2
votes
1answer
161 views

One flybase gene number (FBgn), many Affymetrix Id's

I am trying to convert a set of Affymetrix ID's, like this one 143053_at_3745, to Flybase Gene Numbers (FBgn) like this one FBgn0000015. I have downloaded the Flybase file required to do so (as ...
6
votes
1answer
247 views

Why human cannot stand still in one place?

When a human stands in one place, he cannot stand still but we can see the body slightly swings. Is this due to the Earth rotation or it has something with biology and muscles relaxations? I have ...
1
vote
0answers
136 views

Are there nutritional benefits to drinking diluted urine?

I know that urine drinking is a widespread practice (with a long history). The main reason that people give today involves there being nutrients in urine. If there are nutrients to be gained, why is ...
5
votes
2answers
389 views

What metabolic activities are performed by a developing human fetus's liver?

I understand that organ function varies with the stages of development. Does a fetal liver EVER perform lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, make bile, etc? Or does it only begin performing these actions ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Do kidneys have the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase?

I am thinking if kidneys can use ketone bodies as fuel. Ketone bodies are water-soluble so no problem because of solubility. The existence of the enzyme determines the answer. Can kidneys use ketone ...
2
votes
1answer
370 views

What controls the breast size?

I am not a biology student, just a curious person. To be specific, I'm talking about humans and specifically about females. I know that it might apply to other mammals. What controls the size of ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Why is important to get saturated fatty acids from diet?

I am thinking why our body must get saturated fatty acids from diet. We can make them, since they are not essential fatty acids. The body can make all fatty acids except linoleic acid and ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

How does paracetamol interfere with immune system?

Paracetamol is used to reduce body temperature when it is to high. The high body temperature (fever) is known to be an indication that immune system fights against an infection. In this context I ...
3
votes
1answer
122 views

What kind of caterpillar is this?

I've made a photo using the reversed 58 mm lens and my cropped DSLR: Could you please help? I really don't know where this came from. I found it in Russia.
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Complexity in creating transgenic animals (e.g., mice)

Many papers I have seen describing transgenic rodent models (and presumably applicable to other model organisms) involve the knock-in, or modification to, a single gene, possibly two genes. With ...
3
votes
2answers
76 views

Do dolphins really sleep?

I have always wondered, if dolphins sleep with one eye opened, do they really sleep at all? According to this article dolphins indeed shut down their brains. I already googled it. No help from ...
3
votes
2answers
82 views

Is there a way to measure the amount of bytes that are possible to encode in a DNA molecule?

When I saw a DNA molecule for the first time, it kinda reminded me of a hard drive. It consists of slots and there are some possible combinations for each slot; in the hard drive these possible ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Is there an optimal illumination level for human habitats/workplaces?

I know of melanopsin, a photo pigment in mammal eye that helps regulate circadian rhythms. It responds most strongly to blue spectrum light. There have been experiments that demonstrated that ...
4
votes
0answers
48 views

Does preservation in ethanol alter leaf litter mass?

I have benthic samples that were collected with an Ekman dredge from some small ponds. The samples contain quite a bit of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM, basically dead leaves). I would ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

What's the difference between a free chromosome fragment and an extrachromosomal array?

This is reference to a review on C. elegans mosaic analysis by Yochem and Herman, in which the authors make a distinction between free chromosome fragments and extrachromosomal arrays. For the ...
2
votes
3answers
841 views

Improving Gel Extraction yields

How can I improve my Gel Extraction yields. We use the standard protocol from Qiagen, gel extraction, dissolve in QG buffer at 42C and purify via anion exchange columns. However, with 500 ng we ...
3
votes
0answers
74 views

How does LCR compare to Assembly PCR

The question pretty much explains itself. How do the two methods compare? I've always used Assembly PCR but the method is prone to mistakes and I'm curious how it compares to Ligase Chain Reaction ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

RACE pcr product

I'm a molecular bio novice, and I'm trying to understand the differences between regular PCR and RACE PCR. If it wanted to sequence my PCR product that might be hundreds, if not thousands of bps ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is that all the animals can swim in water without learning to swim but humans cannot?

I had a question since I was a child. I was always curious that all the animals can swim in water. They don't need any training or to learn swimming. But humans need to learn to swim. Why ? I am a ...
-1
votes
1answer
120 views

Are ape communities more “anarchist” or “communist” in structure?

I am using these terms because we can imagine them quite good, I guess ;) By "anarchist" I mean that the ape wants to live without the rule of others apes(same biological race or other) and he pursue ...
4
votes
1answer
167 views

What is a simple protocol for staining cells in suspension?

I am an engineering student studying how electric fields affect cells, specifically the phenomena of electroporation in living cells. I know that electroporation is widely used for introducing genes ...
6
votes
2answers
133 views

What would cause E. coli to change from filamentous growth to normal growth?

In my lab we've observed a phenomenon in which a culture of E. coli is found to shift from normal rod growth to filamentous growth and then back to normal rod growth again several times over the ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Are (baseline) high blood levels of melatonin associated with either circadian rhythm or mood disorders?

(Exogenous) melatonin is administered at night for treatment of circadian rhythm disorders, but melatonin taken during the day is linked with depression. I would like to know if high blood levels of ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

How compatible are mammalian digestive systems?

I'm interested in what kinds of nutrients mammals extract from food and would like to know how similar are the outputs of these systems. For example, if it is possible to successfully replace one ...
1
vote
2answers
79 views

Do individual (free) nucleotides base-pair with other free nucleotides?

I had a student ask me about this and my google-fu let me down. He asked if individual nucleotides (not in a nucleic acid) base-pair with their complementary nucleotides, essentially forming many ...
3
votes
0answers
97 views

Is there a standard definition for plant “maturity”?

