7
votes
2answers
713 views

How are Maggots Sterilized (Disinfected)?

For maggot therapy, how are maggots disinfected? I'd imagine there's a limited scope of measurements that can be taken to sterilize the maggots - i.e. we don't want to sterilize them and kill them ...
3
votes
2answers
98 views

Cancer growth and cell division [closed]

I am confused about the prerequisites for cell division and cancer. Which of the following is necessary for the cell cycle to progress? Hormones Growth factor Cyclins Cyclin dependent kinases ...
0
votes
1answer
333 views

What the difference between an inverted and everted retina?

I'm looking specifically for examples and comparisons, because the definitions of inverted and everted are remarkably similar; e.g. from Dictionary.com/Reference.com: everted verb (used with ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

What is inside IDL (intermediate density lipoproteïn)?

I am studying about the endogene lipidcycle in the human body and I know that VLDL (very low density lipoproteïn) is made in the liver and that it contains triglycerides and cholesterol from your food ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Are spiders part of the study of entomology?

The definition of entomology says it is the science of studying insects. I know spiders are not insects but does entomology include studying spiders as well? Otherwise is there any name to the ...
0
votes
2answers
153 views

Can jellyfish swim backwards?

Jellyfish use jet propulsion to move forward, according to http://earthsky.org/earth/how-do-jellyfish-swim. Otherwise, they drift with the ocean currents. Does this mean that, without the presence of ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

What is the best time to exercise

So, after starting to gain weight on sitting in front of my computer too long, I have decided to take the plunge and maybe stick to an exercise regimen. As has been reported by some studies, ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

Why do we suffer abdominal pain after we get very angry or stress?

You also realize probably, when we get so much anger or high levels of stress, after some point we have terrible stomach ache, like really heavy pain. Why is that? How stress or anger can effect our ...
5
votes
1answer
155 views

Help Needed Identifying Corvids

I'd appreciate some help identifying these three corvids I photographed in Austria during the Summer: I know identifying corvids can be difficult, I'm not an ornithologist, just an amateur bird ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

How was Restriction Site of EcoRI sequenced?

The sequence of restriction site of EcoRI - GAATTC was identified in the early 1970s, before Sanger Sequencing was invented.(1977) How was the restriction site of EcoRI sequenced ?
3
votes
3answers
118 views

Restriction endonucleases are found in?

Quoting from : Scientific American July 1975 The Manipulation of genes by Stanley Cohen : Restriction endonucleases (and modification methylases) are widespread in microorganisms; genes for ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

What is the evolutionary reason behind human preference for salty foods?

It's been established that food palatability is related to it's caloric density. This hypothesis is used to explain why humans are partial to sugar and fat. But it is also said that humans are partial ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

If the top epidermal layer is burned away, what is it replaced with?

If the squamous (top) layer of epidermis, or skin, is burned or damaged in another way, will it then be replaced by the next layer of below? Also, from where does the basal membrane originate? Does ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the difference between these terms: clade, monophyletic group and taxon?

Wikipedia definitions for these terms are pretty similar: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clade http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monophyletic_group http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxon They sound like the ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Distribution of fitness in wild populations

If I get out in the wild observe wild populations and measure the distribution of fitness $f(w)$ in a given population. What will I find out? Will I observe a Gaussian distribution, a Poisson ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What is a sex-biased gene?

How do you define a male-biased gene and a female-biased gene as they are found in the abstract of this article.
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Definition of Sexual Selection?

How do you define Sexual Selection (SS)? (One might want to subdivide SS into intra- and inter- SS to answer) Is SS clearly different from Natural Selection (NS)? Is SS nested within NS or are NS ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Is there a superterm combining “animal line” and “cell line” in disease models?

Biologists researching diseases will frequently use animal models. The way I understand it, there are species of animals, such as "mouse", and lines of mice, such as ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

Fatty Acid Synthesis

I have a problem in my reasoning on the fatty acid synthesis in the human body. In the synthesis process you have this homodimer. So the synthesis starts with the transfer of a acetyl group from ...
6
votes
1answer
166 views

What is this snake

I took a picture of this snake in Switzerland (Geneva Area): It looks to be an adder but cannot be sure about which species. In Switzerland we have two kinds of adder: Vipera berus Vipera aspis ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Do axon grows after cutting/damaging of some of its part?

Do axon grows after cutting of some of its part to near original place? Do axon restores after local damaging of some of its part? I take https://class.coursera.org/neurobio-001/ classes and learn ...
5
votes
3answers
335 views

How does a biologist decide when she has enough results to publish a paper?

Biology is so exciting! Answering a question leads to thousand more questions! There is no limit to how much one kind find out about a phenomena… So I have always wondered how someone can ...
6
votes
2answers
59 views

Neuronal Architecture of the Brain

To what extent do brains (e.g. of humans) contain recurrent connections? I am studying artificial neuronal networks and frequently encountered the statement, that recurrent neural networks are ...
2
votes
1answer
112 views

Exercise vs stimulants, which is more effective for promoting concentration?

Stimulants are the first choice for treating ADHD. But we also know that exercise helps to improve concentration. We know that both stimulants and exercise increase bloodflow to muscles and to the ...
8
votes
2answers
984 views

Does a walk after a meal help with digestion?

