3
votes
2answers
76 views

Evolution of protein and protein efficiency

Suppose we have a bacterial protein that performs a function and let's say we can measure the efficiency of the protein. Let's say we have two species, species A and B, both of which have this ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

dAT joining: please define

I came across a reference to dAT joining in my reading of Genentech by Sally Hughes. The technique is described in passing as a technique for joining DNA fragments used around the late sixties to ...
0
votes
2answers
81 views

What are the evidence that all life today descended from a common ancestor (LUCA), and which organisms (if any) challenge the concept?

If I understand correctly, the concept of the LUCA (last universal common ancestor) is based on the hypothesis that archaea and bacteria share common ancestry. In the realm of mathematics, the same ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Can HIV mutate to become airborne?

HIV has a very high mutation rate due to its inability to correct errors in DNA replication and it is very adaptable to its environment. Hence I wonder whether is it possible for it to mutate such ...
6
votes
1answer
47 views

What is the top speed of muscle contraction?

Currently I am looking into what muscles groups are most used during a football kick. I have a hypothesis that the quadriceps are not as used as most people think because the momentum the swing ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

What would be the impact of depositing limestone in the oceans (to reverse acidification) on ocean life forms and biodiversity?

This question asked: What is the evidence it is feasible to reverse ocean acidification by adding large quantities of a base (bicarb soda)? The result was: Danny Harvey of the University of ...
5
votes
2answers
83 views

How do animals end up in remote areas?

I was thinking specifically about random marshy water holes on farmers fields. It seems that you can visit just about any one of these and you will find frogs if you look hard enough. They usually ...
4
votes
2answers
144 views

Why are lions the only social cats?

We know that almost all cats are solitary. How did the Lions (Panthera leo) end up social animals? Do we have an explanatory evolutionary path describing how the Lions became social while the rest of ...
1
vote
2answers
26 views

Protein that exit from the cell - as marker

Searching for some protein, that I could use as extracellular marker for mammalian cells. I need to insert mRNA to cell, and to detect the protein outside the cell (not on membrane) if the mRNA ...
5
votes
1answer
59 views

Why do crabs spit?

Last year I photographed this juvenile Sally Lightfoot Crab (Grapsus grapsus) 'spitting' (click for larger view): I thought I'd look up more information on this behavior, but couldn't find any ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

What leads to the different types of navels?

Obviously, there are "innies" and "outies" in the human belly button world. Both are the result of a knot tied in the umbilical cord just after birth. But why do some belly buttons become outies ...
17
votes
4answers
5k views

Are mitochondria dead?

In the video "What is Life? Is Death Real?", the subject of mitochondria is raised at 2:58. At 3:12, the narrator says "[mitochondria] are not alive any more: they are dead." What currents of thought ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

translation rate regulated by transcription factors?

I'd like to know if there is in the litterature some examples of transcription factors capable to impact not just transcription but also translation rate so that both can be adjusted. I would be very ...
5
votes
1answer
57 views

What is the name of this flower?

A flower has grown on a leaf in our garden. What is the name of this flower? Give some description.
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Possible calculations with temperature, humidity, images and VIS spectrum of a plant in an Integrating sphere

I am currently working on a project which involves growing some plants in a integrating sphere made of foam. I have added temperature, humidity and soil moisture sensors as well as a Spectrometer (350 ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

Have webs woven by LSD-intoxicated spiders ever been studied for their efficiency in fly catching?

I ask, because I have a different interpretation of the experiments performed on web-weaving spiders. The famous Robert Pirsig maintains that LSD is somehow helpful to web-weaving spiders, because it ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Is household ammonia okay for plants?

My father-in-law claims that since plants need nitrogen to produce proteins, and since ammonia is NH3, that Ammonia should be fine for the plants, since it's just nitrogen and water and hydrogen, ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

What happens when a genome is shorter than the other? [closed]

Say there were 2 creatures of the same species. Creature 1 has a longer genome than creature 2, it may be just a few base pairs, but what would happen when the genes were crossed to create creature 3 ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

What is this butterfly?

The following guys (about an inch long) were seen in the Willamette Valley of Oregon in summer. When one would fly by a resting one, they'd get into a high-speed little "dogfight". What genus might ...
4
votes
0answers
74 views

Why do people die? [duplicate]

what is the reason people die naturally even though they have no known disease? I see people become physically weak at times they get old and die eventually in case they are not attacked by any known ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Calculation of final magnification when using a CCD camera

I'm trying to empirically calculate the approx final magnification (mag) of digital images rendered through our confocal microscope. Using a micrometer and the microscopy equipment I have, the ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Big cat in heat for months?

In this documentary about a lioness and a leopard the leopard is in heat for months. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGqmylkOuKw Usually a big cat would be in heat for 5 days and then not in heat ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Will a 0.2g/mL sugar concentration cause vomiting in humans?