Is there a species-agnostic metric for identifying plant maturity? There seems to be plenty of literature defining life-history stages for specific crops, but it is not clear if there is a generic ...
2
votes
1answer
137 views

ChIP-seq and the output of SPP

I have been processing some ChIP-seq data with the R package spp. I looked through the literature (ENCODE uses it) and it seemed that spp is indicated as a good program to use. I have found and ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What is the efficacy of Pertussis booster vaccine among different age groups?

The Murray Microbiology book says that it is prefentially 10 years, similarly Estonian and Finnish health associations. However, my professor says that it can be 5-7 years. I started to think if the ...
1
vote
1answer
356 views

Relation between goose bumps and temperature

As we all know, cold weather will cause us to have goose bumps. I honestly don't know why (1), because our skin contracts? Apart from that something quite contradicting happened this morning. I was ...
6
votes
2answers
353 views

Why does sexual selection evolve beautiful features?

First question here. I have a very raw understanding of sexual selection: Say a group of females of a certain species "likes" some feature of a certain groups of males; by "like" I mean some ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

Vitamin and mineral contents of common fruits

I'm looking for nutritional data, mostly vitamin and mineral contents of common fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, kiwis etc. Are there scientific (published and peer-reviewed) sources that ...
3
votes
2answers
117 views

High sequence similarity but start codon isn't methionine

I have noticed in a particular genome sequence of a prokaryote that various regions in a sequence share similarity which is high(>80%) with known proteins. However, the start is not a methionine. Is ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Indestructible Super Shrimp

How are shrimp and other animals able to not be crushed by the 1000x greater pressure at the bottom on the Mariana trench? Wiki says the trench is home to "large living creatures such as a sole or ...
8
votes
2answers
101 views

Where can I find historical data on world-wide ecology parameters?

I hope this is the right StackExchange forum for such a question. I'm looking for large data sets on world-wide ecology parameters, such as annual temperatures by latitude, annual rainfall, CO₂ and ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Agony, Hydrophobia and viruses in the light of evolutionary principles

I'm undergraduate physics student, but I've always been interested in biology. So I have a couple of questions about an application of the evolutionary principles to practice. Agony as the last ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Why do neurons die so fast without oxygen and nutrients?

Some human tissue can survive without oxygen a couple of minutes, even hours. Why are the neurons are so "weak" and depends so much on oxygen and other nutrients and cannot live without them for ...
1
vote
0answers
94 views

Why aren't antheridia and archegonia touching?

Antheridia and archegonia are the two male and female gametangia, respectively, and they are found in bryophytes. To cause fertilization, usually a thin film of water must be present for the sperm ...
7
votes
2answers
295 views

In humans what is the last metabolic process to cease after death?

After death which of our body's metabolic processes will continue functioning for the longest?
1
vote
2answers
482 views

How do animals decide what to eat and what not?

I want to know this in particular about animals that no longer eat what they used to eat. The best example in my opinion are chickens. Chickens are often held to eat all kinds of food we would ...
1
vote
1answer
139 views

Are there any viruses or bacteria which have evolved to withstand higher temperatures due to fever

My question was raised after receiving this information: The primary reason the body raises its temperature (via the Hypothalamus in this case) is that bacteria and viruses tend to optimally ...
5
votes
1answer
350 views

What is the biological mechanism underlying caffeine intolerance? (CYP1A2 or other?)

As far as I can tell, caffeine metabolism occurs primarily via the CYP1A2 enzyme. I am curious as to whether mutations in the CYP1A2 gene are associated with caffeine intolerance. Some site that is ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

If a receptor is inhibited throughout embryogenesis, could there be observable phenotypic differences in the adult?

So I read a journal article entitled "Maternal hypoxia and caffeine exposure depress fetal CV function during primary organogenesis" (Momoi, et al., 2012) and in essence the article speaks of the ...
5
votes
1answer
434 views

If fever is a natural immune defense, why do people take drugs to lower it?

If fever is a natural defense against pathogens, why do sick people take NSAIDs to reduce the fever?
-3
votes
1answer
99 views

How much can be said about behaviour (future) based on bloodgroup?

My bloodgroup for example is A+. How much information is knowing my bloodgroup? How much information can be known from a blood sample? I expect you to be able to clone if known a complete DNA sequence ...
3
votes
0answers
50 views

Sequencing rtPCR product

So I have a validated set of primers for rtPCR from Biorad that contains SYBR green. If I do rtPCR, can I use the rtPCR product after purifying it with a Qiagen PCR purification kit? Also, I'm under ...
5
votes
1answer
94 views

Can cirrhosis be caused by physical compression of the body?

On a random forum, a member speculated that their cirrhosis was caused by wearing tight-fitting clothing such as a girdle or corset. This leads me to the following question: Question: Can ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Might a previously administered MPSV4 vaccine react with a newly administered MCV-4 vaccine?

This is a hypothetical situation. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) is a vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis. MCV4 is a conjugate vaccine. I would like to know if the polysaccharide ...
9
votes
1answer
267 views

When does weak selection produce qualitatively different results from strong selection?

In evolutionary game theory, it is typical to model organisms as having a base fitness that is modified slightly by the game interaction. The ratio of the game effect versus the base fitness ...
3
votes
1answer
418 views

Long term liquid food diet by blending/grinding all quality foods one would normaly eat, not any weight loss or prepared drinks

I want to know what are the effects of not using your teeth to grind foods but preparing it before eating with blending and grinding them into a liquid. Here I am not talking about any weight loss or ...
5
votes
1answer
148 views

What is the minimum population size that Hardy-Weinberg calculations can be applied to?

I'm trying to find out if a particular allele is in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, but the data is poor. What's the minimum population number that you can use to get any sort of respectable ...

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