5
votes
1answer
385 views

Does crude oil or kerogen contain ancient DNA?

According to wikipedia by the formation of oil there are a lot of organic materials present including DNA. Is it possible that this DNA is conserved somehow for millions of years?
2
votes
0answers
88 views

Is there any biological support for the concept of “chakras”? [closed]

Is there any support in modern biology for the ancient concept of "Chakras"? I've seen the concept of 7 chakras linked to the major endocrine glands in the human body (pineal,thyroid, adrenal, ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Question regarding an Escherichia coli reaction

With respect to this link http://www.biocyc.org/ECOLI/NEW-IMAGE?type=REACTION&object=RXN-14479 Here the enzyme is mentioned and the two reacting compounds. Now , my question is 1. When these ...
0
votes
1answer
175 views

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog?

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog? In other words what changes take place as a tadpole becomes a frog, and does this metamorphosis affect the DNA in any way? I would appreciate ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Why is translocation of food in the phloem still a debate?

I currently take tertiary-high school biology and I am taught that translocation of food in the phloem occurs by the pressure flow hypothesis. I would like to ask why it is still a hypothesis, and ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Are vegetables really needed in our diet?

I want to believe that eating vegetables is necessary even when one takes vitamins, but I can't find any medical evidence for this. To make my question specific, suppose a study on twins were done in ...
1
vote
0answers
182 views

Why can we control our breath rate but not our heart rate? [closed]

Even though we cannot survive for more than few minutes if we stop breathing or if our heart stops, why is it so that our heart beat is controlled involuntarily while breathing can be voluntarily ...
2
votes
1answer
84 views

How do minute changes in an organism, as a result of evolution, get carried over to next generation

The theory of evolution states that random variations in organisms occur to better suit their surroundings. We take for example a bacteria's flagella. There's a bacteria who has a tube kind of ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Oscillatory electrical system using a chain of neurons

Many daily activities that we perform are result of inbuilt oscillatory circuits in our body. For example walking, breathing, heart beat, blinking, etc. The coding and decoding of stored memory also ...
7
votes
1answer
285 views

What is the reason behind high resting membrane potential of pacemaker cells?

Pacemaker cells have high resting membrane potentials of -50 to -40 mV, whereas normal cells have their resting membrane potential around -70 mV. Which ions, and what kind of channels are responsible ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

Woodpecker pecking, an effective evolution? [closed]

I was sitting out on my balcony earlier and saw a woodpecker land on a tree nearby. It began pecking at the tree, and did so about five times, in intervals of about four pecks each time, before ...
1
vote
0answers
103 views

How many mitotic divisions do haploid cells undergo before fertilization?

Background This question is about human physiology and gametogenesis. A spermatozoid is not necessarily the direct "offspring" of diploid cell. Stated differently, a spermatozoid cell can be the ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Ribosomal DNA references sequences

I'm having a bit of trouble with searching for this piece of information. I'm doing a study related to phylogenetic susceptibility of hosts to pathogens (based on a recent Nature publication), ...
-1
votes
1answer
672 views

Our muscles give us the ability to move our arms but…? [closed]

I have a strange question, but let me tell you something first. If you think of this carefully, then you realize something, please try this right now: Contract your muscles only so that your arms ...
3
votes
0answers
50 views

How can I create R8 (homopolymer repeat) filter without using illumina pipeline?

illumina instruments have built-in -or online- analysis software for variant analysis (CASAVA). This software can filter out the false positive variants near the homopolymer repeats (AAAAAAAA) and ...
1
vote
1answer
105 views

Difference between pulse and blood pressure

I'm a very naive and biologically illiterate person, and from what I've read on the internet I'm not really sure I understand the difference between pulse and ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

What is the probability of fixation for a mutant under fluctuating selection?

Here is an answer which explain how one can model the frequency of an allele that is under fluctuating selection (selection that varies through time). Not, thinking about fluctuating selection, there ...
1
vote
2answers
105 views

Primer Design With Primer-BLAST

I am trying to design primers for sanger sequencing snp detection. In the past I have used Primer-BLAST, but I'm trying to pick up KRAS codon 12 mutations. The problem is that in Primer-BLAST you ...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

How far in can non-extremophiles live, in Earth?

I am a high school student. I'm doing a project where I need to find a planet in our galaxy that might be habitable. Then I need to create an organism that could live on that planet and justify ...
6
votes
1answer
118 views

Parameters for Fitzhugh-Nagumo model of Action Potential

I'm a high school student who's currently in AP Biology, so my background in biology is quite limited. I'm interested in mathematically modelling action potentials. Doing a quick google search, I ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular?

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular? What are the cases in which it can be both uni and multi cellular?
-4
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do fingers swell during cold winters?

When exercising, tissue in the hands may swell. This may be caused by the muscles generating heat, which leads to blood being pushed to the vessels closest to the surface of your body to dissipate the ...
7
votes
2answers
178 views

Is cyanocobalamin toxic?

I see that cyanocobalamin is not naturally occurring, and is synthesized in vivo to methylcobalamin. As part of the synthetic pathway, cyanide is broken off. All opinions I can find are that this ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

How is the “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in this paper?

