4
votes
0answers
75 views

What is effectiveness of methyl-alcohol as sporicide?

Methyl-alcohol is the weakest alcohol in terms of bactericidal properties. However, I have read that it also works as sporicide. What is the effectiveness of methyl-alcohol in killing the spores of ...
6
votes
1answer
104 views

How can octopus walk if muscles can only contract?

From this video it is evident, that octopus can make tentacles push: https://youtu.be/zaE-LwDowcU How is it possible, if it is said, that muscles can only contract? What types of muscles can ...
2
votes
1answer
172 views

Vegetable Cellulose

I'm a pharmacy student working on my thesis. I just want to ask the probable sources of vegetable cellulose found in vegetable capsule? Note: I'm referring to the capsule itself not for its possible ...
4
votes
1answer
36 views

How do Mockingbirds find each other during mating season?

Since mockingbirds imitate songs of other birds, how do they find each other during mating season? How can they tell it's a mockingbird singing, instead of other birds? Is there something in their ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

Can these “Promega Wizard genomic DNA Purification kit” be used for samples not stated directly?

I am not sure if this is a duplicate of my previous question, it is somewhat related, so sorry if I misunderstood. The question is, can i use the above kit for samples like hair, fingernails, etc? ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

Why is the gene regulation in eukaryotic cells needs multiple level of control than in prokaryotic cells?

That "eukaryotic cells are more complex" and "compartmentalized" are used to justify the need of more level of control of gene expression. I get the basic idea but can't convince myself why complexity ...
3
votes
1answer
190 views

Why increasing the vector concentration does not increase the effeciency of bacterial transformation?

I was reading some old description of the protocols used for the transformation of bacterial cells. In the description I read that the transformation works best with low amount of DNA, and if we ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

ATP required for cell processes [closed]

I haven't been able to find anything that tells me how much ATP is needed for DNA replication, transcription, and translation in humans, just papers that mention ATP used in those processes. I need ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Can suppression of the immune system help cure chronic diseases?

I am not a biologist, but recently while reading an article on Scholarpedia about self-organization I encountered a fascinating biological observation concerning immune response to infections. To ...
1
vote
1answer
359 views

Do rare earth metals actually repel sharks? [closed]

Stroud claims that sharks are effectively repelled by the use of rare earth metals in the water. There has even been a patent issued by the same author for rare earth-wrapped fish hooks to reduce the ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

The Human Menstrual Cycle [duplicate]

1) What happens in the ovary and in the bloodstream that brings about this change in the uterus? 2) Why does the level of FSH decrease and remain at a relatively low level during the luteal phase of ...
2
votes
2answers
61 views

Why does flu vaccination only work against specific strains?

I was wondering why the flu vaccination doesn't protect us from all different types of flu. I know there are 3 major groups A, B and C and they mutate really fast. For example Influenza A virus has 2 ...
4
votes
1answer
74 views

What species does this moth belong to?

It was found a few days ago in the state of Virginia, on the east coast of the United States.
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Book-recommendation: plant biophysics [closed]

I'm a physicist by training am looking to learn more about the biophysics of plants. Can you give me your recommendation of good resources on plant biophysics? Books are preferred.
1
vote
0answers
64 views

aluminum sulfate vs (NH4)2SO4 in Colloidal Coomassie Staining Sol

I have been interested in Colloidal Coomassie Staining to detect proteins in PAGE gel. I found 2 different recipes: one of them uses aluminium sulfate, the other, (NH4)2SO4. I am wondering about ...
3
votes
1answer
238 views

Are corn kernels considered a grain

I have seen corn described as a seed, a grain and a fruit. What are the kernels or a corncob considered to be? A grain, a seed or a fruit?
4
votes
2answers
239 views

What's the name of this caterpillar?

It was found in the state of Virginia, on the east coast of the United States.
3
votes
1answer
124 views

What's the name of this beetle?

I found him in a kitchen located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
29
votes
2answers
7k views

What do ants do with our finger nails?

There is place in my house where I cut my nails. Here, there is an ant hole where an ant colony is seen. Whenever I cut my nails from here, they take my nails inside their hole. I was wondering what ...
1
vote
4answers
415 views

Why don't most animals have “heads” in the middle of their bodies? [closed]

For example, humans. It would seem like, to me, if our brains and eyes, ears, etc. were situated in our stomach area they would be more protected from harm and more central than up at the top in and ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

RBCs have no mitochondria but still metabolize glucose?

I have read that red blood cells (RBCs) metabolize glucose. However they don't have any mitochondria because there is just so much hemoglobin that there is no room for mitochondria without expanding ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

Why do athletes see a dip in performance in their thirties?

I have noticed a lot of athletes hit their prime when they are in their 20s and that by the time they reach their 30s they are past it and start to decline. Great athletes tend to prolong their ...
2
votes
2answers
82 views

A request for an overview of the cranial nerves

Is there any resource that contains motor and sensory innervations, or pathways of all the twelve cranial nerves (i.e., cranial nerve I to XII)? I have found this book chapter on the cranial nerves, ...
1
vote
1answer
157 views

DNA extraction methods for hair?

TLDR: Can anyone state a extraction and isolation method(s) for genomic DNA for hair that will be used for PCR, in detail is preferable since I am a novice. I tried googling for DNA extraction ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

What makes heavy metals toxic?

I'm not sure all heavy metals are toxic, but most are. Some may be present as insoluble compounds, or otherwhise hard to get into an organism, but that's a side aspect. For example, I would count ...
3
votes
2answers
493 views

How does ecology differ from biology?

