1
vote
0answers
29 views

How well can proteins discriminate between ATP and GTP? Can ATP act as a GTP mimetic?

GTP and ATP are similar structures with the adenosine and guanosine groups differing. Both are involved in a vast array of biological functions. However it has been shown that in certain cases, GTP ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Real Time PCR Test Chemistry

I am working on building a real time PCR machine. Is there any chemistry set that I can purchase online to: Identify if PCR amplification was successfully done. Test fluorescence dyes that could ...
5
votes
2answers
94 views

Relationship between lifespan and reproductive age?

I remember reading a while ago that there is a "general rule" in biology between an animals lifespan and when they reach reproductive age. In other words, an organism that reaches sexual maturity ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

How did life survive in the Snowball Earth theory?

There is this theory that says that the whole Earth was once covered with snow and ice. How was it possible for life to survive this extreme state?
0
votes
0answers
18 views

How to define a 'trait' objectively?

I'm coming across an increasing number of papers that use trait-based approaches for risk assessment, like this one . This paper defines a trait as follows: Traits are the physiological, ...
10
votes
1answer
170 views

Why are oceans said to have “low productivity” in terms of photosynthesis?

80% of the world's photosynthesis takes place in the ocean. Despite this, oceans are also said to have low productivity - they cover 75% of the earth's surface, but out of the annual 170 billion ...
5
votes
1answer
36 views

What Species of Duck/Waterfowl is this

I snapped a picture of this beaut in Irvine, CA, but I do not believe it is in the list given in "Ducks at a Distance: A Waterfowl Identification Guide" by Bob Hines (http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Relation between biomass and radius of roots system

Is there a known relation between the mass of a plant to the size of its roots? For example, can I take the root size to be proportional to the biomass of the plant like in this relation: $$R = R_0 (...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

DNA Sequencing Types & Qualities

I've been searching for a list of the types of DNA sequencing (e.g. Sanger, Next-Generation) and how prone they are to sequencing errors (None, Somewhat, Very), but I haven't been able to find ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Are yeast plasmids methylated?

Do yeast plasmid have methylation? If they do have them, then what kinds of them?
0
votes
1answer
15 views

How do you obtain specific mRNA transcript levels for comparison from a Hi-Seq dataset?

I have HiSeq data from mice exposed to two conditions. I would like to answer the following question: "Is there a significant difference in mRNA transcript levels when comparing condition A to ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Why the position of simple sequence repeat at the gene and related transcript sequences are different?

I'm working on the simple sequence repeat (SSR). I found that just one region (about 21 bp) with SSR motif in a given gene. This gene has multiple transcripts, which the same SSR motif was located in ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Identification of a spider from my basement

It's a little over 1" long including legs, and I found it in my basement in Pennsylvania. My guess is a funnel weaver, which would be nice since then I can free it (right?) from the tin can it's ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Damselfly identification

Can somebody identify this damselfly? Found near a stream about 15 miles west of Boston.
0
votes
0answers
11 views

VDJ recombination in non immune cells

Is VDJ recombination active in non immune cells? If not then what is the mechanism that triggers it in immune cells but not in other cells?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How is 'probability of new species origination' defined?

I was reading about how biologists study the change in the rate of species origination, and they estimate the probability that a new species will arise. How is this probability defined and calculated ...
4
votes
0answers
25 views

What is the conical mouthpart of a soldier termite and what does it do?

I'm trying to get a visual understanding of termite anatomy and I'm getting quite confused on the protruding mouthpart area (it looks like a beak) located between the pincers. What does it do / what ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Could we restore some animal's muscle structure by it's bone?

Suppose that elephant dies out one day, nothing left to researchers but the fossil. Could fossil infer the existence of large nose? If there is possibility, how exactly should they perform the ...
3
votes
2answers
171 views

Blebbistatin effect on vesicles

Blebbistatin is a drug that specifically inhibits the assembly of myosin in the cytoskeleton. What effect would you expect blebbistatin to have on intracellular vesicles? ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Consequences of hypothetical MHCII mechanism

I am chemist doing research on certain toxic substances. In the course of our studies we came about certain possible properties of the investigated toxin. I would like to ask specialists about a ...
4
votes
1answer
27 views

What is the effect of TSH on the calcitonin?

I know that TSH is released from the pituitary gland and it motivates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, and calcitonin is released when the calcium level is high in the blood, but is calcitonin ...
4
votes
1answer
141 views

What causes inhalation during breathing?

I have read here that the two major inhalation muscles are the (1) diaphragm and the (2) external intercostals. Additionally, inhalation can also be caused by (1) expansion of the abdominal cavity, ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Are HEK293 cells a positive control for wild type p53 expression?

I have searched in the web and found that these two antibodies from abcam use hek293 as positive control. * ab154036 * ab1101 But I am using another antibody: * AM11182PU-S (OriGene Technologies Inc.)...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Can magnetoreception occur in humans?

Magnetoreception is a sense which allows an animal to detect the Earth’s magnetic field in order to perceive direction, altitude, or location. Magnetoreception is present in bacteria, arthropods, ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Do male humans have a mons pubis?

Wikipedia writes: In human anatomy, and in mammals in general, the mons pubis (also known simply as the mons, and known specifically in females as the mons Venus or mons veneris), is a rounded ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

When was it discovered XY chromosomes decide the sex of a child in humans?

