animal models. The way I understand it, there are species of animals, such as "mouse", and lines of mice, such as ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Fatty Acid Synthesis

I have a problem in my reasoning on the fatty acid synthesis in the human body. In the synthesis process you have this homodimer. So the synthesis starts with the transfer of a acetyl group from ...
4
votes
1answer
133 views

What is this snake

I took a picture of this snake in Switzerland (Geneva Area): It looks to be an adder but cannot be sure about which species. In Switzerland we have two kinds of adder: Vipera berus Vipera aspis ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Do axon grows after cutting/damaging of some of its part?

Do axon grows after cutting of some of its part to near original place? Do axon restores after local damaging of some of its part? I take https://class.coursera.org/neurobio-001/ classes and learn ...

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