What precisely is ecology? How does it differ from biology? Because I never studied biology after high school, please explain as if I were 10 years old. I only know that ecology is a subset of biology ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

How are smell and taste in fish differentiated?

The senses of taste and smell in different fish classes are described as two distinct senses; smell is mediated by the nasal openings, and taste by epithelial taste buds. They are both forms of ...
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Why do these earthworms stay between the road lines?

This article shows pictures of earthworms during floods in Texas. The worms ball up, supposedly in order to survive the floods. Can anyone explain the phenomenon a little? I can't seem to find ...
0
votes
2answers
427 views

What is Meriva Phytosome Curcumin?

What is Meriva Phytosome Curcumin other than being a food supplement? Is it a plant? A type of plant extract? I googled it but still couldn't figure out exactly what it is. The reason I'm asking is ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Are amantadine and rimantadine MOAs unknown to evolution?

Are any natural (human or otherwise) antiviral mechanisms similar to the antiviral mechanisms of amantadine and rimantadine, or are these mechanisms undiscovered by evolution? Are drug researchers ...
1
vote
3answers
105 views

Why is it $q^2$ for the individual count in hardy weinberg?

My understanding: In Hardy-Weinberg problems the frequency of a homozygous recessive genetic occurrence in a population is $q^2$. So if 1 in 100 people in a population have albinism (homozygous ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Queller's 1985 version of Hamilton's rule

Queller 1985 ("Kinship, reciprocity and synergism in the evolution of social behavior") provides a generalization of Hamilton's rule that allows for non-additivity. To accomplish that, Queller writes ...
6
votes
0answers
75 views

Identity by descent among unrelated individuals

I was reading a couple of papers which talk about IBD (Identity by descent) among unrelated individuals (for eg. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/4/1193.long). However they do not seem to clearly ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

How many smaller muscles compose the interosseus muscle in the human hand?

When looking at Wikipedia, I read that the interosseus muscle is actually composed of 3 muscles, but on the French Wikipedia, they talk about a 4th muscle. So how many interosseus muscle components ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Affymetrix SNP data, how to filter out rows based on rsid [closed]

This is my first time on stackexchange. I am new to bioinformatics, and I have some new SNP data from an Affymetrix Axiom array. I have the genotypes exported into a giant tab-delimited table txt ...
0
votes
1answer
385 views

How copy number variation thresholds are defined in GISTIC

I am having trouble trying to understand how GISTIC discretize copy number variation to values -2, -1, 0, 1, 2. I am using TCGA copy number variation for ColoRectal Adenocarcinoma. In cBioPortal FAQ ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Can light pollution cause cancer?

Impaired circadian rhythm is associated with cancer. Light pollution affects the circadian rhythm and the circadian rhythm affects the metabolism. But what is the (molecular) connection between ...
6
votes
1answer
51 views

What is the connection between sleep requirement and age?

By this question: Is the human biological clock genetically programmed or learnt? we discussed that the sleep requirement depends on the age of the individual. - Figure 1. - Sleep requirements by ...
8
votes
1answer
302 views

What is this insect that has invaded my home in Texas?

After the recent floods in central Texas this past weekend I noticed my that bedroom has suddenly been infested with these small insects that have climbed in through the window. Previously, the hole ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Oral allergy syndrom, continuation of continuous consumption of allergen

Wikipedia states on its page that In addition, patients are advised to avoid the triggering foods, particularly nuts. And same thing goes for webmd.com The basic rule: If a food makes you ...
13
votes
1answer
3k views

Do babies resemble their father?

An often heard theory is that newborns and babies resemble the father more than the mother, a theory apparently ignited by a Nature paper by Christenfeld and Hill (1995). Figure 1 shows one of the ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

How to calculate the Jaccard index [closed]

I want to calculate the Jaccard index between two compounds. What is the algorithm? I have searched for it, it just gives the formula but how to apply it on compounds is not known to me. Can you help?
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Y-chromosome and phenotype

I have a male colleague which has a son that does not resemble its father in any degree (apart of being male). The "father" is thin, tan-skinned, brown-eyed and the "son" has blue eyes, blond and ...
48
votes
4answers
3k views

Why do smaller mammals move intermittently?

I was watching a nice little video on youtube but couldn't help but notice how snappy smaller animals such as rats and chipmunks move. By snappy I mean how the animal moves in almost discrete states ...
2
votes
1answer
166 views

Is there a consensus on the CaMV 35S minimal promoter sequence?

We have an algal enhancer element and a transcription factor that probably binds it. Basal expression of the enhancer element or full promoter driving luciferase in tobacco protoplast was extremely ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Why don't phospholipid bilayers dissolve?

I just started learning about the structure and composition of cell's membrane and there is something that I fail to understand. The membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. The phospholipid ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Sexually homologous traits

When papers refer to traits as being sexually homologous do they refer to traits which are: a) present in both sexes but can be dimorphic (e.g. body size is sexually homologous because both sexes ...
1
vote
0answers
122 views

Can we stop hearing by ourselves? [closed]

If we don't want to see we can close our eyes. But if we want to avoid noise we can't do that just then as we don't have such fast reflex action to close our ears with hands like eyes. But like some ...
1
vote
1answer
158 views

What can cause a lump in the middle of the neck? (homework case study) [closed]

What can cause an erythematous, fluctuant, nontender mass in the middle of the neck? Full Case Study: (Its the last of 6 cases and I just can't figure this one out, because of all the possibilities, ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

What kind of memory is “keyboard/keypad memory”?

I work in IT and I have observed many people who cannot remember their iPhone passwords or computer passwords off the top of their head. However, if presented with a keyboard or a phone with a ...

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