1
vote
1answer
36 views

Why do Major and Minor grooves exist in dna strands? [closed]

I've been trying to find what causes the periodic appearance of major and minor grooves in DNA but have not yet been successful. Geometrical explanations would also be appreciated as I cannot ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

How does a Plasmodium move?

Plasmodium sp. does not have any locomotory organs. So, how does it move? What biochemical process allows it to move?
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Probabilities of gene amplification: four questions [closed]

Do mutations in the SLC1A5 gene affect tumor proliferation? Are SLC1A5 mutations in tumors dominant, recessive, or neutral? Amplification vs mutation vs overexpression: please explain the ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What are the determinants of tumor metastasis

Under what conditions do tumors migrate? Is it due to hostile microenvironment conditions, drug application, mutations, or other causes? Are there any migration probability values (I am doing an in ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Why is metabolism of ethanol catabolism? Could it be also detoxification?

Detoxification is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver. Additionally, it can refer to ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Is there a deblocking aminopeptidase without normal aminopeptidase activity?

The deblocking aminopeptidase is a unique exo-type aminopeptidase that liberates blocking groups (formyl, acetyl, and myristyl) from proteins and peptides. However, according to this paper, it has two ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

How do Binaural Beats Work?

We have a project on different ways of relaxation. One way I found out was binaural beats. Could anyone please tell me how they work. You guys are masters when it comes to simplifying things! All I ...
0
votes
1answer
102 views

Have scientists ever produce a new species in laboratory by means of natural selection?

I was wondering, if scientists ever produce a more complex species from a less complex species by means of natural selection? I imagine something like, bacteria which can't photosynthesis and oxygen ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

How are the two ATPs (properly 1.5 though) formed from oxidation of 1 FADH2?

Each ATP Synthase has three sites for binding three sets of ADP and Pi, so when the H+ pass through the a and c subunits are they (3 ATPs) not produced for FADH2 substrate? Besides is the ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Identify this large (swamp) fly?

Can anyone identify this large fly? I encountered it in Okefenokee Swamp (Georgia, U.S.A.) on May 1, 2015. Weather: 53-78°F (avg. 66°F), avg humidity = 60, dew point = 47°F. The fly was about the ...
3
votes
0answers
45 views

How many protons are pumped out per pair of electrons from NADH in oxidative phosphorylation?

I have searched the web and found that 10 protons are suppose to get pumped out during the electron cycle, but i'm a bit confused. I'm trying to count, for every complex(1/3/4), the number of protons ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Are axons capable of endocytosis?

There is evidence for the uptake of toxic substances like prions from the cell bodies of neurons via endocytosis (e.g. described here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892479/). There is ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

What is meant by electron transfer potential?

I was reading a text and came across the term. What does it mean? The sentence said 'The driving force of oxidative phosphorylation is the electron transfer potential of NADH or FADH2 relative to that ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How to understand Aposematism and Batesian mimicry

EDIT I want to understand the reason for intense animal colors. I.e. I don't want to understand the variety of the colors, just the intensity. The Wikipedia page for Cethosia biblis says, the intense ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Is it possible to separate the binding and catalysis of an enzyme in two steps?

Is it possible to do the following: Enzyme E binds to its substrate S without catalysis; Add a controllable stimulus, such as light, adding or removing chemicals; The enzymatic reaction is triggered ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Male-Male competition limited to breeding season?

I'm currently reading about sexual selection in the context of evolution. Unfortunately, the focus is always on animal behavior during the breeding season. What is 'normal' behavior outside of ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

How does the splicing enzyme recognize where to splice the introns?

When the DNA from the nucleus is transcribed to an mRNA, the mRNA is spliced by an enzyme before it goes outside through the nuclear pore. What is the name of this enzyme and how does it recognize ...
-3
votes
1answer
59 views

Does evolution thinks? [closed]

I understand evolution as survival of the fittest rule , where its the nature and surroundings that shapes the life by extinction of species which are not fit to survive the nature at that period. To ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

What are the basic skills required to pursue future studies in theoretical ecology? [closed]

I am a student and just about to choose a project for my Master's thesis in biology. I want to pursue studies in theoretical ecology in the future. Between field ecology and computational biology (as ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Which of the following is NOT a type of tropism?

Which of the following plant movements is NOT a tropism? Plant stem growing toward light Plant structure growing away from light Plant roots growing in response to gravity Vines coiling around ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

What are other creatures or plants that leave “recommendations” as ants? [closed]

I'm working on a Semantic Recommendation Systems. In the state-of-the-art, I state the fact that even animals, such as ants, using some kind of recommendations by leaving markers, which are chemical ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

On ways to treat cancer [closed]

Since cancer cells are a lot more uncontrollable and mutated than 'regular' non-cancerous cells ( they are more susceptible to heat for instance); if an area that has tumours is affected by some ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Why do multicellular organisms die of old age? [duplicate]

According to this answer, bacteria do not really age, just some offspring of the bacteria have more damage and die to let other bacteria live. Most cells in an animal are "new" cells and are not the ...
3
votes
2answers
317 views

Gene and alleles

This is a multiple choice question: Consider a gene, ABC, which codes for an enzyme involved in the metabolism of sugars. There are two known alleles of this gene, ABC1 and ABC2. Which statement ...
1
vote
2answers
29 views

How is a bacterial strain defined?