I am a bit confused with the notion that "walking after meals helps you in digestion ", Some say that it helps, whereas others oppose it. Can someone come up with a valid explanation for this?
0
votes
1answer
101 views

Why do bananas turn black after some time? [duplicate]

Why do bananas turn black after some time? Please don't just give hypotheses but concrete references to experiments
2
votes
2answers
174 views

Why isn't phosphorus or nitrogen a limiting nutrient for animals?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are usually the limiting nutrient for plants, especially for algae. Phosphorus is used for DNA, ATP and phospholipids, and Nitrogen is used for pretty much every protein a ...
6
votes
1answer
62 views

What's the biggest obligate anaerobic organism discovered till now?

Beside many anaerobic single cell organisms, there are some annelid worms that are obligate anaerobic at least in their early development stages. Probably, due to low concentration levels in nature, ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Trimming of tRNA precursors

From Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th edition) by Bruce Alberts et al. (Chp 6, Pg 338) : Both bacterial and eucaryotic tRNAs are typically synthesized as larger precursor tRNAs, and these are ...
7
votes
1answer
185 views

Is fluoride toxic, and how worried should I be about it?

A recent flurry of "fluoride is bad!" posts are appearing on my social network news feeds. Usually I can simply ignore them after a brief look, but this one, stemming from a recent article in The ...
20
votes
3answers
3k views

Were there any flying dinosaurs?

I've seen some articles which came in contradiction with each other. The first article was talking about flying dinosaurs, dinosaurs with feathers and so on. A couple of other articles are talking ...
13
votes
2answers
619 views

Are there issues with filling PCR tubes to capacity?

I'm planning to scale up a PCR reaction, and I'm wondering if filling the PCR tubes to the maximum volume of 200 ul would be a problem. It would mean a lot less pipetting as I would only need 1/4 of ...
1
vote
2answers
113 views

problem with natural selection [duplicate]

I fail to see how natural selection can build any kind of new functionality. New functionality in a design requires sacrificing a complex series of meanwhile useless steps before the new ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Protoporphyrinogen (IX) formation in heme synthesis

This picture shows one of the steps of heme synthesis. In this step two propanoate groups of coproporphyrinogen III are decarboxylated to form protoporphyrinogen IX. The enzyme that catalyses this ...
7
votes
2answers
425 views

Help with the Price equation

The Price equation describes mathematically the evolution of a population of units from one generation to the next. $\bar{w}\Delta \bar{z}$ = $Cov (w_i,z_i) $+$ E(w_i\Delta z_i)$ I would like ...
3
votes
0answers
72 views

Is there a correlation between brain size and amount of sleep? [closed]

As far as we know, sleep seems to be the part of the daily cycle when executive functions are resting and memories are fortifying. Many, but not all, of the functions that become dysfunctional upon ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

What are the known natural biochemical reasons for a dead human's body not fully decaying? [closed]

What are the known natural biochemical reasons for a dead human's body not fully decaying (decomposing)? EDIT: I am interested in a scientific explanation of those cases, in which human body would ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

What is the suitable terminology to describe this study approach?

I need to know the correct term(s) which are usually used in the parlance of both biology and bioinformatics for this study approach: About 11 transcripts were investigated using qPCR for a number of ...
5
votes
3answers
261 views

How do you merge SNP data with a reference genome?

My Data I have a 23andMe file listing SNPs in the form: ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

What cells don't have a primary cilium?

It is often stated that most cells in the human body have a primary cilium. Which ones don't? For which cells is it unknown?
1
vote
1answer
131 views

A question related to qPCR analysis

Here is the thing. I am using a method, called TU-Tagging, to isolate cell type specific RNA. You can find more about the method here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2783170/ To explain ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Does digit 1 have an extensor sheath?

Extensor digitorum and extensor digiti minimi both insert into the extensor hoods of digits 2-5 (or just 5 in the case of e. digiti minimi). In every source that I can find, extensor pollicis longus ...
10
votes
3answers
869 views

How best to count bees entering and leaving a hive to measure hive activity?

This is my first question here, so I apologize for all mistakes I could have possibly made. I'm a high school student in East-Central Europe and I need to complete some research for a biology contest ...
3
votes
1answer
144 views

What is the evolutionary cause for various finger lengths?

Why are the lengths the way they are with middle finger the longest?
4
votes
2answers
52 views

Could humans choose to establish fibre digesting colonies in our guts?

Humans don't digest fibre, and nor do any animals, but some creatures have micro-organisms (bacteria, I'm guessing) in their gut which digest fibre for them. My question is, could humans take some ...
3
votes
2answers
179 views

What is atrial fibrillation? [closed]

I am wondering exactly what a-fib is (causes and symptoms). I would really appreciate having a sample of an EKG with it (because in my limited research, I have found it nearly impossible to find just ...
4
votes
1answer
271 views

how is the plasma membrane repaired after endocytosis?

When the vesicle is swallowed of course the lipid layer internalizes. My question is how will the top segment of membrane will bind back together when that vesicle took the membrane with it inside ...
5
votes
0answers
86 views

Where can I get numerical data for the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) curve?

I'm trying to do some rough figuring to calculating efficiencies of various light sources for growing plants. I'm hampered, however, by the lack of a curve to multiply by the spectrum of light ...
3
votes
1answer
403 views

Will the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide lead to larger insects?

From my understanding, the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide will also increase oxygen levels. That makes me wonder if in the near future insects will grow larger than they are today, since their ...

15 30 50 per page