This infographic claims that the sugar content in a can of Coca Cola would cause vomiting if not for the phosphoric acid. In The First 10 minutes: 10 teaspoons of sugar hit your system. ...
5
votes
1answer
200 views

Approximately how long do bacteria live for? [closed]

I would like to know how many days or years do the bacteria live approximately.
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Why does a limb sting when it “falls asleep”? [duplicate]

Closely related to this question, but unanswered other than @Matthew-piziak providing a description and link that says: What is Paresthesia? Paresthesia refers to a burning or prickling sensation ...
1
vote
3answers
64 views

Merge several .ab1 sequence files into a single FASTA file?

I have several .ab1 files generated from Chromas. I want to merge all of them into a single FASTA sequence file. How can I do this in an automated way? Note that I don't have Chromas installed (the ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

Will bark-beetles infest the Methow Valley?

What is the Methow Valley (esp. Winthrop, WA) area's susceptibility to bark beetles? Did the 2014 Carlton Complex wildfires increase the vulnerability due to the large numbers of dead, dying, and ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Does anyone use bootstrapping to report mass gain during experiment?

When performing an experiment to report gain of body mass in an experiment, do any of you know of a paper whose authors have used a bootstrap to improve their confidence intervals? I have a n = 10 ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Tissue grafting in marine invertebrates

I'm trying to source a procedure for a transplanting tissue in regenerating polyps. Would anyone happen to know where I can find a method of adhering to donor to host tissue? Thanks
7
votes
2answers
118 views

Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Why does the number of mutations per individuals follow a Poisson distribution?

I was reading this review. On page 11, left column, first paragraph, one can read: [..] there is a Poisson distribution of the equilibrium number of mutations per individual, if fitness effects ...
7
votes
3answers
64 views

Do any amphibians start their lives on land?

Most amphibians - at least, all the ones I know of - start their lives in the water (at least, after they hatch). They then spend time maturing before venturing onto land, where they can breed. The ...
2
votes
2answers
123 views

How does a smoker's finger or mustache get yellowish by nicotine?

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death around the world.$\ce{^1}$ The stain is considered as a "tell-tale" sign for identifying smokers. Multiple materials stated that it's due to ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

Reversible biological module in KEGG

Considering the kegg module M00570 The pathway looks like this: ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Map gene IDs to Ensembl gene ID

Forgive me if this question is too trivial. I have the gene IDs of the following type EOG6STSR2 EOG60ZRJB EOG6SBFJ2 EOG6P5KX3 EOG6B5PRW from the first ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What is the permeability of proteins across the hyaloid membrane of vitreous to retina?

Does anyone know of any experimental work to test the permeability of the hyaloid membrane between the vitreous humour of the eye to the retina to proteins? Currently the largest molecule I can find ...
-4
votes
2answers
98 views

Driving force for speciation for millions of species today

I would like to know if speciation really occurs (trans-speciation). Have we had enough time for millions of species? A creationist argument is that the slow changes in traits in organisms, taking ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Can my eyes adjust instantly to my friend's glasses? [closed]

My eyesight is pretty much perfect, but I noticed that whenever I try any of my friends glasses, from really thin to extremely thick, my eyes seem to adjust to them within seconds and let me see ...
1
vote
0answers
6 views

What are the limiting factors of pathogen population size in human populations?

I understand that one limiting factor in non-human animal populations is that increased pathogen populations decrease animal populations from killing them, which decreases the density of the animals, ...
6
votes
3answers
213 views

Is NADPH salt still usable after an hour at room temperature?

I accidentally left a delivery of NADPH Tetrasodium Salt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) at room temperature for a little over half an hour. In addition, when I opened up the package, I briefly held the ...
4
votes
2answers
52 views

Why are the sex chromosomes called X and Y?

Is there a specific reason that the letter Y is used as the symbol for the male chromosome and X is used for the female chromosome?
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Endogenous PAF inhibitor in metastatic process (?)

When neoplastic cells cause a metastasis, they can create a protective coat of platelets that counterbalances immunitary response. My question is if the coat formed due to PAF can be undone by an ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

What is the general mechanism behind perfusion PET imaging

I understand how tracer kinetics can be used to determine binding potential but how it can be used to detect perfusion eludes me.
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Can geckos climb a wet surface?

We know geckos can climb vertically or even upside down a surface like glass. But can they do that on wet glass?
0
votes
1answer
43 views

What is the definition of the life biologically ? [duplicate]

I want to know what is the definition of the life biologically , on the other hand , what is the definition of the death biologically ?? However, I think it is a very difficult question to answer . ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Colormetric assay for a phenol product?

I am working on an assay for phenol products created by a colony of bacteria. I have searched up a paper that involves gibbs reageant but the protocol is kind of unclear. Does any of you know where I ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

What is this flower?

I was in Germany recently, and I saw again a flower that I'd only ever encountered before at Meijer Gardens. It's interesting to me because I'd never seen a flower with color variation in only the ...
4
votes
1answer
103 views

Why is the pituitary gland located in the brain?

Why is the pituitary gland located in the brain in humans, instead of elsewhere in the body? Why would this be an evolutionary beneficial adaptation?
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Two different Leucochloridium infected snails - different species?

In the last three days, I have found two snails infected by some species of Leucochloridium. I found them in my garden in the south-west of Sweden. Now I'm wondering if they are the same species or ...

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