When a species of bacteria is referred to by its strain, are they a clone of single founder or is a certain amount variation allowed?
5
votes
1answer
131 views

Is DNA replaced after organ donation?

If an organ from person A is transplanted to a new human body B, is it possible that we can detect A's DNA in B? How long until the organ's DNA is replaced by B's DNA so that we are no longer able to ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Can a cell start a mitosis if it lacks energy or molecules to complete it?

I'm wondering whether a cell can start a mitosis if it lack molecules or energy to fully complete it. From what I'm reading on wikipedia the cell passes most of its time in the interphase in which the ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Interpreting soft clipping in a SAM alignment

I am interpreting CAGE data. I have noticed that in the SAM files I am analysing, there are many pairs of lines of the form (e.g.) ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Which of the three is true for insulin receptors?

I have seen the following question in a Cell Biology exam: Which of the following is true" Insulin has an hydrophobic Signal Peptide and the insulin receptor does not have an hydrophobic ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

what is the principle behind Allele Frequency Net Database

I just wanted to know what is the basic principle of Allele*Frequency Net Database. How are the frequencies present in them calculated??
5
votes
1answer
41 views

Are there any animals that gradually approaches the predator to search for food?

I was wondering if there is an animal (or insect, bird, etc.) that eventually comes close to its predator to search for food, but only does so if it couldn't find food in the environment it is in. So ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Improving Maple growth? [migrated]

I have grown maples 4 times. Every time it was 1 or more seeds from a sugar maple and the seeds were viable(I could feel the seed inside). First attempt: Planting time: March 21st 2010 Number of ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Numbers in the names of tumor markers

In tumor markers such as CA 125, CA 19-9 and many other, CA stands for Carcinoma antigen, but what about the number?
0
votes
2answers
35 views

“Prime” structure of DNA Double Helix: Confusion

In this video on DNA replication, the diagram shows the unwound DNA as still being anti-parallel, but the first diagram in this post on Biology SE shows that the individual strands are 5'____5' and ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
2
votes
2answers
53 views

Skull size of Homo naledi

I want to 3D print the skull of the newly discovered Homo naledi. The printing data can be found here: http://morphosource.org/index.php/Detail/MediaDetail/Show/media_id/7300 Where can I find the ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

30s ribosomal Inhibitor (Antibiotic)Question

I have a question regarding the mode of action of 30s ribosomal Inhibitors (antibiotcs) - tetracyclines. According to some online resources, the antibiotics enter the A-site, which prevents other tRNA ...
5
votes
2answers
79 views

At any given moment, how much energy is stored in the human body as ATP?

At any given moment, approximately how much energy is stored in the human body as ATP in the ADP-P-bond? This of course depends on what type of cell it is and the activity of the individual in ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Why does the open tree of life have 2600 species of rose?

The open tree of life has 2754 species and subspecies with the prefix Rosa. Wiki says: There is significant disagreement over the number of true rose species. Some species are so similar that ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

How does current delivered by a neural stimulator propagate in the brain?

I have been trying to find good literature on how a stimulus current propagates through a medium that contains both gray and white matter (like the brain). Is it safe to assume that a current will ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

0.1 M sodium citrate in 10% ethanol and DNA solubility

I understand how DNA precipitation works in the presence of salt (such as 0.3 M sodium acetate or 0.2 M sodium chloride) and alcohol (30 ~ 50 % isopropanol or 60 ~ 75% ethanol) However, in the Trizol ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Why is exocrinous pancreatic cancer so lethal when compared to others?

I know it seems far fetched, but I would really like to understand why an interference with the regulation of production of pancreatic exocrine products (and which are they) is so lethal. I know that ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Relation between heterozygosity and allelic diversity in founder effects/bottleneck?

Can someone try to explain me why allelic diversity falls faster than heterozygosity, reminding you that we're talking about bottleneck or a founder effect? Look at this graphic: It's clear to me ...
2
votes
0answers
15 views

How to identify genes in Ralstonia that synthesize PHB and promote granule formation?

The compound polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is of considerable industrial interest as a biodegradable substitute for plastic. PHB is synthesized from glycerol by the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. PHB ...
3
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Assays to determine competitive binding versus non-competitive

I'm looking for both simple and complex assays or technologies than can be used to determine if two competing molecules are competitive or noncompetitive. I figure xray crystallography is a clear ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Can honey be used by diabetic patient? [migrated]

Honey may increase the blood glucose level. However, it may also contains some ingredients that give a relief for diabetic patient. Is it true?
3
votes
0answers
31 views

How was gene therapy able to CURE some diseases (I guess on cells that do NOT regenerate)?

Here's where I'm getting confused... I thought that gene therapy, when done on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only (aka. The achieved effect ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

The Semi-Conservative Model of DNA Replication: Question

My Campbell's Biology textbook contains the following diagram related to the semi-conservative model of DNA replication proposed by Watson and Crick. I have highlighted where my confusion arises in ...

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