3
votes
0answers
248 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
0
votes
0answers
110 views

Jurkat single cell clonal expansion

I'm hoping to do a clonal expansion of Jurkat, expressing my construct which is currently transduced virally. From the FACS data I currently have roughly 30-40% expression in my culture but I need it ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

At what temperatures does food burn the roof of your mouth? [duplicate]

Does anyone know the temperature at which the roof of the mouth burns? Are the degrees of burns the same as the ones for the epidermis?
7
votes
3answers
236 views

Insect identification: white spotted beetle

3 pairs of legs, a pair of antenna, wings absent, compound eye, 4-6 centimeter approx. in size. I found this beetle at my door, in Pune, India.
1
vote
1answer
490 views

Why do sneezes come out the mouth?

As anyone who's ever sneezed can tell you, it's caused by irritation in the nose. And the answer to a question on this very SE attests that "sneezing is a reflex, partially autonomous, to clear the ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

What is the distribution of the expected number of lineages in a birth-death tree after time T?

I've been looking at The reconstructed evolutionary process by Nee et al. 1994 and they provide a number of equations dealing with the birth-death process, specifically the "reconstructed" birth-death ...
6
votes
2answers
320 views

How did zootoxins evolve?

I've always wondered how toxins in certain organisms have evolved. Particularly, organisms that produce toxins as a deterrent to predators as opposed to organisms that use it to paralyze their prey. ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

BSA for trouble shooting failed PCRs?

I am using PCR to amplify a 1000bp region of the CytB mt gene. Some of the samples had not amplified and I wish to change the reaction components (or use additives like BSA) to attempt at getting ...
8
votes
3answers
140 views

How can insects survive without an adaptive immune system?

How can insects survive in a world full of pathogens that are able to defeat the innate immune system?
0
votes
1answer
34 views

E value cutoff for RNASeq search

I am trying to narrow down the possible search criteria from an RNASeq experiment. I already have the cds sequences so I took these and used Blast+ program to blast the data against itself to find ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

Albinism inheritance problem: what are the father's alleles if he got an albino kid?

Albinism is caused by a recessive gen "c". A normal man marries an albino woman. The first son happened to be albino. What are the possible phenotypes of the parents? What is the chance that ...
1
vote
0answers
275 views

Why do orcas eat only the tongue of whales, liver of sharks, etc.?

I noticed that although killer whales are clearly the top predator living in the present oceans, some of them appear to be very picky with their meals. After spending hours hunting down a whale, ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

Looking for university/graduate-level texts on RNA

Although I was not a biology major in college, I took the biology introduction sequence, as well as organic chemistry and biochemistry. I would like to learn more about RNA and ribozymes. What ...
2
votes
2answers
462 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red delicious' which was ...
5
votes
2answers
135 views

Does polyploidy always isolate the polyploids from the diploid source population?

I am receiving conflicting information while researching polyploid speciation. On the one hand, some sources state that a polyploid can only reproduce sexually with polyploids having the same number ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

What is this fish?! Is it even real?

According to a guy in a Facebook group I belong to, this fish was caught in the Missouri River near Omaha, NE, US. I have never seen one like it in my life, not in person or photo or anywhere. What on ...
5
votes
2answers
530 views

Can people with AIDS get tattoos?

When I do a Google search, most of the results are about whether or not people can get HIV / AIDS from getting a tattoo through dirt needles. I am, however, curious whether or not it is possible to ...
5
votes
2answers
137 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
4
votes
1answer
53 views

Decomposition Rate of A Body In A Wet Environment [closed]

I have a photo of a decomposing dog which is in a water logged environment. My peers and I are debating how long that body has been decomposing. They are saying it is at least a year old. I however ...
4
votes
1answer
116 views

Spider Identification Illinois

I noticed a really huge, beautiful web on my porch last week, and tonight, I discovered its resident. I'm thinking it's a Araneus diadematus (Cross Orbweaver), but was hoping for some confirmation. ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

How much does the nutritional value of insects depend on what they're fed? [closed]

Insects are often touted as being the food of the future due to their nutritional value and small amount of resources required to raise them. However, how dependent is the nutritional value of an ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Unsure why Synechococcus moves at angle in cuvette

I'd really appreciate your help. I'm working with Synechococcus. In my experiment, I have Synechococcus in a solution of milli-Q water. I illuminated it with a focused white light through a pinhole ...
2
votes
0answers
66 views

Do mutations come in pairs? [closed]

As DNA is organized in a double-helix, a change in one strand must be accompanied by a corresponding change in the other strand. Let's say an original sequence CATCAT mutates into CATGAT. The other ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How is Glycophorin A and straphylococcal related to Escherichia coli and what does readily purified mean in this context?

