1
vote
0answers
18 views

Do cortical cells in root have higher water potential than endodermal cell solution?Or is it the other way round?

Well, water normally passes from root hair cells to cortex to endodermis, and from there to the xylem vessels. All of this occurs down the water potential gradient by apoplastic or symplastic pathway ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Why is oxygen and CO2 measured in pressure instead of mmoles/L like other ions?

Na, K, Cl...All measured in mmol/L in plasma. Why is oxygen and CO2 measured in pressure (mmHg)? (I guess it has something to do with them being bound to RBC but I don't know why the difference).
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Output of clustalo on (1.2.1) on ubuntu 14.04

I am trying to align the following 8 sequences using clustalo on ubuntu terminal using the following command. But I am not getting the right output. ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What membrane material(s) is/are used in a diffusion chamber and where can I get this/these material(s)?

I am participating in community biolab and am investigating using diffusion chambers for culturing novel species of bacteria as well other experiments. The type of diffusion chamber I am hoping to use ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

How much to larvae eat? (1. general and 2. specifically larvae of the bread beetle stegobium paniceum)

I'm no biologist or anything and thus the question might seem odd, but I couldn't find an answer anywhere on the web. I'm looking for information about how much larvae eat. To be exact I need to ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Can I tell my antioxidants intake based on nutrition facts labels?

The recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables is 5-10 portions (url), in order to meet the "required antioxidant levels" (dark-leaf green vegetables, berries, cruciferous vegetables, ...). ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Using only one antibody to detect COX-2 enzyme

If I wanted to detect COX-2 from a western blot test, would only a primary antibody work? I'm on a budget so does anyone know of relatively cheap COX-2 antibodies?
4
votes
2answers
87 views

What's the correct name for the war of sexes in evolution?

I'm searching for the correct term for the part of the selfish gene evolution regarding sexes. In nature, this means the evolution of the traits such as the ducks' adaptation to "trap" the drakes' ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

Number of Chromatids in G1

I know that in G1, the number of chromosomes is 23 pairs, so 46. I assumed there were 46 chromatids too. Why is the number of chromatids in G1 actually 0, not 46? Thanks.
3
votes
2answers
34 views

difference between motifs, domains, patterns, signatures and profiles

I can't get clear the difference between those terms, I see them a lot while browsing on Prosite, Pfam, Expasy e.t.c. However, I can find documentation about them, but It still not clear what the ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

What is Amphitropous ovule & what is Hemianatropous ovule? Got different answer from different sources

I have two books where they are saying just the opposite of what the internet websites saying. The two books are:- STUDIES IN BOTANY written by Mitra, Mitra, Chowdhury A TEXTBOOK OF BOTANY written ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How do normal cell division chance into a tumor forming cell division? [closed]

Or its better to say what happens at molecular level that tumors are formed? I tried normal google search and google books but couldn't find any appropriate explanation. I am trying to understand why ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

What fruits will naturally ferment?

If left unpicked after the fruit ripens, what fruits may ferment instead of just rotting? My perception is that most fruits just rot. I know figs will ferment. I'm guessing that this is because the ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Parafilm vs Foil for Retaining Plate Moisture while Allowing Gas Exchange

We often plate Streptomyces aureofaciens and grow them in a 30°C room. A post-doc I work with has always loosely wrapped the agar plates in aluminum foil to retain moisture and prevent cracking of the ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

What is the difference between natural selection and adaptation?

From what I've read it seems that the only actual difference is that creationists use adaptation and people who believe in evolution use natural selection. But otherwise, from my understanding, the ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Does RNA-LPX expression of antigen by DC induce only T-cell with that antigen specificity?

There was a recent publication concerning use of IV administered RNA-lipoplexes with an adjusted electrical charge to encourage dendritic cells (DC) to pick up the RNA package encoding viral or mutant ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

“Most bacteria have at least one cell wall”

In the first answer to How do we find antibiotics? @Ashafix claims that Most bacteria have at least one cell wall Does this mean that there are bacteria with more than one cell membrane? Which ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

marine animal tracking databases

Which databases you know that store data on tracking of marine animals? I am interested particularly on mammals (for which I know meop storing data on sea lions) but also on fish schools (not sure ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

In a condensation reaction, which of the reactants loses their OH group? [migrated]

You have Propanoic Acid ( CH3CH2COO-O-H) so an OH on the end You have Ethanol (CH3CH2-OH) so an OH on the end When you combine the two for a condensation reaction you have the OH group from 1 ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Nerve endings on the skin

We can perceive sensation of pain if we are poked on any part of the skin. Does this mean there is a nerve ending at every point on the skin? Does this also mean that each of these nerves go all ...
2
votes
1answer
12 views

For a recombinant pUC19 plasmid with cut sites at Hind III and EcoO109i, does lactose need to be present for the gene of interest to be expressed?

I am growing E. Coli transformed with pUC19 with an enzyme in rat brain in between the mentioned cut sites. I have isolated and created the recombinant molecule with custom gene synthesis so that the ...
-3
votes
1answer
37 views

Does SIV cause AIDS in primates… If not why [closed]

does SIV cause AIDS in primates or have they developed resistance to the virus **
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Why does sex give people pleasure [closed]

My question is Why does sex give people pleasure? I know that the pituitary gland secretes sex hormones and the sex organs receives the signal. How is it related to dopamine at last? Through ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Where exactly is pleasure

Question from an outsider: have we been able to pinpoint where exactly the feeling of pleasure comes from? I know that there are several types of pleasure, I'm talking about the 'liking'. If that ...
7
votes
1answer
375 views

Why should phospholipid non-polar tails be “protected” in the membrane bilayer?

lipids are arranged within the membrane with polar head towards the outer side and non polar tails towards inner side, this ensures that the non polar tail is protected from aqueous environment. My ...
1
vote
1answer
10 views

Stem cell research and female egg synthesis

In terms of years, how far is stem cell research from being able to produce a female human egg from other female body cells?
3
votes
1answer
19 views

How would one determine whether a chemical will upregulate a certain class of proteins?

