1
vote
0answers
29 views

Location of embryo development in angiosperms

What floral organ does the development of the embryos of angiosperms occurs in? Is it the ovary? The pollen tube grows down through the style and double fertilization occurs and the embryo begins to ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
3
votes
3answers
602 views

How to increase the shelf life of yogurt without refrigeration?

When we make yogurt at home and do not refrigerate it, it will become sour because of conversion of lactose into lactic acid by Lactobacillus bacteria, but this does not happen in case of Nestle's ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

How do BCAA's promote faster muscle recovery?

I am aware that ingesting Branched chain amino acids (BCAA's) prior, during, and after workouts has an effect on muscle recovery due to their difficulty of metabolism. However, how much more ...
1
vote
1answer
204 views

How does the body respond to blood donation; are there any possible risks?

Can blood donation cause any harm to the donor? I have been told so, but cannot find any references supporting this claim. I have also learned that our body will replace the lost fluids within 24 ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Incremental denaturation of protein mixtures

When a protein solution is heated above the denaturation temperature, it seems that denaturation does not happen at the time the temperature is reached, but it takes some time. I assumed that ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Why are killer whales found in the Gulf of Mexico smaller than ones found in the Pacific?

I recently found out that there are killer whales that live in the Gulf of Mexico, but they are smaller than killer whales that are commonly found in the Pacific Ocean. Why is it they are smaller in ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Safe parameters for external nerve stimulation using electrical impulses

Introduction I've recently stumbled upon David Eagleman's TED talk on the concept of sensory substitution and addition. Being the most inspiring thing I've seen on the internet for the last few ...
5
votes
1answer
123 views

Can bacterial RNA be degraded at -80⁰C in a SDS solution?

I would like to know if bacterial RNA in a 1.5 mL 2%SDS solution can be degraded. Comes from a pellet of pure liquid culture. Thanks
0
votes
1answer
56 views

What would happen if we had a device that produced oxygen inside of our lungs? [closed]

Hypothetically speaking, suppose there is a device that produces a limitless supply of oxygen. The device is inhaled by a human and is resting inside the (a) lung. What would hypothetically happen if ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios? [closed]

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Cysticercoids of Eucestoda

I have found the following pictures representing cysticercoids of Eucestoda. If I correctly understand the right part of the picture, I would say that the development of the scolex is portrayed on ...
3
votes
3answers
120 views

Can bioluminescence be used for cancer or tumor detection? [closed]

What diagnostic applications, if any, are there in using bioluminescence to detect cancer or tumors (in vivo)?
5
votes
1answer
216 views

Are there any disadvantages to HRP conjugated PRIMARY antibodies

I need to detect a FLAG tagged protein on a western blot and have to order an antibody. I'm not expecting to see a massive amount of my protein. To keep analysis time to a minimum I am considering a ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Can I use my extech pH60 meter to measure soil pH if so how? I included a link to the meter [closed]

Can I use my extech pH60 meter to measure soil pH if so how? I included a link to the meter. Extech pH 60
4
votes
2answers
1k views

How can CI repressor both activate and repress $P_{RM}$ promoter found in $\lambda$ phage?

I'm reading a paper where the authors constructed a toggle switch that uses bidirectional $P_R/P_{RM}$ promoter found in the $\lambda$ phage. There are 3 binding sites - $O_{R1}$, $O_{R2}$, $O_{R3}$ - ...
5
votes
1answer
315 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
3
votes
3answers
172 views

Do animals also dream?

By "dream", I mean: Dreaming while sleeping. Dreaming about their future life while being awake. Thank you in advance.
3
votes
1answer
117 views

Structure of RAP Antibodies (Specifically RAP-5)

[EDIT] - Have just found not one but two papers that address my structure problem. However they concern RAP-1A, so I guess my question is now what is the difference in structure and function of ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

Simplified molecular-input line-entry system

This may be a bit abrupt/vague question, but I didn't know how to proceed the search to get the answer. What are the properties of a 3D biomolecule which gets ignored when a 3D biomolecule is ...
5
votes
1answer
333 views

Is greed an evolved trait?

I am not a biologist, but I am fascinated by evolution. I was watching the news this morning and, as so often is the case, there was a news story about a corrupt politician who was accepting ...
7
votes
1answer
53 views

Behavioral change in dolphins during different hemispheres activity periods?

It is known that dolphins never sleep in the sense that we do, instead they have one hemisphere of the brain sleeping while the other one is awake. I wonder, do they show observable changes in ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Are some facial features more important than others in human facial recognition?

I'm often surprised by the human ability to correctly identify other individuals despite significant modifications due to ageing, hairstyle, injury, etc. But, sometimes the addition of a beard and a ...
21
votes
3answers
4k views

Is there any use of CO₂ in human body?

We all know CO₂ as a waste product of metabolism . Does CO₂ have any helpful role , apart from having a role in pH of blood ?
7
votes
1answer
339 views

Cytoplasmic determinants - protostomes and deuterostomes

Cytoplasmic determinants are spread unevenly in the egg, and so when embryo starts forming (cells start dividing), the determinants are also unequally divided between cell. This unequal distribution ...
4
votes
0answers
33 views

Will a store bought cabbage kill my Pieris brassicaes?

