1
vote
1answer
23 views

Typical cellular respiration lab with a respirometer — why is potassium hydroxide (KOH) necessary?

For context, if you are unsure what this question is in reference to, feel free to take a look at this video by Bozeman science and go forward to about the 2:00 mark. In a typical cellular respiration ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Does restricting some forms of sensory input enhance other forms?

I was in a loud lecture hall about an hour ago where the speaker was using a microphone. However, when a member in the audience asked a question, her voice was drowned out by the background noise of ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Why is a wound much more painful when damp?

Why is a wound much more painful when damp? This is a very strange phenomenon. For example: I have a little wound, not painful at all. But, when it is just damp, it is much painful.
-2
votes
1answer
173 views

Approaches towards a theory of innovation in evolution

Evolutionary biologist Andreas Wagner writes in his book "The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems" (Oxford University Press, 2011): We are ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Why all trees have cylindrical stems?

Why a huge number of trees/plants have cylindrical stems? I have been told that this question's answer lies in Physics but I don't know where to find. Can any one help?
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Are all the atoms in your body replaced with others over a 30 year period?

I was reading Creation - Life and How to Make It by Steve Grand. (This is the book that inspired Jeff Bezos to start the AWS initiative. ) In it he makes the following statement: Anyhow, by now I ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Are non-lytic viruses reproducing themselves in the host cell?

Non lytic viruses can cause cancers like the HPV. But aren't they reproducing themselves as they don't ruptures the cell. Or are they just not reproduced in enough numbers so that the cell keeps ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Why is CO2 unable to be catabolized by cell? [closed]

Why is CO2 unable to be catabolized further ? a.The double bond in CO2 is too strong b.CO2 has less bound electron than any other organic compound c.CO2 has been fully reduced d.CO2 has been fully ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Does the body prioritise the use of available sugar before fat?

Let's say you eat a very unhealthy snack that contains 90% sugar and 10% fat. Would somatic cells not start using the fat for energy until all the sugar is used up? Does the body not use fat at all ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Understanding the configuration of channels in the 10-20 EEG montage

In a typical 10-20 system there are 21 electrodes placed on the scalp. However, this does not mean there are 21 distinct "channels" or voltage sources. I've heard that some of these electrodes are ...
-2
votes
1answer
55 views

What cause the urge to inhale in humans? [closed]

The urge to inhale in humans result from (a) rising pCO2 (b) rising pO2 (c) falling pCO2 (d) falling pO2 p stands for partial pressures. I am guessing the answer is falling pCO2.... but I wanted what ...
3
votes
2answers
45 views

Can ELISA be used to detect a plant enzyme? Creating assay for a new enzyme

If the goal is to generate a rapid assay for an enzyme of plant source what are the typical options? i.e. Could one do something like: Generate an antibody to the enzyme and then use it to create an ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

How to calculate relative fitness from absolute fitness with recapture data?

In Grant 1986, it says: For this analysis the absolute fitness of an individual id scored as 0 if it disappeared and 1 if it survived, and these scores are ...
2
votes
0answers
13 views

Have there been any studies on 'surf balls'? (not related to surfing)

I know the title sounds like something else, but I'm actually wondering about these things, which are also apparently called 'whale burps': This one was found on a beach on Lake Michigan. Does ...
1
vote
2answers
39 views

Why doesn't the Tsetse fly wipe out all animal life in its range?

The Tsetse fly, which is native to interior West Africa, carries the protozoan that causes sleeping sickness, a disease which was apparently invariably fatal before the advent of modern medications. ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

why penis is in erected state at the time of wokeup? [duplicate]

In morning wakeup we can observe that penis is in erected state in human physiology when we can observe these type of situations and why?
4
votes
2answers
94 views

What signal processors comprise an Event-Related Potential system for EEG?

So my 30,000 ft. understanding of the EEG signal processing data flow is: Capture raw EEG data ("raw waveforms") Run these raw waveforms through a Signal Processing Framework that consists of 1+ ...
3
votes
1answer
26 views

Is curling the fingers considered digit flexion?

Is curling the fingers considered finger flexion and straightening the fingers considered finger extension? I feel like this is correct in everyday language, but I am not sure if it is correct in ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Why do gram-positive bacteria cause respiratory diseases more frequently than gram-negative bacteria? [closed]

My theory is that aerobic respiration by gram positive bacteria thrives in ideal conditions of the lungs therefore creates respiratory diseases?
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Are there proteins that stabilize mRNA:RNA polymerase or mRNA:ribosome complex?

Actinomycetes are known for their ability to produce rich variety of natural products, and particularly, polyketides. Many of the genes that encode the biosynthetic pathways are pretty big, as they ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Is the bulbourethral (Cowper) gland turned on during puberty or is it on at birth?

I am trying to find information about the bulbourethral (Cowper) gland and if it gets turned on during puberty or not. I tried asking several other online sites and they said they couldn't help. I ...
2
votes
3answers
81 views

Relationship of the DNA of a eukaryotic gene to the 5'-UTR of its mRNA

In eukaryote pre-mRNA I am having a little trouble grasping exactly what the 5 prime untranslated region is defined as. It seems that it could be defined as the difference in pre-mRNA between the ...
6
votes
3answers
102 views

Function of the alpha subunit in mitochondrial ATP-synthase?

Within the catalytic core of mitochondrial ATP-synthase there are two different types of subunits; $\alpha$ and $\beta$. From what I have read, the catalytic sites occur only in the $\beta$ subunit so ...
7
votes
2answers
985 views

Why is Fast Fourier Transform applied to raw EEG data?