I am reviewing the paper "Glycophorin A Dimerization Is Driven by Specific Interactions between Transmembrane Alpha-Helices." There is a statement in the abstract which I don't understand: "The ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

How did people's liking of ceremonies evolve? [closed]

Habitual group activities are prevalent across many animal species, particularly in mammals, especially in primates. However, I do not see any evolutionary benefit of this. 'Ceremonies' take time, ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Cut strand of hair longevity?

Quick and useless question : what can be the longevity of a cut strand of hair, assuming we kept it in (good) normal conditions ? Any idea ?
4
votes
0answers
40 views

How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Does alcohol really do more damage to the body of a child compared to an adult?

Beside the fact that children and teens (people under the age of 18 year) usually have less body weight than the average adult, is there a biologically fundamental difference between the damage done ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Best articles on Rad51/Rad52

What are the best journal articles to read on Rad51/Rad52 in the context of homologous recombination and cancer?
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Interaction study of oligomeric proteins

I'm dealing with two different protein(say, protein_a and protein_b) which stays in an interacting-oligomeric form in biological system. I have so far successfully been able to purify both the ...
1
vote
1answer
395 views

When does DIFFUSION occur and not OSMOSIS, and the otherwise?

For example, I do know that red blood cells have both the Na+/Cl- co-transporter and Aquaporin (water channel) that allows both Na/Cl and water molecules to pass through. But why in biology textbooks ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Difference between Category, Rank and Taxon

Is there any differences between the terms Category, Rank and Taxon or they all are same? I remember an explanation which goes on like this: Category and Rank are the same and are the categories of ...
3
votes
0answers
102 views

Cause-and-effect questions about growth and development of plant

I need to solve some cause-and-effect problems. The problems are related to growth and development of plant. "Growth and Development" chapter is the first chapter in third level of high school (senior ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Is the PCT of the nephrons of the kidneys of marine vertebrates to minimize the natural tendency for exosmosis?

For marine vertebrates, the concentration of salts outside their body (in the water, that is) is more than that inside their body. So, there is a natural tendency for exosmosis to occur. To minimise ...
0
votes
0answers
77 views

How to get Population Genotype Frequency from 1000 genomes Perl API

Posted a similar question on Biostars but got no response. Not sure if I'm allowed to link to it? Basically I want to pull genotype frequency data for a population group (such as CEU) instead of ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Why do we itch? [duplicate]

Here I have a simple question why do we itch? Is it because of some alteration of the skin or just a reflex action by the CNS? I am asking for a reasoned scientific answer to this.
4
votes
2answers
54 views

Is the sun's damage to skin sufficient to warrant protection anytime the average person goes outside or just for extended periods?

According to the American Academy of Dermatology website, Everyone needs sunscreen Sunscreen should be used every day if you will be outside. The sun emits harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays year round. ...
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Cis-AB phenotype verification

I know that my blood type is AB. I wanted to know if I am cis-AB since cis-AB seems to have a different approach in blood transfusion. Is there a lab test that can verify is a person is under cis-AB ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
28
votes
1answer
4k views

Why is the brain white?

I have read many articles about how the brain is the most power-hungry organ in any living complex organism, requiring about 70% of it's oxygen supplies in the resting state. Since the usual medium ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Why would mutation rates increase in a tumour?

This article describes a tumour: Swanton found that even the primary tumour was surprisingly varied. He found 128 mutations among the various samples, but only a third of these were common to all ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

does phagocytosis dependent on opsonization?

does phagocytotic activity of macrophages and neutrophils depends on opsonization by IGg (antibody) and C3 complex,if it does, so then why macrophages and neutrophils are categorized in Innate immune ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Ways to fight black mold

Is it possible to introduce a microorganism to a colony of black mold that will kill off the black mold entirely and permanently? Is there a common microorganism that likes to eat them and is harmless ...
3
votes
1answer
584 views

Is the swimming pool water harmful to frogs who jump in? If so, how?

Here is an odd question: Frogs have permeable skin. Indeed, via capillary action, frogs absorb water through their skin. Chlorine is in principle a harmful substance. I am sure what percentage of ...
3
votes
2answers
54 views

Madrid, Noise by the river: Bird or cricket?

I currently live in Madrid, Spain. In July there was a loud animal near the river, in an out of town area surrounded by grassland, with trees along the river. It's continued into August, though it ...
8
votes
2answers
198 views

If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

If nerve consists of many axons, where are then their soma located?

This question has haunted me for two years. Wikipedia mentions : A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. ...

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