1
vote
0answers
82 views

Should pasteurised milk go bitter instead of sour when it is close to its expiration date? [closed]

I bought some milk today on a special offer, its expiration date being tomorrow, and after leaving it outside, in one of the still-sealed boxes, for a few hours, the milk went bitter. But milk ...
5
votes
2answers
216 views

Ecomorphs as evolutionary definitions

There have been demonstrations of ecomorphs in different taxa, where each morphology type is associated to a single environment. I know that it happens because special morphological characters ...
7
votes
1answer
983 views

Is it possible for any animals today to have more than one brain?

Is it possible for any organisms in the animal kingdom to have more than one brain?
-2
votes
1answer
176 views

Why do life savers hurt?

Why does holding a life saver peppermint candy to my tongue hurt? Does it have something to do with the chemical makeup of the candy?
3
votes
1answer
21 views

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

why water is a proof of a life? [duplicate]

I read that NASA looks for water on Mars or other planets as a sign of a life. I wonder why scientists look for water as proof of a life? isn't there any animal that drinks another liquid like ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Can any other animal choke on food?

I read somewhere (I think it was Bill Bryson's book on the origins of the English language) that of all animals, we are the only ones that can choke on food (having something to do with how our larynx ...
3
votes
2answers
688 views

Physiological indicators of happiness and well being

If I understand it correctly, levels of serotonin in the brain can indicate if a person is happy. What other physiological measures indicate happiness or well being for a humans? I am looking for ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

How do we memorize something?

When we see something, how and where in the brain do we remember it and are able to recognize it later? What happens in the brain that makes this possible?
1
vote
0answers
194 views

Mass change in deamidation from Glutamine to Glutamate

To detect the deamidation from Glutamine to Glutamate in a protein, normal practise seems to be a mass spec, where it is claimed there is a change of 1 dalton. EG It is claimed that: Deamidation ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

Is there a link between autoimmune diseases and X-chromosome inactivation?

I was reading about the necessity of niche formations to adequate development of blood progenitors and this idea reminded me of the patchy inactivation of the X chromosome which followed that maybe, ...
9
votes
1answer
104 views

Is there any evidence that humans have faced extinction before?

Have we as a species faced extinction in the past? Resulting in a 'population bottleneck'? If so, what genetic evidence is there of this occurring?
3
votes
1answer
99 views

Competition with other individuals of the same species vs. adaptation pressure from predators

It is often said "You don't need to outrun the cheetah, just the other gazelles", thus emphasizing that greater part of the adaptation pressure comes from competing with other individuals of the same ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Enlargement of joints in osteoarthrosis

If osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis) is a degenerative condition, where the cartilage in joints wears down, what causes the joints to become inflamed? I'm reading through a book called Understanding ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Eye Brain Mapping

If our eyes are separated by some kind of full proof barrier/isolation, is it possible that our brain can picture/visualize two different pictures at a time? How the brain will function in this ...
9
votes
3answers
352 views

What vegetation would thrive in the Martian atmosphere? [duplicate]

Most plants require carbon dioxide for their photosynthesis, which Mars has in overabundance. Would atmosphere composition (let's ignore temperatures for the purpose of this question) of Mars allow ...
1
vote
1answer
913 views

In what animal species is the sex ratio skewed in favour of the fertile female?

Ants have something like a single fertile female to several males. The same applies to bees, and larger animals - elephants too. Is the sex ratio universally skewed in favour of the female? What ...
3
votes
1answer
311 views

How can haired mammals synthesize vitamin D?

The human body can synthesize vitamin D in the skin from cholesterol, when sun exposure is adequate. But how can haired mammals do it? Do not they need it?
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Is (Brain Mass)/(Total Mass) still considered a valid indicator of intelligence?

I was reading this(1) and it led me back to ask a very basic question (I'm not a neuroscientist). All the way back to undergrad anthropology and neuroscience courses I remember being taught the ...
4
votes
0answers
68 views

Will eukaryotic RNA fold in the same way in prokaryotes?

As far as I know, there are no specific eukaryotic or prokaryotic factors that aid in RNA folding other than cellular environment (salt and ion concentrations, dissolved molecules, etc). Are there any ...
0
votes
1answer
529 views

Writing methods section on PCR amplication in a paper

Considering that I am writing a paper for a journal, could the following phrase be understood? or should I put the 'step-by-step' way by giving numbers? PCR Amplification and sequencing PCR ...
16
votes
3answers
1k views

Do animals exist with an uneven total number of digits?

I recently finished reading Contact by Carl Sagan. In the book they talk about a pattern in the transcendental number like pi or e, and comment that it is found in base 10 or however many fingers the ...
3
votes
1answer
540 views

What does phasing mean?

What does phasing mean in genetics/informatics? I've heard that a phased file is a file that has genes separated by chromosome, but can someone give a concrete definition of what phasing actually ...
0
votes
2answers
72 views

Plant anatomy, what are these stem like filaments growing under the flower

The picture below shows what I am talking about. Each flower has one and I am just wondering what they are?
1
vote
2answers
186 views

What gases are needed for humans to breathe?