Several stories are told from before-genetic-age (books and movies are my reference, the one present in my mind is Marie-Antoinette by Copola) in which we can always see that women are blamed for ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

In Darwinian evolutionary theory, does the environment has any role? [closed]

In Darwinian evolutionary theory, does the environment has any role? To state it clearly: Suppose I have an isolated system. First, I place several types of entities (organisms) in an environment. ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

How to generate simulated mass-spectrometry data for phosphorylated proteins?

I am trying to generate simulated MS data (Top-down and Bottom-up) for phosphorylated protein such as "platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR-B)". There are 10 tyrosine sites which are ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Can sugar alcohol be replacement of sugar in cola or soda?

I have read that cola in a can contains about 8 tea spoons of sugar. Can some of them be replaced by sugar alcohol such as xylitol or sorbitol? Because sometimes drinking soda is helpful to quench ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

How did humans in different regions evolve so differently? [closed]

Google is about as helpful as a mouse trying to catch a piano, since it's listed websites that aren't very clear or informative. So: How did humans evolve to be so different from one another? Say, ...
6
votes
1answer
90 views

Understanding F-statistics in population genetics

I am reading a classical Weir and Cockerham 1984 paper about Fst estimation. At the beginning (first page, right column), they define 3 statistics. $F$ is the correlation of genes within individuals ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Delta Mye and F/F after gene name

What do the delta Mye and F/F mean? For example in the following figure (https://www.researchgate.net/figure/45695903_fig5_Figure-2-Enhanced-plasma-inflammatory-cytokines-in-GRK2mye-mice-Mice-were-...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Why do I drop my pen in a drowsy lecture?

I know that there is loss of muscle tone during REM sleep. Is this loss in muscle tone the reason I generally drop my pen in a sleepy lecture? But we were taught that sleep has 4 stages and REM sleep ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

What's a segmented copy number profile

I am studying copy-number variation. I am reading C. H. Mermel, S. E. Schumacher, B. Hill, M. L. Meyerson, R. Beroukhim, and G. Getz, “GISTIC2.0 facilitates sensitive and confident localization ...
1
vote
2answers
5k views

What happens if an IV drip with a saline solution slips out of the vein, but keeps dripping into the body?

A patient has a saline solution IV drip into the vein. They have somehow moved around and the needle has fallen out of the vein, but remained in the body. Nobody has noticed and for a few hours water ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Calling Alterations in Exome Data

What are the main technical differences between accurately calling somatic point mutations vs copy number variation (CNV) in exome data? Side note: would you need other -omic data to accurately infer ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Can someone identify this snail? Thanks

Found in an almost dried out brook in Eastern Massachusetts. This is the lowest the brook has been in anyone's memory.
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Why does our body regulate metabolic processes using the thyroid hormone?

People with hypothyroidism do fine when taking medication containing their daily dose of thyroid hormone. This means that the signaling function of the thyroid hormones is, in principle, unnecessary. ...
2
votes
2answers
195 views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

How can one measure the effect of a stem cell's matrix on the progeny of that stem cell?

A number of recent papers that have used hydrogels to alter the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells to quicken their development to cells used specifically for cartilage or really any other type of cell. ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Why RTK Truncations So Common in Transformations

So if we can understand that RTKs are 'floating' around the surface of a cell as monomers until ligand binds one of the monomers and thereby acts as a bridge to facilitate binding to a corresponding ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Membrane resistance of a neuron

I am about to simulate a neuron activity with the "Leaky Integrate and Fire" neuron model. But for that I need the membrane resistance. I was really looking a lot online, but I just cant find a value. ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

“Genotype structure”?

What does a geneticist mean when they write "genotype structure", e.g. the sentence "...represents continuous allele frequencies for both tumor and normal samples, while leveraging the expected ...
4
votes
2answers
132 views

What mechanisms do animals living in groups (herds, packs, swarms) have against spreading contagious diseases?

While for example a wolf pack provides protection to a sick wolf, increasing its chance of survival, there is a risk of infecting other members of the pack, decreasing their total chance of survival. ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

What are chemical candidates for replicator molecule?

I have read Selfish gene by Richard Dawkins and idea is that at random some molecule was synthesized that had a property if there is enough 'materials' to construct ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

Can LC-MS/MS and MRM act as a complementary to RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA?

I am working on protein quantification using Liquid Chromatography-tandom Mass Spectrometry with Multiple Reaction Monitoring (LC-MS/MS MRM), I am not sure if it can act as a complementary to RT-PCR, ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

mtDNA sequencing error rates

What is the method to estimate the error rate in mtDNA sequencing? E.g. we are given a profile like this: 16069T 16126C 73G 152C Is there a method, a table of known values, or any other way to say ...
0
votes
1answer
11 views

How would one determine if an up regulation of one protein leads to an over expression of another?

Again, I'm new to biology and have a bunch of questions. Does it depend on the proteins involved? OR are there basic co expression procedures one could implement to determine exactly how much one ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Distance between P5 and custom read 1 primer for Illumina HiSeq sequencing

I have a minigene library which is amplified with P5/P7 sites that looks like this [P7/barcode][constant region][ variable region ][18nt constant region][SP1][P5] (436nt total) We sequenced this ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Why are bald heads are so “shiny”?

Why do males with baldness have shiny skin on their head, whereas we don't experience such "shiney skin" in other parts of body without hair.

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