All Questions

-1
votes
1answer
87 views

Is the missing “life-ingredient” in today's Earth's existence the reason why we cannot recreate life?

As far as I know there was no report of "life" pop up in a lab or in the nature so far. Everything what we know is only some copy with less-or-more similarity to previous life-form. We certainly can ...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

Are simple esters like those used as flavouring agents metabolised into their constituent carboxylic acids and alcohols in the human body?

By this I mean to ask whether say ethyl butanoate is hydrolysed in humans into ethanol and butyric (butanoic) acid. This is of interest to me as a pharmacology researcher because butyric acid, for ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Confusion related to the use of PCA to determine the background network

I was reading this paper related to use of gene expressions for predicting the drug response. I have this confusion, the paper has used PCA on the covariance matrix formed by the genes to get what is ...
5
votes
2answers
667 views

How long is DNA stable in a freezer?

Inspired by the post about extracting pet DNA, how long would genomic DNA be stable for in a -20°C freezer? It is common practice to store DNA (double-stranded, plasmid) in a -20°C freezer in ...
3
votes
2answers
231 views

Factor causing Methicilin-resistance in MRSA?

I think the main reason is the natural selection that is causing methicillin-resistance. However, I am not completely sure what this means practically. Here, the original question: MRSA was isolated ...
3
votes
1answer
154 views

Plant a whole fruit or only seeds?

I'm trying to figure out whether it is better for the plant to reproduce by planting its whole fruits with seeds inside them, or picking the seeds out and planting them without the fruit. In my case ...
3
votes
1answer
232 views

Can replication occur if DNA is methylated?

Can a methylated strand of DNA be replicated without removing methylation? Does it make any difference if the strand is methylated or not (during replication)?
0
votes
1answer
134 views

While someone's ears pops with pressure, can he/she hear other sound at the same time?

I know that after or before someone's ears pops because of pressure changes, he/she can hear the sound such as laughter. But can these two things ("her ears popped with pressure" and "she can hear the ...
2
votes
2answers
32 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
2
votes
2answers
129 views

Are there any open plant databases (database/library/collection), containing species information and pictures?

I would like to download a plant database containing photos and species details. Do you know if there are any openly available online?
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Why do fresh cavities form from the margins of sliver amalgam fillings on teeth?

Silver amalgam fillings predominantly contain silver a known bactericidal agent and mercury which a known toxin and has bactericidal property. So how is it that the plaque bacteria survive near the ...
-4
votes
4answers
166 views

Are biological systems engineered? They are often reverse engineered at a molecular level!!

Understanding biological systems, molecular biologists need to “reverse engineer” them. Is this evidence that the systems were engineered to begin with?
3
votes
0answers
26 views

Are there any enzymes synthesised by humans that specifically catalyse the hydrolysis of non-cyclic Imides?

Imides or dicarbonyl amides are an interesting class of compounds that includes the pharmaceuticals thalidomide, aniracetam and a few other drugs. These compounds, however, are cyclic and I'm ...
2
votes
2answers
5k views

Can the excessive consumption of mineral water lead to kidney stones or other health issues?

I heard that drinking too much mineral (bottled) water could lead to problems such as kidney stones because of the high amount of minerals in it. Is it true? If so, what is considered to be excessive? ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Hibernation, Metabolism and Aging

People are beginning to seriously research space travel applications of therapeutic hypothermia, specifically for reducing metabolism and stress on humans traveling to Mars. It seems that as you ...
4
votes
1answer
701 views

What is a “mechanistic study”?

I believe a "mechanistic study" means a study where a medicinal product is being used but the purpose of the study is to investigate the patient or disease, not the medicinal product. How does this ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Multiple sequence alignment - how to align everything to 1 gene sequence?

I'm having trouble aligning 3 sequences together - the total gene (~2500bp) and the forward and reverse sequences that are ~1000bp in length. Now I'm using Clustal X2, but the problem is that the ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Is there any database with RNA classification?

I am looking for a database that would provide classification of various types of RNA - information about its structure, function, etc.
2
votes
1answer
149 views

Bee (?) identification

I live in Michigan. I just saw a bee that I think I've seen before, but only this time was I so struck by its uniqueness and - for lack of a better word - scariness. I'll describe it. It was ...
5
votes
1answer
204 views

What is the lowest intensity threshold of light for photosynthesis in any species?

Recently, I was reading the question "Photosynthesis - light intensity, particularly the answer, that states that different species require different intensity of light. My question is what is the ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

When DNA is at its uncondensed form, what can it do?

I think it can do two things: The cell may be duplicating the genome during S phase. The cell may be transcribing the DNA into mRNA. Question: Can the two activities occur at the same time or one ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

Is there any definition of complexity about gene and protein according their function?

Sorry for such a question,if it is too naive. Is there any definition of complexity about gene and protein according their function?If so,what is the relation between them?
2
votes
2answers
58 views

Can we identify an individual from their palm lines

Can we identify an individual from their palm lines. Is there any uniqueness for palm lines among family members ?
6
votes
2answers
116 views

Examples of references for mathematical approaches in bioinformatics that are applicable to linguistics?

Do you have any classic references for mathematical approaches in bioinformatics that are applicable to linguistics (or vice versa)? EDIT I am mainly interested in approaches to reconstruct the ...
5
votes
0answers
116 views

What temperature should mammalian B-Cells be stored at outside of the incubator?