I am trying to understand why Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used in the analysis of raw EEG channel data. My understanding (at the 30,000 ft view) is that FFT decomposes linear differential ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Issues with scratch test

I have a question about the wound healing migration assay, the scratch test. I have seen several protocols for the test, but there are differences in the addition of medium with FBS (1 night before an ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Pineal gland of a Chimpanzee

I have found it rather hard to find a single photo of a Chimpanzee's Pineal Gland in cyberspace. I would like in particular to view the pineal gland of Chimpanzee that deceased of old age just to see ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

How can I calculate Shannon-Wiener diversity index in caves with different kind of habitats and different sampling methods?

I would like to start a monitoring in different caves, compare caves of different age and length, and find out if there are any correlations between these factors and their diversity. I was thinking ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Analysing the ERP (Event-Related Potential from EEG recordings) in terms of the P-300 wave

I am trying to understand how to analyze ERP (Event-Related Potentials) from EEG recordings in focus on P-300 waves. I have come up with a few questions which I hope you might be able to help with: ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

Infer gene frequency within a species over time

I was reading Karlsson et al. (2014) and I came into this: A selected variant that increases rapidly in frequency in the past ~250,000 years can be detected as an unusual reduction in genetic ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Bilirubin metabolism and UGT1A1 inhibition in human vs. monkey?

In human UGT1A1 seems to be the only relevant enzyme to glucuronidate unconjugated bilirubin into excreted forms. Is the pathway the same for e.g. the Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in vivo? ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Animal skeleton composition?

I know human bone cells are made of calcium, carbon and phosphorus, however I am curious if there are animals with different bone compositions compared to the ones of humans?
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Can lymphoma cells perform the functions that normal lymphocytes do?

It is known that lymphoma cells are derived from lymphocytes such as T cells, B cells, and even natural killer cells (arguably). Can these lymphoma cells attack microbes, viruses, or secrete ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Best protocol to optimize solubilization of bacterial fusion proteins?

I'm trying to produce an His-tagged protein in E.coli. Before performing the Ni-NTA column I need to figure out how to extract most of the protein from the cell pellet but I'm getting lost with a ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Measuring tumor heterogeneity [closed]

I would like to ask if there's any method (established or not) in order to quantify heterogeneity found in mutations occuring in primary neoplasms and metastatic lesions (either common or private) and ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Dexamethasone radius of gyration source

I am looking for a source for the radius of gyration of dexamethasone in aqueous solution. Does anyone know where I could get it from? Even better would be an estimation of the Stokes radius, but the ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Why is active transport needed in repolarization?

During the repolarization phase of an action potential, the potassium ions diffuse out of the cell, and active transport begins. What I do not understand is why active transport is needed when the ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Why the name hypopharynx?

Why the tongue (like structure) in cockroach (or other insects) is called hypopharynx? In humans I know it's the lower part of pharynx, not a structure.
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Question about radiation and how it affects biological systems

I'm doing research on the effects of radiation, and specifically UV, X-Ray and Gamma radiation, on biological systems at the cellular level and beyond. I understand that radiation types can be ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

What is the difference between multiple allelism and polymorphism?

Multiple allelism is defined as "the existence of more than two alleles of the same gene within a population." Polymorphism is "the occurrence of more than two distinct phenotypes of a trait in a ...
4
votes
1answer
55 views

How can I obtain a computer readable model of Dr. Gerhard Michal's biological pathways map?

I want to run simulations of various metabolic pathways – the project could end up becoming quite large, and having a machine readable chart would make thing a lot easier. Does anyone know if there is ...
0
votes
2answers
10 views

Do Class A biosolids count as organic fertiliser?

Does Human Waste, which has been treated at least twice to remove pathogens & remove stink, still count as organic despite it passing the EPA's class A standard? If so, does this mean that ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Did toads evolve from frogs?

I know frogs still exist but that doesn't mean there wasn't ever a frog population that evolved into toads. Did frogs evolve into toads because their available swamp slowly went away and toads could ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

Use of sunlight in biological processes

Sunlight is used by green plants in photosynthesis, but it is also used by animals in the synthesis of Vitamin D. Are there any similarities between the two processes and how is the light energy ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Concentration gradients across membranes with different ions

I'm trying to gain an intuition for the dynamics of across neuronal membranes. The overarching idea here is they are controlled by ion concentration gradients across the membrane (which we can ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Amount of Na+ needed to be transfered in order to depolarize the membrane?

I found out that the number of $Na^+$ ions that is needed to be transfered across the membrane to make it depolarized is a small number. In what way its proved? (Goldman equation maybe?)
0
votes
0answers
24 views

How do genetic logic gates work?

Recently researchers at MIT have developed genetic logic gates which can be built into programs. How do these "genetic logic gates" work? "The language is based on Verilog, which is commonly used to ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Is EGF-mediated proliferation symmetric?

It's known that the MAPK signaling cascade (say, ERK) is downstream of EGFR in epithelial cells, and that EGFR activation can cause proliferation in some cell types in some situations. My question is ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

Where do class 2 preservatives end up after digestion?

Do anybody know what happens to class 2 preservatives in general after they are digested - i.e details like weather they are absorbed into blood as simplest elements or excreted out or assimilated to ...
3
votes
0answers
18 views

Runs of homozygosity - degree of inbreeding and disease associations

Been reading recently about methods to determine how inbred a particular person is by measuring their "runs of homozygosity." Loosly, these are defined as regions of the genome (typically >1Mb) where ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Structure of proteins

Regarding the secondary structure of proteins, I know that there are 3 main types. The beta sheet formation is made up of beta strands stabilized by hydrogen bonds to form an anti parallel or a ...

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