Could anyone please explain to be in very basic terms how Fig 2, and the associated text(located above the figure) is done? The jargon is too much for me to understand and I really need a simplified, ...
4
votes
2answers
226 views

Can intron become exon in alternative splicing?

From this image We can see several exons that are actually introns in other genes. It's not a really a different gene, it's an alternative splicing of a gene. My background is not biology so is it ...
3
votes
1answer
272 views

Human bone density and Brown Bear bone density?

It is stated on this website that the density of a Grizzly bear bone is ten times our own. And since I am not into biology at all, I am confused as I don't understand the meaning of bone density here. ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
2
votes
1answer
387 views

Evolutionary distance between Canidae, Felidae, and Rodentia

Comparing the families Canidae and Felidae, which have the shorter evolutionary distance to the order Rodentia? Less sophisticatedly put, are cats or dogs more related to rodents?
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What does it mean: carrying the stably integrated gene

Reading this study http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v23/n10/full/cr2013122a.html They writing Multiple exogenous and endogenous genes can be simultaneously activated by CRISPR-on We tested ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Resources of all known biochemical pathways?

I am looking for a encyclopedia or biochemical pathway atlas of all known or reported pathways. I am very much interested in network and systems biology. Also the references can be open databases, ...
5
votes
2answers
170 views

Energy transformations in chemiosmosis and ATP synthase

In terms of energy, how does chemiosmosis drive ATP synthase? How does electrical energy turn into mechanical energy and then into chemical energy? Would the movement of $H^+$ be considered passive ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

Is it possible to express the cistrons from a polycistronic insertion fragment in a single plasmid?

I have a insertion fragment that I wish to express from pUC19 in Escherichia coli. The insertion fragment is a sub-section from a larger operon sequence and contains just the last two cistrons from ...
11
votes
4answers
11k views

How can we differentiate between respiration and breathing?

I am a student of 10th grade, and I eagerly want to learn biology. What is the difference between respiration and breathing?
9
votes
1answer
386 views

Can scientists name themselves in the scientific name when they discover a new taxon?

There are sometimes people names in taxonomy, like Myotis keenii was names after Mr. Keen who contributed to discover the species. So, if you discover a species and someone else is constructing the ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
0
votes
2answers
150 views

Has a new functional structure ever been observed arising spontaneously?

Have we ever observed a new functional biological structure arising spontaneously such as a new functional organ (sensory or otherwise. such as tracing some creature in the past few hundred years ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Reliability of Sanger sequencing

Hailed as the "gold standard" of sequencing, I was wondering to what Sanger sequencing owes its incredible accuracy to. If possible, I would like a quantification of the accuracy (because I doubt it ...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

Stop codons and exons?

If we had a hypotheical gene called gene exampleGene and this gene had 5 exons, labeled A, B, C, D, and E in that order on the chromosome, could it be the case that the stop codon for this gene be on ...
5
votes
1answer
204 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
13
votes
1answer
439 views

What is this insect? Found in Peru

I took the pictures today in Cusco Peru. It is the third insect of its class in a month. I never see it before. I thought that it is a wasp, but I think it's really thin to be a wasp. It's about 4 or ...
6
votes
1answer
62 views

How did the introduction of artificial light changed the life cycle of a plant?

Plants in urbanized areas are constantly exposed to artificial light after sunset. In their natural habitat there is a more distinct day and night cycle. Since light is an important factor in a plant ...
5
votes
1answer
45 views

Is it in principle possible to revive an extinct species having no living relatives?

Is it, in principle, possible to revive an extinct species having no living close relatives but whose DNA and other tissues have been preserved? What about the case where there are no living ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Which protein complex is composed of the greatest number of different kinds of proteins, and how many types are involved?

Why are some protein complexes composed of many different types of proteins? How many different types are they composed of? In particular, which protein complex has the greater number of different ...
4
votes
2answers
155 views

Does suffocation pain involve nociceptors?

I never suffocated myself so not entirely sure, but when you suffocate, it's painful, right? But of course different kind of pain than being injured or sick. What I'm wondering is, if the "painful" ...
-2
votes
1answer
80 views

What is a new biotechnology issue? [closed]

I'm looking for any new biotechnology issue related to Biochemistry, Metabolic processes, molecular Genetics, or other relevant fields. If anyone knows of an issue that has solid resources around I'd ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

How accurate does the alignment of molecules in DNA have to be?

We have learned that the same information is saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA splits and then connects again (during reproduction); how does it maintain the integrity of the ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What is genodiversity good for?

I saw some documents which were trying to say that they can prove via sweat smell selected by women that humans are developed to find a partner with similar genes. At the first glance, I refused it as ...
5
votes
1answer
288 views

Biological origin of shuddering during sleep

What is the biological origin of the following behavior: Sometimes, during the early, formative phase of sleep (when you have a gradually dimming consciousness of what all is happening around), you ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Are more molecules of ADP than inorganic phosphate returned to the light reaction in photosynthesis?

During the dark reaction, 9 molecules of ATP are consumed for every 3 carbon dioxide molecules, yet only 6 molecules of inorganic phosphate ultimately leave the cycle. Does that mean that there is a ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

What is the connection between exercise and muscle growth

From a physiological perspective, all that is done during exercise is the expending of energy in the form of ATP to fuel muscle contraction and extension. When I looked up why muscle grow due to ...

15 30 50 per page