I'm working with murine B-cells. The general protocol is to keep cells on ice to keep them from dying but I've noticed that it makes these cells aggregate and precipitate out. I've heard suggestions ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Telomere elongation methods?

What sort of telomere elongation methods are there currently? Would this stop aging? (edit: No, probably) I couldn't turn up anything good on google. I was thinking that maybe you could sequence ...
6
votes
1answer
249 views

Does a blood transfusion cure disease?

Does transferring blood between two people also transfer all the white blood cells? Why can't AIDS victims with low t-cell count just get blood transfusions till they have more t-cells? Why can't ...
7
votes
2answers
281 views

Why do people have darker skin in sunnier climates?

I don't understand why darker skin is advantageous in hotter climates. Wouldn't it absorb more of the heat? I have heard that it reduces the incidence of cancer, but I would think absorbing more ...
16
votes
6answers
2k views

Why isn't a virus “alive”?

The recent news about a new supermassive virus being discovered got me thinking. What biological differences between viruses and cellular organisms have made viruses be deemed non-living?
5
votes
1answer
238 views

Are tongues red because they contain blood?

Many animals have red tongues, though not all of them - blue-tongued skinks and giraffes come to mind. Are they red because of the blood (and therefore haemoglobin) in them? It sounds plausible, but ...
9
votes
1answer
117 views

Plumage as indicator of health in birds

Anybody know which traits of bird plumage are accurate indicators of a birds health? For example feather coloration, feather brightness, amount of feather wear, number of feathers, moult timing, moult ...
7
votes
1answer
296 views

What biological processes cause leaves to change colours in Autumn?

I am curious to learn what are the biological mechanisms that cause leaves of deciduous plants to change colour? What happens to the chlorophyll? What environmental phenomena (temperature/air ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does hair turn grey or white, and why does it happen later for some?

The question is pretty simple: what is happening molecularly when hair turns grey or white? I would imagine that it is due to the lack of a particular compound. I'm also interested in why some ...
2
votes
2answers
258 views

What mechanism suppresses melatonin release in humans?

I'm looking at melanopsin, a photo pigment in the human eye. One of its actions is to trigger suprachiasmatic nuclei SCN to suppress melatonin release. I'm interested in learning what is the exact ...
6
votes
1answer
346 views

Photosynthetic Pigments vs. Chloroplasts

What is the difference between Photosynthetic Pigments and Chloroplasts? I know plants have both but Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archeae) only have the former.
6
votes
4answers
325 views

Does darker skin color make it easier to live under sun?

I have always thought darker colors absorb more heat from the sun, so if you are wearing a white T-shirt you will be cooler under sun than wearing a darker T-shirt, or a black piece of steel will be ...
8
votes
1answer
92 views

What are the variables that control/influence the color of oranges(Citrus sinensis)?

I hear that Oranges cultivated in tropical areas of the world tend to be greener when ripe, is that correct? Even the same type of Orange differs in color if cultivated in California or Florida. I ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What causes the colors we see in eyes?

Genetics aside, what are the biochemical reasons the different colours of human irises? Also, related, how does eye colour change, particularly in childhood? (example: my eyes used to be blue, ...
7
votes
1answer
558 views

What determines the colors and patterns of a clam shell?

Earlier this week I was looking at some bivalve shells that had ornate patterns which ranged in color from a light orange-pink to a deep orange-red. Here is an image I found online that seems to be of ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Was life less colorful before color vision evolved?

According to Wikipedia, we know that color-vision photopigments appeared in the common ancestors of tetrapods and fish at least 360 MY ago. Would life have been less colorful before the evolution of ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Can the colour of skin change with age

Can the colour of skin change with age? Can a dark skinned person become fair or vice versa? Can Melanocyte production vary?
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Do non-green flower colors have any functional interactions with the sun?

I always hear the pseudo-evolutionary claim "plants are green because they need to use red and blue light". If this premise to my question is true, What (if any) other functional relationship occur ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

Estimation of number of species at an earlier time

The estimated number of species on Earth, as reported in this article is around 8.7 million. I am fascinated by how nature produces such a wide variety of species. As per my understanding, many ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

What is it the most common reason for community acquired pneumonia?

This is a difficult question because there are many types of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): typical acute, atypical acute and chronic. Most common microorganisms are also different among ...
0
votes
1answer
599 views

When can a virus modify DNA in every cell of a living organism?

I've recently heard about experiments with brain tissue, where a virus is introduced in a rats brain, causing a "glow when electric charge is present" protein to be created. This protein then helps to ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Why does the sweat of children not smell like adults?

My kids sweat plenty in this hot heat, but they don't smell afterward. I on the other hand need all kinds of deodorant. Why doesn't kid sweat smell?
1
vote
1answer
104 views

How are the correct tRNAs transported to the ribosome?

I have been trying to understand how the tRNA transporting the correct amino acid required by the ribosome reaches the ribosome. The only way I can imagine this happening is that all types of ...
2
votes
0answers
389 views

What is the difference between “lineage restriction” and “differentiated” in terms of stem cell biology

Is there a subtle difference between these two concepts or are they basically the same thing? When I mean differentiated, I don't mean terminally differentiated.
4
votes
1answer
101 views

What light intensity determines the start/end of a photoperiod in humans?

I'm reading this article, which discusses the influence of Long Photoperiod (LP) and Short Photoperiod (SP) on melatonin production: HIOMT drives the photoperiodic changes in the amplitude of the ...

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