About 4 days ago I found a large amount of caterpillars (Pieris brassicae) in my radishes, I took them aside for seeing how they grow and I am out of radishes to give them. I bought a cabbage in the ...
0
votes
2answers
315 views

Horns in animals and birds [closed]

Are there any carnivores with horns (whether extinct or currently alive)? Do any flying creatures have horns? By horns I mean horn like structure.
3
votes
0answers
33 views

How to quantify the Abundance of a particular gene in Bacteria and Archaea?

For 16s rDNA metagenomic analysis, do I need to do the following steps? DNA extraction-> Purification-> PCR amplification-> Clone -> Pick every single colony-> PCR amplify -> Sequence -> ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

Hand-eye coordination in 3D space

A simple daily event has amazed me and triggered this question. I have read and heard about hand-eye coordination. It quite straightforward when you e.g. want to open a door or play Xbox. In this case ...
3
votes
2answers
93 views

Change solvent of bacterial solution

I have to perform an RNA extraction that should start with 900 uL of 2%SDS bacterial solution. The problem is that the sample is in 900 uL of PBS. I thought about centrifugation of the sample at ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Role of Calcium and Magnesium in capacitation/acrosome reaction

During the acrosome reaction, the activation enzyme present in the sperm dissolves the corona radiata and zona pellucida enabling the sperm to reach the plasma membrane of the egg. Also calcium and ...
12
votes
1answer
517 views

Average dimensions of the human back (anthropometry)

I am wondering if anyone can point me to (a scientific source that provides) the estimates of the dimensions (length x width) of the human back? I am specifically interested in the dimensions ...
3
votes
2answers
80 views

Sequence compression method / format

As someone working with sequencing data and sequence files I was wondering whether is there a compression method / format for sequence / read files? Of course one can use general compressors like rar ...
6
votes
1answer
61 views

Can the absorption of vitamins be enhanced?

Are food additives like vitamins better absorbed when you mix them among fruits? I heard that secondary substances in fruit promote the absorption.
6
votes
2answers
2k views

What physiological processes within a muscle cause the latent period in a muscle fiber?

This is a lab question I cant find the answer in the lab manual or in the text book. What physiological processes in a muscle cause the latent period in a muscle fiber? Please help. Edit: The latent ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

Why do home-grown fruits tend to taste better than mass-produced consumer fruits? [closed]

It is often heard that home-grown fruits and veggies are a lot tastier than the produce found in the supermarket. Although this question may contain a skeptics element in it, it is so often heard ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

Can the DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) recognize both DNA and RNA for use them as template? I want to know is it possible if my primers bind to an contaminant RNA and then any DNA ...
-1
votes
1answer
948 views

How to make µg/ml concentrations of proteinase-K?

How does one prepare concentrations in the mass/volume (weight/volume) form, for substances like nucleic acids or in this case, proteinase? A detailed example would be helpful. I need to prepare ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Can encoding of miRNAs in introns not cause dysregulation of gene expression?

For example, consider a gene X which has an intron which encodes a miRNA that downregulates expression of another gene Y. When the gene X is translated, this miRNA will appear as a byproduct of ...
4
votes
1answer
227 views

Are free-nuclear division and endomitosis the same?

As far as I understood it, both are cases of karyokinesis, not followed by cytokinesis.
4
votes
1answer
78 views

Mathematical models of lineage selection

I'm interested in the concept of lineage selection (Aboitiz, 1991) as an explanation for why traits would be selected for that enhance the rate at which evolution can occur, rather than directly ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

Can other animals see black differently?

I am not sure if this is the right place for this question, but this is a debate that has been going on between two colleagues for days and I need a resolution because it's driving me crazy. So any ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Why does yawning impair hearing?

When I yawn I can't hear anything happening around me. I also feel some kind of muscles inside my head contract and hear a faint hum, but it is not loud enough to explain not hearing other sounds. I ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

What color was the most recent common ancestor of all swans?

Was the most recent common ancestor of all swans black, or white, or some other color? How do we know, and how certain can we be?
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Is it possible to accurately measure micronutrient levels with the blood volume from a Dermal / Capillary puncture?

I have not been able to find much information beyond what tests are normally done with Capillary puncture sampling, as opposed to what tests are possible. Could we test for a single micronutrient, or ...
2
votes
2answers
452 views

Using an analytical balance (0.0000 precision) to measure µg (micrograms)?

If i needed to prepare 200µg/ml of proteinase K, and the proteinase K was in a solid powder form, would I have to weight out 200 µg using an analytical balance, and if so, is it possible with a ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Steps in making mass/volume concentrations? [duplicate]

[TLDR When making mass/volume concentrations, is the general workflow to make a stock and dilute from it to yield the proper diluted concentrations? Could anyone detail their methodology on the ...
4
votes
1answer
170 views

How pain can stimulate the vagus nerve

I'm trying to find out why a prompt, severe, short pain is causing a stimulation of the vagus nerve. What could the physiological explanation be? Is that because the pain is triggering the ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Why can't some organisms match miRNA perfectly to the target mRNA like in plants? [closed]

What causes other organisms to be impaired in making perfect matches like plants do and is there a way to increase matching?

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