I will be beginning a science project about sustaining life on space stations. I already know that pure oxygen is harmful for humans but would $O_2$ + $CO_2$ be enough for humans to breathe in or do ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Information Gene HBA2

Gene : HBA2? hemoglobin alpha 2 (Homo sapiens) I don't find any tissues (or organs) in which the expression of this gene is strongest? What is the size of the gene (promoter off) encoding this ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Any tool to align whole genome sequence data to another genome and give exon regions a higher mark?

I want to align WGS data from several mammals to one reference such as the human genome sequence. Since in most cases exons should be conserved and spliced in the same way and introns should vary, I ...
5
votes
2answers
233 views

How to find Exons in mRNA Computationally

I'm having trouble finding a method to find exons in the original DNA sequence used to create the mRNA, even given the sequence of the mRNA, as I cannot find a way to reliably identify the beginning ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

What is this plant in the Butler, Pennsylvania area?

This is growing in the woods near my house in the Butler, Pennsylvania area. I have not seen it around before and I have no idea what is it. What is it? Is it poisonous to pets (or little kids)?
2
votes
1answer
58 views

How can I accurately predict proper transgenic protein function/structure from different species?

I am currently building a synthetic system in E.coli, and am often faced with the need to use genes from other distant prokaryotes. I know that myself and most of my colleagues resort to an educated ...
2
votes
2answers
121 views

Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
5
votes
4answers
352 views

Are there animals which can see movements better than shapes or colors?

I remember that in Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, Tyrannosaurus Rex was supposed to have movement based vision. (Of course, that is a novel and not a scientific text.) I have also noticed ...
16
votes
5answers
6k views

Does red light preserve your night vision?

A number of companies have started marketing LED lamps that can be switched to a red mode. The claim is that red light is less harmful to one's night vision. Given that our eyes are less sensitive to ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Information and image of Genus Acesina

I am searching for image and information, like distribution etc of the genus Acesina. The Taxonomic tree is: ...
9
votes
1answer
165 views

Doesn't osmosis violate the law of conservation of energy?

Osmosis seems very counter-intuitive to me. I will try to explain my doubt with the following thought experiment: Consider a huge container divided into two by a semi-permeable membrane. We add equal ...
0
votes
1answer
152 views

Why not use SDS-PAGE as a method to detect viruses?

Recently, I have been researching about DNA and I know the most popular method for detecting viruses is based on DNA. After learning about proteins, I wonder why we do not detect viruses based on ...
2
votes
2answers
144 views

How to learn biomathematics?

I'm currently an undergraduate math student and researching on the internet I discover that exists an area called "biomathematics". Looks so interesting. They use the graph theory and topology to ...
3
votes
2answers
68 views

Why don't we form immunity to some infections?

I read another question, and its answers, about how vaccines work, but I don't see there, and and don't understand, why some infections can, seemingly, not be immunized against at all. For example, ...
0
votes
2answers
109 views

Problem on finding sequence of Taq polymerase

As i know, Taq Polymerase can be found in Thermus aquaticus, so i do a search for protein list of Thermus aquaticus and have this : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/proteins/1724?project_id=55053 . ...
5
votes
1answer
60 views

Diabetes-diabetes comorbidity

Is it possible to have both type-1 (insulin-dependent) and type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus? That is, to have both insulin resistance and zero (or negligible) insulin production? If ...
2
votes
2answers
318 views

Beginning with centrifuge experiment

This is the first time I do a centrifuge experiment with my own centrifuge machine, it's just simple made by a rotor that can rotate the tube at high speed. As I know a centrifuge machine can be using ...
1
vote
2answers
115 views

Finding a easy and cheap method for dyeing dNTP

I want to measure OD to know the concentration of dNTP. Any idea for dyeing dNTP at cheapest price and easiest way ?
1
vote
1answer
105 views

Preparation of normal DNA polymerase

i don't need Taq polymerase. Just need normal DNA polymerase. So the main idea is preparation polymerase directly from Lactobacillus without using cloned vector. My idea is electrophoresis using ...
0
votes
6answers
2k views

What does “fit” mean in “survival of the fittest”? [closed]

What does "fit" mean in "survival of the fittest"?
6
votes
1answer
134 views

Could someone recommend a book for surveying species?

I'm trying to get/renew basic knowledge of species. Could someone recommend a book for surveying "important"/"representational" species? I am looking for a book with good illustrations and that covers ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Do toxin producing strains of E. coli constantly produce toxin or only under certain conditions?

Background E. coli is prevalent everywhere but only some strains produce toxins harmful to humans, such as E. coli O157:H7. Questions 1) Would anyone know if these strains are always producing ...
3
votes
2answers
414 views

Why does the body not recycle red blood cells?

This question is out of curiosity. The life expectancy of a red blood cell (RBC) is approximately 3 months, and then RBCs are disposed of. Why does the body opt to build new red blood cells rather ...
0
votes
1answer
207 views

How does hair grow and is it similar to how grass grows?

If I recall correctly, nails (finger nails or toe nails) grow by adding matter at its base. So for instance, if you would draw a dot at the very bottom of your nail, it would end at the top in a ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

How are memories stored in the brain?

I've been thinking about this for a while and I can't figure out how a memory can be stored in the brain. I understand that important memories are favourably retained, such as a near death ...
-1
votes
3answers
74 views

Are there “multi-frequency” signals within a human brain?

I know that neurons can exhibit tonic and phasic firing, and also that a neuron is sometimes called an integrator. This makes me interested to know if there are activities in the brain that depend on ...

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