I'm trying to determine whether certain organic chemicals will upregulate classes of proteins that possess deacylase activity.  How would I go about this experiment? I'm assuming I would use some ...
6
votes
3answers
133 views

Why are the human knees and elbows bent in an opposite direction

I can assume that the hands used to be the same as legs. And they got weaken, and changed direction when human started to walk on two? Also why do the hand palms facing the body and not facing down ...
3
votes
1answer
94 views

Dnase data for GRCh38

This question below turned to be completely faulty. I don't have to do anything with DNase data for GRCh38. I asked it because of the file count difference between hg38 and hg37, which I thought to be ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Do I have to chew for digestion to kick in?

Liquid nutrient-rich products (such as Soylent) are consumed without chewing. But if I have to chew to initiate digestion, are those nutrients really "processed"?
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Why do blue jays eat my cat food?

We buy some run of the mill big-box store cat food. Over the last several weeks, I've observed a blue jay landing on the cat food dish, taking a piece or two, and flying off with it. I assumed it was ...
1
vote
2answers
31 views

How does the peptidoglycan layer of a bacterial cell wall help prevent osmotic lysis? [duplicate]

I recently read that penicillin works by damaging the peptidoglycan layers of a bacterial cell wall causing osmotic lysis, which is when the bacteria cell bursts due to osmotic pressure. I just ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Book recomendation: cell cycle regulation [closed]

I aim to study cell cycle regulation, can some of you suggest a good book or website that systematically explains the topic. It should include- Detailed account of Cyclin and cdks involved in ...
4
votes
3answers
711 views

To what extent is the genetic code more than just a code?

It is worth specifying the exact meaning of "code" in this question. A code is a map from one space to another space with which it has no algorithmic connection. Thus representing 321 as 0x141 is not ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Does oxyhaemoglobin is less likely to unload oxygen in the presence of 2,3BPG?

Red blood cells may contain a molecule known as 2,3-bisphophoglycerate (2,3BPG). When 2,3BPG binds to haemoglobin a higher partial pressure of oxygen is needed to bring about 50% saturation of ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Explain a transpiration graph

The solution is A, but I think both A and C are correct. For choice C, stomata that protected by hairs will have a greater amount of water vapour around them, hence lower water potential gradient. ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

How are the dominance and additive effects reflected in the mean and variance of the offsprings of two individuals with known phenotype?

If I estimated the genetic additive σ2A, genetic dominance σ2D and environmental effect σ2E of a trait in a population, what will be the predicted value of the offsprings of two individuals with known ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

I saw these patterns on a hill. Which insect makes such a pattern?

Description of the location It is in India The place is 300-400 m above sea level. There is no water body nearby. Which insect makes these patterns?
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Ecological specialization and relative abundance

I am reading Evolution in Changing Environments by R. Levin but have a hard time. Claim At page 25, Levin says as a conclusion The more efficient a caste at meeting the contingency for which it ...
-3
votes
1answer
59 views

Is it necessary to remove a bullet from the body? [closed]

So here is the proof: William Lawis Pace lived with bullet in his head for many years & even hit 100. However, both in real life and movies, we often see doctors struggling to remove bullets ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Can a human being live without any carbohydrates? [duplicate]

Nowadays low-carb is in fashion, but what I recently wondered is whether a human can live without any carbohydrates at all? Of course this would be hard to do in reality, as most food will contain ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Distribution of Exon and Intron Sizes

Goal I am trying to get a distribution of Exons and intron sizes in Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Data downloaded I downloaded some data from Ensembl. More precisely, I went ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How is histamine useful against allergies?

Histamine is a chemical produced and stored within the body. It is a part of our immune response and is released during an allergic reaction. Often histamine is responsible for hypersensitive ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

filtering a BLAST search to only include a certain protein sequence

I am performing a BLAST search and I need to filter the output to a certain family of proteins. Specifically, I need to get matches within the CYP152 family of the Cytochrome P450 proteins. I can ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Do people even notice when insects other than butterflies and beetles go extinct?

Lists of endangered animals only include beetles and butterflies if they bother to mention insects at all. Here is an example from where I live: http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7494.html All of the ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

What is the name for the mark on a fruit or vegetable where it connected to the main plant via the Peduncle/Pedicle?

When you pick a fruit or vegetable there is very often an obvious mark left on it from where it was attached to the Peduncle/Pedicle. I was wondering if this area has a name. It's clearly visible on ...
-4
votes
3answers
39 views

Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? [closed]

Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? Is it because our body doesnt make enough or the specific complementary antibody to fit with the antigen?
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Can a protein kinase phosphorylate both a threonine and tyrosine residue?

I know that some kinases can phosporylate both serine and threonine residues because of their structural similarities, but can such a kinase phosphorylate a tyrosine residue as well? If not, then why?...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Why would you mix polymerases in PCR?

I was reading a manual for kit that requires you to amplify DNA by PCR before analyzing it in the kit. The manual suggests mixing proofreading and non-proofreading polymerases: For PCR ...
3
votes
2answers
121 views

Hamilton's Rule in practice

I came across this question in USABO 2013 open exam: A mother antelope and its child are galloping along the plains, when they encounter a group of hungry lions. If the two antelopes try to escape ...

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